Impacts of Guerrilla Marketing on Consumer Perceptions
Global Journal of Management and Business Research Volume 11 Issue 7 Version 1. 0 July 2011 Type: Double Blind Peer Reviewed International Research Journal Publisher: Global Journals Inc. (USA) Print ISSN: 0975-5853 Impact of Guerrilla Marketing on Consumer Perception By Mohsin Shakeel, Muhammad Mazhar Khan University of Lahore Islamabad Campus Pakistan Abstracts – Purpose : Guerilla marketing is one of the growing marketing techniques which are used in advertising industry. Stealth marketing is also a most popular technique use in the Guerilla marketing.
There are number of techniques are used in stealth marketing in which one technique, celebrity marketing is in practice mostly by the market leaders. This paper seeks to find the significant effect of the Guerilla marketing on the consumer perception. Methodology : After reviewing the literature of celebrity marketing and consumer perception, we develop a questionnaire for the population of 300 graduate and post graduates’ students of universities and colleges in Islamabad and we select a random sample of 60 students. We take the consumer perception as a dependent variable and celebrity marketing as an independent variable.
We use the simple regression model to check the significant effect of celebrity marketing on consumer perception. For the study we get the value of “R” is 0. 945. Findings : The value of “R” which is 0. 945 which shows that celebrity marketing has a significant effect on consumer perception. Originality/ Value : This paper design on quantitative analysis to examine in what way celebrity marketing which is used in ad industry in cellular industry in Pakistan effectively used in molding the perception of a consumer in reaching buying decision.
Keywords : Guerilla marketing, Celebrity marketing, Advertising, Consumer perception GJMBR-A Classification : JEL Code: M31 Impact of Guerrilla Marketing on Consumer Perception Strictly as per the compliance and regulations of: © 2011 . Mohsin Shakeel, Muhammad Mazhar Khan. This is a research/review paper, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3. 0 Unported License http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by-nc/3. /), permitting all noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Impact of Guerrilla Marketing on Consumer Perception Abstract – Purpose : Guerilla marketing is one of the growing marketing techniques which are used in advertising industry. Stealth marketing is also a most popular technique use in the Guerilla marketing. There are number of techniques are used in stealth marketing in which one technique, celebrity marketing is in practice mostly by the market leaders.
This paper seeks to find the significant effect of the Guerilla marketing on the consumer perception. Methodology : After reviewing the literature of celebrity marketing and consumer perception, we develop a questionnaire for the population of 300 graduate and post graduates’ students of universities and colleges in Islamabad and we select a random sample of 60 students. We take the consumer perception as a dependent variable and celebrity marketing as an independent variable.
We use the simple regression model to check the significant effect of celebrity marketing on consumer perception. For the study we get the value of “R” is 0. 945. Findings : The value of “R” which is 0. 945 which shows that celebrity marketing has a significant effect on consumer perception. Originality/ Value : This paper design on quantitative analysis to examine in what way celebrity marketing which is used in ad industry in cellular industry in Pakistan effectively used in molding the perception of a consumer in reaching buying decision
Keywords : Guerilla marketing, Celebrity marketing, Advertising, Consumer perception I. n the scientific era, no one can be left without experiencing the influence of marketing communication has on our lives. The marketing communication we mean the range of tools marketers using in order to attract the attention of the consumer. These tools have many means of promotion such as advertising through television, radio, newspapers and billboards, direct marketing and personal relations (Miller, 1993).
Combined these promotion tools are use to sent a strangler massage to improve the result for the company employing advertising agencies. Marketer introducing combining of the different promotions was as Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC) which allows one companies marketing campaign fully Author : M. S Scholar the University of Lahore Islamabad Campus Pakistan. E-mail : [email protected] com Cell: 0092-3335744557. Author ? : M. S Scholar the University of Lahore Islamabad Campus Pakistan. E-mail: [email protected] com Cell: 0092-345-5077207. I Introduction integrated and that the single message trying to sent the public will not be confusing by the other section of the organization (Duncan, 2002). By using IMC practices do not hit inadequately the potential consumer groups but since the viewer are bombarded with increasingly advertising messages, they thought that they are persuaded with information foe selling some thing so they became on defended policies. These consumers are called as generation Y are millennial (Yin, 2003; Griffin 2002; Syrett & Lammiman, 2003).
Generation Y’s are those whom are born between 1977-1994 (Paul, 2001). Therefore companies have to rethink new and special measures to get welcome for commercial messages with open arms by the Gen Y (Paul, 2002). In resulting the companies have to reshape their techniques and the increase he quality of their offerings in order to avoid negative word of mouth (Livenson, 1998). Word of Mouth (VoM) stands for when a friend tells a friend that tells a friend about the new product that he had bought last weekend (Vranica 2005).
According to Chura and Fernando (2004), marketers are aiming for VoM that is planned and executed by people in order to spread the “Buzz”. Yen (2003) states that, Gen Y is approachable through VoM which is considered an alternative way of promoting which leads us to an alternative marketing and promotional approach. Guerrilla Marketing to be a well known marketing approach that applies more alternative methods changing the ways in which conventional marketing media such as advertising, direct marketing, PR and others alike executed (Levinson, 1998). nder the cover of Guerilla Marketing an approach known as under cover marketing are stealth marketing is used as performed on face to face basis and does not appear to be a marketing too (Karolina Stenberg & Sabina Parcic, 2005). The existing the Undercover Marketing (UCM) is not as spread are as accepted through out the world, therefore it is largely unknown how public as well as marketer / advertiser react when faced with these method and how application of UCM would practically function (Karolina Stenberg & Sabina Parcic, 2005).
The generation Y is the (Paul,2001)generation that has born in mid 1980’s decade . which are bombarded heavily increasing number of advertising massages which are turn to high their level of irritation © 2011 Global Journals Inc. (US) Global Journal of Management and Business Research Volume XI Issue VII Version I July 2011 47 Mohsin Shakeel , Muhammad Mazhar Khan ? ? Impact of Guerrilla Marketing on Consumer Perception due to which they stand against to give the defense that these massages are trying to sale the products.
This is the basic reason which is faced by the marketers how to approach the generation Y so that they started to paying attention on these massages which is the only way that the presentation of the massages should not be a conventional way. This need pressured the marketers to start boosting the unconventional way for marketing which is called undercover marketing (stalls marketing) (kaikati&kaikikati, 2004) The key objective of this type of marketing is to grasp the targeted people for the sale product without 48 letting them know that it is the company’s marketing campaign (Kaikati & Kaikati, 2004).
Another main reason for the marketer to divert their attention in this kind of marketing that it is very hard to focus on potential customers because of fragmentation, due to which these customers divided in to very small number of groups in the result of ever increasing TV channels, radio stations and publications (Kaikati & Kaikati, 2004). Moreover it is reveled from the researches 7. 7 % young males are not watching the prime time TV then year ago. The advent of the other technologies like personal television recorders and digital video recorders etc. roviding the facility to the consumers that he may skip or eliminate the commercials have become the more threatening for conventional marketing due to which the marketer are diverted to under cover marketing because it is much difficult for the potential customer convincing to sit through the TV commercials. It is also supported by the different studies which showed that more than 50% marketer showed the intentions in using non conventional method like product placement deals and program sponsorship (Kaikati & Kaikati, 2004).
The messages can be delivered in different methods through celebrity or trendsetters in which they participated with physical appearance. Thus the markers are looking to move for away from the conventional marketing which is depend on 30 seconds commercials that elaborated the importance of the stealth marketing techniques that are now becoming the emerging issue for marketing way in conventional marketing which is becoming order and order to reach the target marketing (Kaikati & Kaikati, 2004). The growing popularity of under cover marketing or stealth marketing drives from three factors that contributed the dimension effectiveness of television advertising and other traditional techniques, the first factor about the growing criticism of the advertising industry. The second factor is about cost effectiveness of stealth campaigns is implicit and recommendation to embrace non-traditional techniques. The third factor is about the need to explore different type of stealth marketing techniques as viable alternatives to reach and increasing fragmented audience” (Kaikati & Kaikati, 2004).
Stealth marketing techniques can be used to be Global Journal of Management and Business Research gain the competitive advantage there are six main types i. e. Viral marketing, brand pushers, celebrity marketing (endorsement), and bait- and – tease marketing, video game marketing and pop and rap music marketing. As these marketing techniques are based on many disguises based and it is to note worthy that in these marketing techniques some of them are stealthier in nature more than others that is why these are represented a useful alternative technique to conventional marketing techniques (Kaikati & Kaikati, 2004).
As per extent to the Pakistan cellular industry is now using stealth marketing techniques rather than using conventional commercials in which they are considered one of the technique which is celebrity marketing is more prominent. “The celebrity endorsement (marketing) is one of the most accepted kind of the marketing which is now most practicable in promotion of products and services so the use of this in commercial is not one way process, therefore, as celebrities are becoming in there own right with there own value existing of the minds of there audiences in a similar way to corporate and consumer brands” (Seno & Lukas, 2007).
Celebrity endorsement conventionally focused on characteristically source of the endorser along with transfer of meanings between endorser to the endorse products and brands (Alina Hellomen- Knight & Leila Hurmerinta, 1998) Media has changed the market conditions and influences and has the ability to change the perception and behavior in strong way that traditional analytical tools for studying the market are insufficient (Nilson 1995). The consumer perception and behavior is one of the most widely studied subjects which grasped the constructs in marketing.
In last two decades, almost 20,000 academic articles have been published on this particular topic (cf. Peterson & Wlison 1992). II. Volume XI Issue VII Version I July 2011 Research Objective Gaining competitive edge in terms of marketing is one of the utmost objectives, which companies are focusing on, as a result to change psychological and social perception of the society. Reaching the customers and prospects in a right way with a definitive roadmap is a succession key in this regard. Aim of this dissertation is to find out the effectiveness of the unconventional tools or techniques.
In these tools UCM is one of the most popular tools which are being used to attract the potential consumers and hence changing their perception. Object of this paper is to find out the impact of Guerilla marketing on consumer perception through one of its technique called Celebrity marketing or endorsement. III. Literature Review Marketing Communication (MC) has an influence on consumers. MC is indented to gain the attention of the consumers, through different means i. e. © 2011 Global Journals Inc. (US) Impact of Guerrilla Marketing on Consumer Perception
PR, direct marketing and advertising (New Papers, Radio, T. V and Billboard), (Miller, 1993). “The promotional tools jointly set out a much stronger message by the advertising agencies showed the improving results. Marketing practitioners introduce the practice of combined a different promotion mean as integrated marketing communication. This practice allows one company’s marketing campaign to be fully integrated that the single message they are trying to send to the public will not be confused by other section by the organization” (Duncan, 2002).
According to Yin (2003), Griffin, (2002) & Syrett & Lammiman, 2003) consumers are set to be fed up with the huge attacks of advertisings and known as generation Y. The impact of generation Y, born between 1977 to 1994 (Paul, 2001), has on the marketing end advertising for the result of the generation Y members place on the importance of the individuality with strong focus. “The community and networks they forms have there own rules of loyalty violate the same time influencing there brand loyalty. The brand loyalty they might have had as children has fated through adult hood. This mean that companies have to use pecial measure to earn there commitment by using technique that were not necessary for their parents the baby boomers” (Syrett & Lammiman, 2003). “Companies have to take into considerations as well that Gen Y has a “proof it to me” mentality as it does not welcome commercial messages with open arms (Paul, 2001)” Celebrity endorsers give positive payback to companies. The medium most often used to associate them with a chosen product is advertising; where celebrities are known to induce more positive feelings toward ads than non-celebrity endorsers (Atkin & Block, 1983; Kamins, 1990; O’Mahony & Meenaghan, 1998).
They spin vague products into recognized entities full of personality and appeal (Dickenson, 1996), and help out companies to re-brand and re-position their donations (Louie et al. , 2001). Consumer recall rate is heightened when exposed to celebrity ads (Kamen, Azhari, & Kragh, 1975; O’Mahony & Meenaghan, 1998) and they report greater Purchase intentions (Atkin & Block, 1983; Friedman & Friedman, 1976). But on the other hand all celebrity endorsements will not turn out well for companies.
Italian shoemaker Sergio Tacchini was sued by their celebrity endorser, tennis stars Martina Hingis, for what she claimed that of having serious injuries experienced from trying their products. As a result Hingis not only took legal action against the company, but she also said no to use the products and brought bad names for them to the press (Trout, 2007). Celebrity endorsers are paid by a sponsor company for endorsement of their products (see e. g. , Farrell & Van Riper, 2008; Sinclair, 2006b; Sirak, 2008). It has been revealed from researches that celebrity endorsers are proved more efficient communicator when they are bjectives (Atkin & Block, 1983; Friedman & Friedman, the products are promoted by them (Erdogan, 1999). when an attractive and trustworthy celebrity endorser is visible in a ad, the viewers are become more associate positively viewing the promotion ad, the brand, and through this there is aroused in purchasing perceived as trustworthy, and attractive in connecting of 1976; Kamins, 1990;O’Mahony & Meenaghan, 1998). If we have view in accepting the view that celebrities are slotted in firm activities of different kinds, it is doubtful whether the source models are enough.
In simply these models do not deal with engagement problem and as a result of which they do not allow for discrepancies in 49 situational reasons which may concern about common result procedures (Ohanian, 1990; Silvera & Austad, 2004). For example, consumers are often asked aboutthe celebrity’s trustworthiness in relative of a product but conditions relevant to endorsement activities are held constant so the situational relationship between celebrity and product is hidden (see e. g. , Friedman & Friedman, 1976; Friedman & Friedman, 1979). Essentially, researchers ask experimental participants to tell them if a celebrity is trustworthy in the things they say about a product, or an expert on it, without informing them if the celebrity uses the product, has experience with the product, are paid to use the product, or are investors in the product. Any one of these additional pieces of information could alter a participants’ opinion (directly or indirectly), regarding the trustworthiness or expertise of a celebrity endorser (Cronley et al, 1999; Robertson & Rossiter, 1974, Silvera & Austad, 2004). Employment may also be source of conditional information which can obtain an attribution from consumers and in turn affect their attitudes towards brands and ads (Folkes, 1988; Kelly & Michela, 1980). By employing with the product endorsement may take a celebrity show more trustworthy and attractive. In any combination of these influence statement of Effectiveness. Understanding the effects on any kind of engagement on Communication. Cronley et al. (1999) find out a muscular relationship between consumers considers a celebrity make use of a product (irrespective of whether they actually do) & message usefulness.
The result was sustained and extended by Silvera & Austad (2004) who explored that a celebrity’s anecdotal character towards a product (i. e. , whether they like or use the product) was as strong of a interpreter of attitude towards the ad as the attractiveness dimension adopt by McGuire (1985) Consumers are normally able to differentiate between an endorser and the product being endorsed (Stem, 1994). Consequently, when negative information is revealed to consumers, their reaction can be different depending on if it is directed towards the celebrity or the product.
When the negative information is about the celebrity, © 2011 Global Journals Inc. (US) Global Journal of Management and Business Research Volume XI Issue VII Version I July 2011 Impact of Guerrilla Marketing on Consumer Perception 50 then the reaction usually extends only to the advertisement and inversely, when the information is regarding the company it usually only extends to the brand (Stem, 1994). Friedman & Friedman (1979) referred to celebrities as individuals who are known to the public (including actors, sports figures, and entertainers) for their achievements in areas other than that of the product class endorsed.
Friedman & Friedman (1979) referred to celebrities as individuals known by the public (including actors, sports figures, and entertainers) for their achievements in areas rather than that of the product class endorsed. To clearness in definition is the assumption that in acquiring celebrity one must be firstly achieved something. Compared with celebrities of the past, such as Caesar, Napoleon, Alexander Graham Bell, and Babe Ruth, who earned their celebrity through the positions with notable achievements, present-day celebrities have appeared as exemption from this requirement.
Moreover, Turner (2004) deemed they were often a product manufactured by celebrity intermediaries such as agents, publicists, marketing personnel, and promoters (Marshall, 1997; Turner, 2004). Noting this cultural shift, Boorstin (1961) pointed out that achievement was no longer a necessary condition for acquiring celebrity. To him, “the test of celebrity is nothing more than well-knowness” (p. 59) and a celebrity was simply a “person who is known for his well-knowness” (p. 57).
This distinction allows us to consider individuals such as Paris Hilton, Lindsey Lohan and Osama Bin Laden celebrities while at the same time some politicians, sport stars, members of royalty and religious icons. The celebrities are sharing at least three important aspects; Firstly, in their domain of celebrity, should be well known for well knowing, Secondly, in their field they have to embrace weight over the public, finely, celebrities should belong to all spheres of life, along with politicians, actresses, athletes, successful business leaders, lottery winners, etc.
Thus definition of celebrity given below comprises with above mentioned elements. Celebrity: an individual who is recognized by the public for their famous-ness and has an impact on public perception. Celebrities slotted in a range of paid activities working with companies and products. As discussed by Kamen, Azhari, & Kragh (1975) that the way of presenting the celebrities can described into four categories: Testimonial, endorser, actor, and spokesman. In a testimonial “the individual attests to the superiority or excellence of a product or service on the basis of personal experience with it” (p. 7), when an individual is often explicitly coupled with a brand while endorsing the product or a company. When playing the role of an actor “the individual is merely a character in a dramatic presentation… Endorsement is implicit, but no testimonials are ordinarily rendered” (p. 17). Last but not least the spokesman is characterized as “the individual representing the company or brand (much like a salesperson), where the role is more official in nature © 2011 Global Journals Inc. (US) since the spokesperson is authorized to express the position of their sponsor” (p. 17).
Each category shares a common denominator: in some form or another celebrity is associated with the brand. Actually, researchers are not drawing a line of differentiation between the different characters played by celebrities and even when they often submit to celebrity spokespersons ( Desarbo & Harshman, 1985; Kamins et al. , 1989;Kamins & Gupta, 1994) or celebrity endorsers (Erdogan & Baker, 1999;Kahle & Homer, 1985; Klebba & Unger, 1982; Knott & St. James, 2004) but mean empirically similar things. This is captured in an of cited definition of celebrity endorser that can be found in McCracken (1989, p. 10):“any individual who enjoys public recognition and who uses this recognition on behalf of a consumer good by appearing with it in an advertisement. ” Moreover, celebrities are discharging role of endorser bonding themselves with various products (Kamen et al. , 1975; Stem, 1994). Similarly, Seno and Lucas (2007, p. 123) state that endorsements can be “be explicit (“I endorse this product”), implicit (“I use this product”), imperative (“You should use this product”), or co-presentational (merely appearing with the product)”.
The environment of bonding does not give the impression to limiting an advertisement circumstances. Therefore it looks very important in doing definition of celebrity endorser is that they should be in some way associated with a product regardless of either taking the form of advertisement or not and in this way of with the intention of creating some enviable results for the sponsors: Celebrity Endorser: a publicly well known individual associated with a brand/company/product in order to acquiring required outcomes for sponsor.
Companies exercise celebrity endorsers due to a number of reasons. As the celebrities accredited the ability of instantly turning an unknown product into a recognized ones with personality and appeal; also engaged in re-branding and re-positioning ((Dickenson, 1996, Louie et al. , 2001). They are exclusively effective in generating PR for a product (Chapman & Leask, 2001; Larkin, 2002; Pringle & Binet, 2005) driven by the insatiable desire consumers have to learn more about their private lives (Gamson, 1994; Ponce de Leon, 2002).
The medium used most oftenly in bonding celebrities with a product is advertising; whereas celebrities are known as one who inducing more positive feelings toward ads than non-celebrity endorsers (Atkin & Block, 1983; Kamins, 1990; O’Mahony & Meenaghan, 1998). This in turn may be one explanation for the high recall rates consumers experience when exposed to celebrity ads (Kamen et al. , 1975; O’Mahony & Meenaghan, 1998) and greater reported purchase intentions (Atkin & Block, 1983; Friedman & Friedman, 1976). The important incidents effecting on consumers may be defined as negative situations with little are no
Global Journal of Management and Business Research Volume XI Issue VII Version I July 2011 Impact of Guerrilla Marketing on Consumer Perception IV. Elements Conceptual Frame Work Celebrity Marketing Guerrilla Marketing Consumer Perception a) Hypothesis On our literature review we can stand a hypothesis as describe below. Ho: Celebrity marketing has significant effect on consumer perception b) This study is quantitatively based on questionnaire which is constructed to acquire the Methodology answers that is relevant to our study.
We are interested in knowing to that in what way the consumers can be induced through guerrilla marketing using one of techniques i. e. celebrity marketing. We are also interested in verifying significant occurrence between guerrilla marketing and consumer precepyion. We use the Likert Scale for our questionnaire from 1 to 5 representing strongly disagree © 2011 Global Journals Inc. (US) 1 Global Journal of Management and Business Research control at the end of the producer or retailer (Dutton & Jackon, 1987; Clark, 1988). The event can be resulted of the bad judgment calls and managerial mistakes during manufacturing (Mitchell, 1986).
The faults produced in products by it self (Tory, 1993), the external events such as politics are social attraction which can be proliferated through the world-of-mouth (Hadjikhani, 1996; McClellend, 1961 & Goodwin, 1987; Herr et al, 1991 & Richins, 1983). in all these cases media played directly or indirectly its role by spreading the news (Bruck, 1989). On the other hand some researches explore the role of media to be a positive one, in communication generally, to be used as the managerial tools in producing a positive change in the perception of the consumers (Kotler, 1996).
According to these researches which observe the media played a role in opposite direction i. e. tending to defend the crisis but rather to create it (Raboy & Dagenais, 1995; Neuzil & Kovarik, 1986). According to Assael, (1992) in the buyer seller relationship media played a dominate role in the field of consumer marketing and this role is unspoken and it is used a positive way the marketing strategy for seller in promoting the positive changing in the consumer perceptions in opening of new research field are successful or unsuccessful marketing (Cronier & Mories, 1989; McKenna, 1991).
It is also consider that in competency and managerial level can be correlated to the negative perception on the consumers (Everette et al, 1994; Richens, 1983). The environmental incident influenced that is spread by the media and have the casual effect social interactions (Evans et al, 1996). Keane, (1991) points out that in the case of important events the media due to its uncertain authenticity and vague lines of responsibility may influence the position of the companies negatively or positively at the same time.
The media can play according to the demand of business players and effect a positive change in the behavior of the society when advertising are relaying news. It can take a neutral position when broadcasting the news are even can create the impression of an impending crises in changing the negative perception the public might have of a company or product into a positive one (Kaptalan-Nagy; Ulrika Ljungren; Amjed Hadjikhane & Nazeem Seyed- Muhammad 1998).
Besides of focusing on management, some other studies aim to be more exploratory in which there is pay a closer antation in describing the events in the environment and linking them to the change of the perception to consumer by giving a powerful roll by consumer in its attraction in the environment this model kind of model that is centralized the role of media and its influence on consumers, presented by the Tory (1993). On having both kind of media role, as managerial tools and as explanatory, our paper played a neutral role as one of the player for covering events and crisis that will in the end influence the perception of he consumers. Those who have the view in expansion of the this thought and interrelate the disturbed world event to marketing have chose the a different position either static or process prospective, the static prospective concentrate on the decision making level in any given organization along with the studying how timings be a crucial in the dissemination of information in a critical condition (Glazar & Weiss, 1993; Smart & Vertinsky, 1977). On the other hand for process prospective are forced on the behavioral change of the individual consumer and affect of use being on the consumer (MacCrimmon & Wehrung, 1986).
In this theory it is further explained in the consumer changing and its ability t be aware and able adapt to a situation applying and a company level and also studied changing to the behavior by discussing the process change form the initial shock to adaptation a consumer might under go and gives the attention to the changes that are the result of turbulent events and having no aim at studying the source of these changes (Kauseman & Garman, 1992; Arnlond, 1980). Volume XI Issue VII Version I July 2011 51 Impact of Guerrilla Marketing on Consumer Perception o strongly agree. We select the random sample from population of 300 graduate and post graduate students from different colleges and universities in Islamabad, from this population we select 60 responses, 10 respondent could not fill the questionnaire completely 5 more discarded from different ground. July 2011 c) Statistical Instrument We use the simple regression model. We regress the celebrity marketing of which has the constructs trustworthiness and attractiveness of as an independent co-efficient with dependent co-efficient which is consumer perception.
We check the significance of trust worthiness comprises of four to five question similarly we also check our construct on attractiveness of the celebrity in the advertisement also four to five questions included our questionnaire. We also check the dependency of the consumer perception on celebrity marketing which is our main goal. d) Statistical Analysis Model 1 R . 945a Model Summary R Square Adjusted R Square . 893 . 865 Std. Error Estimate . 29696 of the 52 Volume XI Issue VII Version I We regress consumer perception on celebrity marketing, the result are showing in table 1.
According to the table 1 we find that the consumer perception has Table 1 strong significantly effected by the celebrity marketing which has maximum value which is 0. 945. Global Journal of Management and Business Research Report Celebrity endorsement in cellular ads has an influence on my perceptions Mean N Std. Deviation 3. 0000 4 . 00000 Strongly Disagree 3. 5000 8 . 53452 Disagree 21 . 66904 Neutral 2. 9524 Agree 17 . 50000 4. 0000 Strongly agree 4. 5000 10 . 52705 Total 3. 5833 60 . 80867 Table 2. It is also clear from the Table 2 that the questions in answering strongly gree and agree have the mean values greater than 3, this prove our hypothesis that consumer perception has strongly significant effect by the celebrity marketing. V. VI. Conclusion Discussion The analytic framework confirms the relationship between guerrilla marketing and consumer perception with respect of celebrity marketing. On having careful interpretation of sample. As illustrated by the table no. The Q1, Q2, Q3 which explain the significant effect between trustworthiness which is facet of celebrity marketing and preference, belief and brand, which are the facet of this effect is to the extent of . 07. Which is calculated by using statistical two way t-test? This shows the positive relationship between these factors. Similarly Question Nos. 4, 5, 8,10,11,12 of our questionnaire shows the negative relationship with the consumer perception. Whereas Question Nos. 6, 7 and 9 has also shows positive relationship between trustworthiness and attractiveness and consume perception This study shows the trustworthiness and attractiveness as potential strategies to enhancing consumer percept in to facilitate purchased behavior. 2011 Global Journals Inc. (US) The aim of the research was to identify the association of the celebrity endorsement on the consumer perception. This was studied by the reviewing of literature of both celebrity endearment and the consumer perception dependent upon the questionnaire distributing among the target population, we sure the collectively positive influence on the consumer perception. Recognizing the right celebrity endorser is one of the essential discussions for a brand which is engaged to endorse.
Celebrities can be beneficiaries from this view that endorsement as means of linking there brand for a product or corporate brand and take into consideration the potential positive and negative effect that may have on there on image and brand equity (Elina Halonen-Knight & Leila Hurmerinta, 2010). a) This study attempt to discover the positive relation between Guerilla Marketing and the consumer perception, by using the celebrities and endorser in cellular sector of Pakistan. To generalize the result of this study is limited in using the celebrities’ endorsement in a cultural back ground.
Second research need to be conducted using the other technique stealth marketing Limitation of the study Impact of Guerrilla Marketing on Consumer Perception which is not in practices in Pakistan regarding t cellular industry. References References Referencias 1. 2. Duncan, T. (2002). IMC-Using Advertising and Promotion to Build Brand. McGraw-Hill, New York Fernando, A. (2004). Creating Buzz: New Media Tactics Have Changed the PR and Advertising Game. Communication World. San Francisco: Nov/Dec Vol, 21, (pg. 10-11) Glazer, R. and Weiss, A. M. 1993, Marketing in Turbulent Process and the Time-Sensitivity of Information. Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. XXX, November, pp. 509-521 Environment, Decision Goodwin, C. , 1987, A Social- Influence Theory of Consumer Perception Cooperation, Advance. Consumer Research, 14, pp. 387-381. Griffin, C. (2002). Identity check, sporting Goods Business, San Francisco: Sep, Vol. 35,pg. 20. ” Glazer, R. and Weiss, A. M. , 1993Marketing in Turbulent Environments, Decision Process and Time- Sensitivity of Information, Journal of Marketing Research Vol. XXX November, pp. 509-521 Kotler, P. , 1996, Principles of Marketing, London, Prentice-Hall international Editions. Kaikati, A. M & Kiakati, J. G. (2004). Stealth Marketing: How to Reach Customers Surreptitiously. California Management Review, Berkeley: Vol. 46, No. 4. Mitchell, T. H. , 1986, Coping with a Corporate Crises. Condition Business Review, 13, 3pp. 17-20 MacCrimmon, K R, and Wehrung, D. A. , 1986 Taking Crisis, The Management of uncertainty, New York, Free Press. Miller, J. (1993). Marketing Communication. Cornell Hotal and Restaurant
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