Approximately 95% of India’s international trade by volume and 70% by value are seaborne. India has 11 major ports, 19 Medium port, and 187 minor ports along 7,517 km long Indian coastline. It is strategically located as a major maritime nation due to its long coastline that flanks important global shipping routes. The National Transport Policy Committee (1980) recom­mended the following principles for declaration of a national waterway. It should possess capability of navigation by mechanically propelled vessels of a reasonable size. It should have about 45 m wide channel and minimum 1. 5m depth. It should be a continuous stretch of 50 kms.

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The only excep­tion to be made to waterway length is for urban conglomera­tions and intra-port traffic. It should pass through and serve the interest of more than one State (or). It should connect a vast and prosperous hinterland and Major Ports (or). It should pass through a strategic region where development of navigation is considered necessary to provide logistic support for national security (or). It should connect places not served by any other modes of transport. Important Ports In India Major Medium(important) Minor Private 1 Calcutta Bedi Bunder Azhikkal Cocanada 2 Chennai Bhavnagar Belikeri Tuticorine 3 Cochin

Calicut Beypore Pipavav 4 JNP Cuddalore Cannanore Adani 5 Kandla Gopalpur Coondapur 6 New Mangalore Kakinada Dahej 7 Mormugao Karwar Jafrabad 8 Mumbai Magdalla Jakhan 9 Paradip Mandavi Kasergode 10 Tuticorin Navlakhi Mundra 11 Visakhapatnam Nagapattinam Neendakara 12 Okha Pindhara 13 Porbandar Pipavav 14 Ratnagiri Ponnani 15 Redi Tellicherry 16 Salaya 17 Sikka 18 Trivandrum 19 Veraval http://www. indiaseaports. com/isp/indexie. jsp# Water transport is one of the oldest means of transport in India. Prior to the advent of rail and road transports, goods and people were moved from one place to another through water transport.

Since there is almost very small cost involved in the construc­tion and maintenance of waterways this transport system is always cheaper. According to one estimate the construction of each km of railway and road needs an investment of Rs. 1. 0-1. 5 crores and Rs. 0. 60-0. 75 crorerespectively whereas only Rs. 0. 10 crore is required to develop same length of water­ways. Their development is faster and maintenance cost much lower. Waterways are of two types: (a) Inland waterways, and (b) Sea ways or ocean ways also called shipping. Inland Waterways

Page 2 Industry Analysis – Shipping Industry Essay

Inland waterways refer to usinginland water bodies like rivers, canals, backwaters, creeks, etc for transporting goods and people from one place to another. India has a long historical tradition of using such waterways. Ganga, Brahmaputra, Indus, Yamuna, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri, Narmada and Tapi etc. were the main arteries of the country’s transport system giving birth to a number of inland river ports and jetties. The decline of river transport began with the construction of the railways during the middle of the 19th century. Later on the development of roads adversely affected the pros­pects of such transport.

The diversion of river water irrigation canals made many of these rivers unsuit­able for navigation,. So much so that today its share is only one per cent in the country’s transport system. India is a land of many long and perennial rivers. But water transport is not very popular in the country. This is mainly due to seasonal concentra­tion of rainfall, fluctuating river regime, devastating floods during rainy season, shifting river courses (in the Northern Plains) making it difficult to construct permanent jetty. The country has about 14,500 km of naviga­ble waterways which comprises rivers, canals, back­waters, creeks, etc.

Of this total length only a length of 3,700 km of major rivers is navigable by mecha­nised crafts but the length actually utilised is only 2,000 km. As regards canals, out of 4,300 km of navigation canals, only 900 km is suitable for navigation by mechanized crafts. The most important wa­terways of the country are : the Ganga Bhagirathi Hugli, the Brahmaputra river , the Barak river, the delta and lower courses of the Mahanadi, Godavari and Krishna rivers, the lower courses of the Narmada and Tapi, the Zuari and Mandovi rivers in Goa, the Kali, Shravati and Netravati in Karnataka.

The back­waters and lagoons in Kerala and the Buckingham Canal of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Uttar Pradesh has the highest length of navigable inland waterways (2,441 km or 17. 01 per cent) of the country followed by West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Kerala and Bihar. http://www. preservearticles. com/2012020422672/short-essay-on-water-transport-system-in-india. html National Waterways National Waterway-1 – Ganga-Bhagirathi-Hooghly river system from Allahabad to Haldia (1620 kms) National Waterway-2 – Brahmaputra river from Sadiya to Dhubri (891 kms)

National Waterway-3 – West Coast Canal from Kollam to Kottapuram along with Champakara and Udyogmandal canals (205 kms) National Waterway-4 – Kakinada-Puducherry stretch of Canals and the Kaluvelly Tank, Bhadrachalam-Rajahmundry stretch of river Godavari and Wazirabad- Vijayawada stretch of river Krishna (1078 km). National Waterway-5 – Talcher–Dhamra stretch of rivers, Geonkhali–Charbatia stretch of East Coast Canal, Charbatia–Dhamra stretch of Matai river and Mahanadi delta riversof total length 620 km. National Waterway-6 – Lakhipur-Bhanga stretch of 121 km of the Barak River

TYPES OF CARGO SHIPS The trade ships operated by the shipping companies can be primarily divided into three main categories: 1. BULK CARRIERS 2. OIL CARRIERS Tankers are designed to carry liquid cargoes (not just oil) although the carriage of crude oil. 3. REFRIGERATED CARGO SHIPS 4. LIVESTOCK CARRIERS 5. LNG CARRIERS 6. CAR CARRIERS 7. CONTAINER SHIPS 8. DRY CARGO VESSELS 9. HEAVY LIFT VESSELS Heavy lift vessels are quite amazing vessels, built to load, carry and discharge large, unusual shaped cargoes (or even smaller vessels) that will simply not fit inside the holds of conventional vessels 10. TUGS 11. RO-RO VESSELS Waterway Regulation and bodies The Inland Waterways Authority of India Act (IWAI), 1985 The Inland Waterways Authority of India Act, 1985 (82 of 1985) constituted the Inland Waterways Authority of India for the regulation and development of inland waterways for the purposes of shipping and navigation. The Central Government has already declared a number of stretches of various rivers or canals as National Waterways. Central Inland Water Transportation Corporation (CIWTC)

The main activities are transportation of cargo in the rivers in the Eastern India & North-Eastern India and on the Indo-Bangladesh protocol routes. Operate & Maintain terminals. Indian Ports Association Indian Ports Association (IPA) was constituted in 1966 under societies Registration Act, primarily with the idea of fostering growth and development of all Major Ports which are under the supervisory control of Ministry of Shipping. General news Foreign players continue to dominate several segments of the Indian maritime industry: from salvage to dredging, chartering to ship management and ship manning, to name but a few.

The “Major Ports” are administered by the Central Government whilst the non-major ports are controlled by the concerned State’s Government, either directly or through State Maritime Boards. Major ports (except Ennore) are trusts which fall under the Major Port Trust Act of 1963, whilst the minor ports are corporate entities, and can be private companies. Port traffic has increased from 368 million tons in 2001 to 935 million tons in 2013. According to the ‘India Maritime Agenda’ port throughput is expected to increase to 2,500 million tons by 2020. The Port sector witnessed FDI equity inflow of USD 1. 6 billion during April 2000 and June 2012 as per Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP). In market share terms, major ports accounted for 58% of total throughput in FY 2013 compared with 61% in FY 2012, while the share of non major ports was up at 42% in FY 2013, increasing from 39% during the previous year. Tariffs for the Major Ports are currently set by TAMP (the Tariff Authority for Major Ports) China is already offering subsidies to shipping companies to scrap vessels before their operational expiry date and to replace them with new ships which are eco-friendly.

The Government has directed state-run Gail India to use Indian ships for importing gas worth $2. 5 billion annually from the US, a model that is practiced by Chinese oil firms to encourage domestic shipping industry. Ships older than 20 years require more frequent and extensive repair and maintenance. Majority of Indian ships are less competitive as mostly younger vessels that are less than 15 years old are preferred in international trade. India has a total of 1,122 shipping vessels in its shipping fleet and 41 per cent of these i. e. about 466 vessels fall in the age group of 20 years and more. Considering that average life of a shipping vessel is about 26 years, most of the existing Indian vessels need to be replaced, it said. Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages Cheap Means of Transport. Transport of Heavy Goods. The way’ is free, and gives access to most parts of the world. Does not require any special infrastructure like roads, rails and airports. Disadvantages Slow in speed. Difficult to monitor exact location of goods in transit. Risk on weather change.

The government has decided to exempt vessel sharing pacts among shipping companies from the purview of fair trade regulator Competition Commission of India (CCI). Five Force Model Analysis It’s a framework for analysis of industry and development of business strategy, it also determines the competitive intensityand attractiveness of a market. Attractiveness is referred to overall profitability of industry while unattractiveness drives down profitability. Treat of new entry is HIGH Treat of substitute is HIGH Bargaining power of supplier is LOW Bargaining power of buyer is HIGH Rivalry among existing competitors is LOW

Treats To New Entry Every person would love to do business in India especially in shipping industry due to large profits involved. Foreign players or MNC’s having their business arms extended in India. Treats Of Substitute Substitution threat is the result of change in buyer behavior towards competitor or against company. Substitution may also result because of change in quality of service, increase in freight rates and increase in transit time. From view point of switching costs, buyers are not affected at all due to higher number of suppliers and freight forwarders available in market. Bargaining Power of Supplier

Suppliers barely make any difference to companies involved in shipping line business in India, especially who are leading players in this business while it may affect to certain extent to small players who are struggling to establish with in the industry. Bargaining Power of Buyer Buyer is one the strongest factor in shipping line business. Buyers may be in form of importer or exporter, clearing agent, freight forwarder or manufacturer of goods. Sometimes manufacturer himself acts as an exporter or importer, if not than trader acts on behalf of manufacturer of goods. Rivalry Among Existing Competitors

Rivalry exists in every field be it business, science, space, technology, education etc. actually speaking it is part and parcel of day to day businesses. It is sometimes bad because companies have to share hard earned profits with competitors and sometimes good because it gives opportunities to one company to stand in line with another in terms of quality of service, business strategy, job satisfaction etc. Considering the rivalry in shipping industry in India, will be held valid due to enormous margins of available profits combined with continuous growth of around 14% since last couple of years.

SWOT ANALYSIS Strength More than 7500 km coastline including the island territories Widespread ports and workable merchant fleet Fleet expansion by major domestic shipping companies Sustained rise in the volume of exports with revival growth in the manufacturing sector Large number of Indian sea farers More than 1 billion citizens to drive the import demand Weakness Bank finance is not easily available now. Most of the banks closed their windows for shipping company. Foreign competition Change in technology

Rising fuel prices and other unexpected expenses may adversely affect profitability The underinvestment in the India’s maritime sector has affected the development of ports in the country. Inefficient judiciary system slow development of new port infrastructure . High levels of bureaucracy prevents the government funding from developing new port projects in the country. Tax structure not allowing the Indian manufacturers to be competitive. Though India allows 100 per cent FDI in shipping, foreign lines are not keen to set up shop here as they will be subject to local levies, said a delegate at the conference.

Opportunity Indian shipping companies having acquisitions with foreign shipping companies More than USD $4bn is expected to be invested in India’s port sector. New major container terminals being developed at the port of Chennai and Mumbai Cargo volumes are expected to grow with an average of 16. 5% year on year in the coming 5-10 years. Treat Economic slowdown. Changes in regulations of various countries. Rising cost of business Major developments taking place in Sri Lanka’s port sector may reduce demand for transshipment services at Southern Indian ports.

A government tax on iron ore exports may lead to a fall in bulk shipments at major export terminals. India’s ports have suffered from congestion during 2011, potentially slowing the country’s growth trajectory. Piracy has emerged as a significant threat to world shipping in Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea. ” India’s top shipping companies are exploring in offshore services, dredging and even coal mining, moving away from their core business, whose viability is threatened by rising fuel prices and volatility in freight rates.

Tax burden is just 1-2 per cent of their income, compared with the corporate tax rate 30 per cent or higher. But subsequently, shipping lines were subject to several other taxes, including service tax, minimum alternative tax, sales tax, which nullified the benefits of tonnage tax. The weak rupee added to its woes as it will have to pay more for its orders for new ships placed during the boom. Selected Company – Shipping Corporation of India

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