Impacts of Colonial Mentality Among Filipinos Essay Sample

8 August 2017

Despite the rapid growing of Filipino communities throughout the United States. this population remains understudied and underserved by the mental wellness attention system ( Sue & A ; Sue. 2003 ) . Based on the 2000 U. S. Census. Barnes and Bennett ( 2002 ) reported that Filipinos represent the 2nd largest Asiatic subgroup in the United States following Chinese Americans. and are projected to go the largest Asiatic American ethnic group in the 2010 nose count ( Nadal. 2009 ) . Yet. harmonizing to Ying and Hu ( 1994 ) . Filipino Americans underutilize psychotherapeutic services when compared with other Asiatic American populations. One primary ground for this underutilization may be that Western therapy is non congruous with Filipino cultural values. Researchers argue that Filipino Americans may be neglected in research due to the “model minority” stereotype associated with Asiatic Americans ( de la Paz. 2004 ; Espiritu. 1995 ; Nadal. 2009 ) . This stereotype involves sweeping premises sing Asiatic Americans in general without sing the differentiations among assorted ethnicities that comprise this generic racial class.

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For illustration. many Filipinos have Spanish family names and most Filipino immigrants speak English. further lending to Filipinos’ invisibleness in the United States ( Nadal. 2009 ) .

Filipinos besides have a greater per centum of exogamy with other ethnicities than do other Asiatic sub-groups ( Le. 2009 ) . These factors may lend to the disregard of the demands of the Filipino American community. Espiritu ( 1995 ) further contends that “the invisibleness of the Philippines and Filipino Americans is connected to a historical memory loss and self-erasure sing U. S. colonisation of the Philippines. in peculiar. and U. S. imperialism. in general” ( p. 2 ) . In 1 add-on. Filipinos may besides be comparatively unseeable to the psychological community due to their deficiency of help-seeking. Psychology has started to acknowledge the important between-group differences among Asiatic Americans. Specifically. research workers have recognized that the corporate cultural individuality of Filipinos is distinguishable from the experiences of other Asiatic American groups because of the permeant historical impact of Western influences. which include Spanish and American colonisation ( Root. 1997 ) . The history of the Philippines. with its colonisation by Spain and the United States. and the subsequent tendencies of in-migration into the United States form a context through which practicians can break understand Filipino Americans ( Sese. 2008 ) .

Nadal ( 2008 ) indicates how the colonisation of Filipino civilization has impacted faith. linguistic communication. and cultural self-perceptions. It is of import that psychologists understand this alone context in order to supply meaningful. professional support that Filipinos will seek out. The end of the present survey was to better understand the determiners of psychological help-seeking forms of Filipino Americans by analyzing specific facets of socialization and colonial outlook. No research to day of the month has examined how colonial outlook is related to help-seeking attitudes. Filipino Americans and Colonial Mentality As a consequence of colonisation. Filipinos may be susceptible to developing a colonial outlook ( CM ) ( Nadal. 2008 ) whereby the colonizer’s values and beliefs are accepted by the colonized as truths. and the imposts of the coloniser are accepted as being superior to those of the colonized ( Strobel. 2001 ) .

Similar to the construct of internalized racism. CM includes “beliefs about race. ethnicity. faith. linguistic communication. cultural patterns. traditions 2 and criterions of beauty. ” and can take to hierarchy or within-group favoritism ( Nadal. 2008. p. 165 ) . CM may besides affect an automatic and critical rejection of anything Filipino and an automatic and noncritical penchant for anything American. CM is a many-sided concept and the manifestations vary by persons ( David & A ; Okazaki. 2006a ) . Research has found colonial outlook to be positively related to depression ( David. 2008 ; David & A ; Okazaki. 2006b ) and negatively related to psychological well- being. socialization. personal self-pride. and corporate self-pride ( Bergano & A ; Bergano-Kinney. 1997 ; David & A ; Okazaki. 2006b ) . David & A ; Okazaki ( 2006b ) theorized three general types of effects of colonialism. First. covert manifestations of colonial outlook ( CM ) consist of internalized cultural/ethnic lower status and cultural shame/embarrassment. whereby the colonised internalizes a sense of lower status imposed by the coloniser. This intrinsic feeling of unworthiness among Filipinos may take to a feeling that European Americans are superior which has major deductions for the kineticss in the curative relationship.

Filipino Americans may hold unconsciously internalized messages about themselves based on their perceptual experience that Filipino civilization is inferior to Western civilization. which may take to pervasive institutionalised and systemic feelings of lower status. As Dovidio. Major. and Crocker ( 2000 ) suggested. in add-on to cognizing that their societal individuality is by and large devalued by others. stigmatized individuals in general may besides be cognizant of negative stereotypes associated with their [ cultural ] group which in bend may bring forth peculiar exposures such as shame. impotence. and internalized racism. Second. open manifestations of CM include within-group favoritism and belittling of Filipino physical features. The favoritism toward less- 3 Americanized Filipinos and bitterness of the Filipino phenotype reflect the internal desire to distance oneself from perceptual experiences of inferior individuality. Finally. colonial debt is a 3rd type of manifestation of CM in which an person believes that the coloniser is superior and therefore emulates the coloniser and perceives the coloniser as well-meaning. civilizing. and emancipating ( David & A ; Okazaki. 2006b ) .

Therefore. colonial debt tolerates historical and modern-day subjugation of Filipino Americans by seeing colonisation as the natural cost of advancement or civilisation ; look up toing the coloniser ; and following the belief that the coloniser is superior. Overall. Centimeter reflects both a group and single orientation. which denigrates the Filipino civilization as a whole. every bit good as individually-focused belittling. Peoples who experience internalized colonial subjugation or CM may show a stronger designation with the dominant civilization. instead than the civilization of beginning. Therefore. it would be expected that CM as a whole would reflect more positive attitudes toward help- seeking because the rejection of Filipino civilization may take to the idealisation of Western civilization. including how one deals with psychological jobs. Filipino Americans and Enculturation There are multiple values and behaviours that may be considered looks of socialization. The first involves a person’s degree of interaction with their fatherland. which includes engagement in cultural traditions. cognition of Filipino civilization and designation with the Filipino community ( del Prado. 2007 ) .

Religion ( peculiarly Catholicism ) is besides a really important portion of Filipino civilization ( del Prado ) . The attitudes and behaviours among Filipino Americans which relate to traditional functions. including hierarchy in relationships. respect to authorization figures and gender function outlooks. are 4 other looks of socialization. Sense of personal self-respect and the strong cultural impression of hiya. or shame. along with indirect communicating manners are common characteristics that distinguish Filipino socialization. Finally. the collectivized civilization of Filipino Americans focuses on household solidarity and household duty. These specific factors describe degrees of socialization as conceptualized by del Prado. Research has demonstrated that when Filipino socialization is higher. attachment to Asiatic values. keeping of their Asiatic civilization of beginning. and association with other Asiatic Americans. is besides higher ( del Prado. 2007 ) . It should be noted. nevertheless. that high socialization does non connote low socialization. or low association with American cultural values ( del Prado. 2007 ) . Socialization has been found to associate negatively to help- seeking attitudes in other Asiatic groups.

Kim and Omizo ( 2003 ) found that in Asiatic American college pupils. ( chiefly Chinese. Korean and Filipinos ) attachment to general Asiatic values ( i. e. . high socialization ) was reciprocally related to both attitudes toward seeking professional psychological aid and willingness to see a counsellor. Furthermore. Kim ( 2007 ) found that after commanding for the association with socialization to European American values. socialization to Asiatic cultural values was reciprocally related to attitudes toward seeking professional psychological aid. In other words. more positive attitudes toward help-seeking in Asiatic Americans was associated with less traditional Asiatic cultural norms. instead than the acquisition of European American cultural norms. Aspects of socialization consist of interaction with one’s fatherland ; spiritual activity ; sense of personal self-respect ; indirectness or non-assertiveness ; traditional gender functions ; household solidarity ; and household duty ( del Prado. 2007 ) .

The traditional cultural 5 values and behaviours unique to Filipinos may associate to less positive attitudes toward seeking psychological aid. Therefore. it is expected that socialization would associate to more negative attitudes toward help-seeking. Purpose of the Study The intent of the current survey was to research the possible impact of colonial outlook and socialization on help-seeking attitudes among Filipino Americans. It was hypothesized that colonial outlook would be positively associated with help-seeking attitudes as it implies a rejection of Filipino cultural features. while socialization would be negatively associated with help- seeking attitudes. after commanding for demographic variables associated with help-seeking. Furthermore. the prognostic discrepancy of the single subscales of colonial outlook ( e. g. . within group favoritism. physical features. colonial debt. cultural shame and embarrassment. and internalized cultural/ethnic lower status ) and socialization ( e. g. . interaction with fatherland. faith. personal self-respect. indirectness. traditional functions. household solidarity. and household duty ) on aid seeking attitudes were besides examined. Method Participants All 251 participants self-identified as Philippine American. Participants were obtained through Filipino pupil cultural organisations at local universities. the Asiatic American Psychological Association. and societal networking web sites.

As seen in Table 1. participants ranged in age from 18 to 72 ( average age = 31. M = 34. SD = 10. 95 ) . Males comprised 30. 5 % and females comprised 69. 5 % of the sample. Residents from California comprised 77. 3 % followed by 5. 2 % & gt ; occupants from Hawaii. Participants who held 4-year 6 college grades comprised 44. 2 % . followed by 32. 3 % with advanced grades. doing it a extremely educated sample. In footings of generational position. 49 % identified as 2nd coevals or higher. followed by 27. 5 % who identified as 1st coevals. and 23. 5 % identified as 1. 5 coevals ( born the Philippines. but grew up in the U. S. ) Naturalized citizens comprised 40. 4 % while 50. 8 % comprised U. S. born citizens. The bulk of participants ( 69. 2 % O ) identified as Catholic. and about 33 % reported spiritual attending one time a hebdomad.

7 Table 1: Demographic Features of Sample Variable n % of sample M SD Gender Male Female Missing Age Missing Education Advanced degree 4-year college grade Junior college Some college High school Some high school Other Generational Status 1st coevals 2nd coevals 3 rd coevals or higher Religion Catholic Protestant Muslim Iglesia ni Cristo Seventh Day Adventist None Other Missing Religious Attendance 2x per hebdomad or more sixties per hebdomad sixty per month Less than lx per month Never 76 173 2 235 16 81 111 15 31 10 1 69 59 123 173 16 0 2 0 24 35 1 18 82 28 81 42 30. 5 69. 5 32. 3 44. 2 6. 0 12. 4 4. 0. 4 27. 5 23. 5 49. 0 69. 2 6. 4. 8 9. 6 13. 9. 4 7. 1 32. 7 11. 2 32. 3 16. 7 33. 98 10. 95 Procedures Prior to data aggregation. blessings were obtained from the Institutional Review Board of the host establishment. Study instruments. including an informed consent missive. were completed on-line through SurveyMonkey. com. Measures Measures were completed in the order listed: a demographic step with an option to supply unfastened remarks ; the Colonial Mentality Scale ( CMS ) ( David & A ; Okazaki. 2006 ) ; the Enculturation Scale for Filipino Americans ( ESFA ) ( del Prado. 2007 ) ; and Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help – Shortened Form ( ATSPPH-SF ) ( Fischer & A ; Farina. 1995 ) . Colonial Mentality Scale ( CMS ) The Colonial Mentality Scale ( CMS ) ( David & A ; Okazaki. 2006b ) is a 36-item self- study step that is intended to measure feelings. sentiments. attitudes. and behaviours associated with five factors of CM including:

( a ) Within-Group Discrimination ( inclination to know apart against less-Americanized Filipinos ) ; ( B ) Physical Characteristics ( inclination to comprehend Filipino physical traits as inferior to White physical traits ; ( degree Celsius ) Colonial Debt ( inclination to experience fortunate for holding been colonized and to experience indebted to one’s past colonisers ; ( vitamin D ) Cultural Shame and Embarrassment ( examines feelings of shame and embarrassment toward Filipino civilization ) ; and ( vitamin E ) Internalized Cultural/Ethnic Inferiority ( describes feelings of lower status about one’s ethnicity and civilization ) . A higher figure on the 6-point Likert type graduated table indicates higher colonial outlook. In the original survey by David and Okazaki utilizing 603 Filipino Americans. the internal 9 consistence ranged from. 33 to. 66 and subscale intercorrelations were low to chair ( . 19 to. 49 ) . Validity surveies demonstrated that CMS was negatively correlated to Collective Self-Esteem Scale. bespeaking that as one’s degree of CM additions. one’s rating of one’s cultural group becomes less positive. Enculturation Scale for Filipino Americans ( ESFA ) The 35-item short version of the Enculturation Scale for Filipino Americans ( ESFA ) ( del Prado. 2007 ) measures attachment to cardinal values. attitudes. and behaviours of Filipino civilization.

The Interaction with Homeland graduated table measures a participant’s contact with the Philippines and other Filipinos ; attachment to nutrient imposts ; and utilize. penchant. and cognition of Filipino linguistic communication. The Religion subscale includes points that describe the engagement and value placed on spiritual activities. The Sense of Personal Dignity graduated table includes points that describe the value placed on self-respect and regard for others. The Indirectness graduated table measures non-assertive. indirect and covert ways of communication and interacting with others. The Traditional Roles subscale assesses the belief in gender functions for males. females. and within relationships in general. The Family Solidarity measures the importance of household intimacy and integrity in household relationships. Finally. the Family Obligation graduated table steps feelings of duty to one’s household.

The ESFA has a 6-point Likert graduated table and a higher figure on the graduated table indicates higher socialization to Filipino civilization. In del Prado’s survey with 269 Filipino Americans. internal consistence was really good ( . 96 ) and the dependability for the subscales ranged from. 70- . 96. 10 Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help The widely used Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help Scale – Short Form ( ATSPPH-SF ) ( Fischer & A ; Farina. 1995 ) has 10 points on a 4-point Likert graduated table that assess four factors: Need ( acknowledgment of demand for psychotherapeutic aid ) ; Stigma ( tolerance of stigma associated to seeking psychological aid ) ; Openness ( interpersonal openness sing one’s jobs ) ; and Confidence ( assurance in the ability of the mental wellness practician to be helpful ) . Higher tonss reflect more positive attitudes toward help-seeking. Fischer and Farina reported grounds of criterion-related cogency and convergent cogency ( r= . 87 ) . The dependability demonstrated a coefficient alpha of. 84.

The ATSPPH-SF has besides been used in a figure of surveies with cultural minorities by Kim and Omizo ( 2003 ) who found good grounds for the scale’s dependability. Results Preliminary Analyses The agencies. standard divergences. and scale dependabilities in the current survey are shown in Table 2. The normalcy of the distributions was assessed utilizing lopsidedness divided by the standard mistake of lopsidedness ( SK/SE ) . When SK/SE values exceeded +/- 4. 0. distributions were normalized utilizing logarithm transmutations. Transformed variables included: Colonial Mentality ; Within-Group Discrimination ; Physical Characteristics ; Internalized Cultural/Ethnic Inferiority ; Traditional Roles ; and Family Solidarity. Age ( R = . 30. P & lt ; . 001 ) and instruction ( r = . 26. P & lt ; . 001 ) were significantly correlated to help-seeking attitudes. No other demographics were significantly related to help-seeking attitudes and were used in all calculations with that variable.

11 Table 2: Dependability Coefficients and Descriptive Statistics for Survey Measures Measure Colonial Mentality Scale Colonial debt Cult. shame/embarrassment Intern. cult/ethnic lower status Physical features Within-group favoritism Enculturation Scale for Filipino Americans Family Obligation Family Solidarity Indirectness Interaction with fatherland Personal Dignity Religion Traditional Roles # of points 36 7 5 5 8 11 35 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Cronbach’s Alpha. 914. 801. 729. 683. 869. 810. 749. 672. 662. 739. 773. 750. 736. 766 M 74. 66 18. 72 6. 70 9. 51 17. 22 22. 51 123. 19 22. 01 22. 95 11. 70 17. 95 14. 31 19. 97 10. 37 ( SD ) ( 23. 43 ) ( 7. 10 ) ( 2. 97 ) ( 4. 17 ) ( 8. 19 ) ( 8. 19 ) ( 17. 67 ) ( 4. 60 ) ( 4. 33 ) ( 4. 08 ) ( 6. 16 ) ( 5. 36 ) ( 6. 36 ) ( 4. 91 ) Attitudes toward psych. aid 10. 860 28. 40 ( 5. 58 ) 12 Correlational analyses Colonial Mentality overall was negatively and significantly related to attitudes toward seeking psychological aid ( r = – . 19. P & lt ; . 003 ) . counter to hypothesis 1. Furthermore. none of the subscales of colonial outlook were positively related to help- seeking attitudes. The lone subscales that were significantly and negatively related to attitudes toward seeking psychological aid were:

Colonial Debt ( r = – . 30. P & lt ; . 001 ) and Within-Group Discrimination ( R = – . 14. P & lt ; . 05 ) . The undermentioned subscales were non significantly related to attitudes toward seeking psychological aid: Internalized Cultural/Ethnic Inferiority ( R = – . 01 ) ; Cultural Shame and Embarrassment ( R = – . 03 ) ; and Physical Characteristics ( R = – . 11 ) . Consequences indicated that there was a statistically important negative correlativity between socialization and help-seeking attitudes as expected ( r = – . 26. P & lt ; . 001 ) and are reported in Table 3. Religious Activity ( R = – . 20. P & lt ; . 002 ) . Traditional Roles ( R = – . 22. P & lt ; . 001 ) . Personal Dignity ( r=i- . 2. P & lt ; . 05 ) . and Indirectness { R = – . l. P & lt ; . 006 ) were negatively and significantly related to attitudes toward seeking psychological aid. Interaction with Homeland ( R = – . 02 ) . Family Obligation ( R = – . 05 ) . and Family Solidarity ( R = . 11 ) were non significantly related to attitudes toward seeking psychological aid.

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