Caste It is an indigenous concept of Indian society and was originally found amongst the Hindus. Caste system started with the Varna system during Vedic period. There are four Varna during this period namely: 1 . brahmin 2. kshatriya 3. vaishya 4. shudra. These were broadly divided on the basis of occupation. Purity and pollution have been the main basis of the four Varna in all spheres of life including occupation, food, clothing, language and standard of living etc. during the vedic period untouchability was not there in the society.
It came into existence during the later vedic period and the untouchables or the dalits were recognized as a part of the fifth Varna. Later on occupational diversities gave rise to Jati system. There are about 3500 latis tound in India out ot which 7 belong to scheduled caste communities. Jati system gave rise to a popular economic cooperation system known as JaJmani system. In this system some castes are the Patrons and other castes belong to the service class. These are called JaJman and kamin respectively. This system came to end with the advent of Open Market system.
Family and Kinship Family is the smallest unit of society. In the ancient times the Indian families were called as Joint families. It means that the different generations of the family live under one roof. But at present there are different types of families exist in India eg. Nuclear family, single parent family etc. the organization of family have different structures as patriarchal (men have all the authorities), matriarchal (women have all the authorities), patrilocal (men’s house), matrilocal (women’s house), patrilineal (surname of the male head of the family), matrilineal (surname of the female head of family) etc. inship is a method by which individuals as members of society relate themselves with other members of that society. Kins are identified by marriage or by birth. Relations based on marriage are called Affinal relations and based on birth are called Consanguineous relations. Kins in India give rise to an analysis of the internal structure of caste and its sub-caste. Kinship system gives the rules of prohibition and rules of preference with respect to marriage.
Village exogamy (marriage outside the village), endogamy (marriage within the village), caste endogamy (marriage within the caste), hypergamy (upper caste male weds lower caste female), hypogamy (lower caste male weds upper caste female), cross cousin marriage and parallel cousin marriage are different ways of performing marriages in India. Tribes These have been defined as a group of native people with shallow history, a common anguage inhibiting a particular geographical area.
They are tied with strong kinship bonds, endogamy is the rule, common ownership of resources and technology. Geographically tribes are concentrated in five regions namely: 1. Himalayan tribes eg. Nagas, sherpas etc 2. Central region tribes eg. Santhal, munda etc 3. Western region tribes eg. Bhils etc 4. Southern region tribes eg. Todas of Nilgries etc 5. Eastern region tribes eg. Garo, khasi etc 6. Island tribes eg. Jarawas, Ongis etc These can also be divided on the basis of Race. 1 . Protoaustroids 2. Mongloids 3. Negrito