Innovation and creativity evaluation of Apple Corporation
There are many theoretical approaches were developed since the processes of creativity and innovation have become an essential part of businesses. In particular, Graham Wallas theoretical framework was applied in synthesis with the bright example from the experience of Apple Corporation to deeper evaluate and understand the process. The process of innovation and the way of it managing was described by 3 phases innovation process with clear evaluation and presentation of the main steps the process of innovation comes through.
The example of Apple Corporation innovation process showed the most appropriate experience described by theoretical framework. Being an entrepreneurial organisation Apple Corporation has developed a number of behavioural rules and general philosophy to operate and keep the top position in the global market. The company has great opportunities to develop in future prospects and stay the world’s leader of production personal computers, softwares and electronic devices. Introduction
Apple Corporation has been globally best-known company by its own highly innovative products that almost does not have any analogues by its technological, creative and innovative basis (Tyrangiel, 2012). The Corporation successfully operates in personal computers industry and according to the latest industrial analysis Apple is not just a cyclical company but a sector unto itself as extremely developed through innovative strategies and creative processes (Schramm, 2012).
Such a bright example as Apple Corporation was chosen for this report to critically and in-details evaluate the performance in innovation, creativity and entrepreneurship. Applying the appropriate theoretical basis in synthesis with the examples from Apple Corporation’s experience, this report aims to analyse creating and developing opportunities for Apple Corporation, evaluate effective managing innovation process and gain deeper understanding of Apple Performance as an entrepreneurial organisation. Creating and developing opportunities of Apple Corporation
The process of creativity is viewed in different ways and described as the tendency of generating new ideas, alternative approaches and presentations or even possibilities that might be useful to implement into reality (Reid and Petocz, 2004). According to Saap (1992) one of the earliest models of creativity was developed in the beginning of 20th century by Graham Wallas and can be explained in five stages such as: Preparation. This stages describes preparatory work that mainly focused on exploring the problem’s dimension; Incubation.
The stage when the problem is internalised into the unconscious mind and nothing appears externally to be happening; Intimation. In this stage a creator already “feels” that the solution is very close; Illumination or insight. It is the moment when the new creative idea emerges; Verification. The final stage when the new creative idea is consciously verified elaborated and applied. Applying this model to Apple Corporation and evaluating in-details the processes of creativity during the preparation time the creative team becomes aware that starts asking question such as: “What if we do this, combine it with that, would that be useful?
As it is stated by Apple (2012): “We expect creative thinking and solutions from everyone here”. Innovation takes many forms, and our people seem to find new ones every day”. During the next stages Apple Corporation follows the different from other companies approach which is customers’ cannot tell the producer what they want product of function until it is shown them (Morrison, 2009). Thus, the creativity and developing process in Apple Corporation goes from developing the totally new creative idea by prediction of what customers might need.
Then, using the latest technological base the ideas come into real visual product, which described by illumination or insight in Wallas’ model of creativity. During the stage of verification, Apple Corporation first of all relies on focus groups and customer feedback about the new product. The major indicator is to evaluate experience of using the new product and gain deeper understanding of customers’ feelings, opinions and suggestions to improve (Morrison, 2009).
Being such a creative and innovative producer Apple Corporation mainly focused on producing personal computers iMac and iPad, phones iPhone and players iPod (Apple, 2012). During the last several years Apple has started developing softwares including iOS Apps, Logic Studio, Mac OS X, Pro Applications etc. (Apple, 2012). Implementing successful creative abilities Apple has found this segment is the future prospects to develop in. As most Apple products based on Internet usage the developing opportunities are to expand App Store with innovative applications to OS X computers (Halliday, 2011).
Apple’s process of managing innovation It is the most common to describe the innovation process, in business context, as a set of structured actions that is remarkably easy to implement (Baumgartner, 2009). While managing innovation process any company passes through constant learning and adapting behaviours that are deep rooted and difficult to copy for other company (Halcro, 2012). Trying to gain deeper understanding of the process of innovation it is essential to look for each stage the process comes through (see Figure 1).
Figure 1.3 phases of a simplified innovation process. (Source: Tiwari, Hamburg University of Technology, 2008) The innovation process starts from building the conception of the potential innovation. First of all a company provides requirement analysis and based on it generate and evaluate new ideas will the following planning of implementation of this idea. The next step evaluate the process of exact implementation and includes development and construction of the innovation, pilot applicant and testing the new innovative product among small number of users.
If testing was successful and the innovative product was concerned as relevant and appropriate to market expectations the final stage on the innovation process comes with product launching in the market ( Thomke, Hippel and Franke, 1998). It is extremely important for any company to pay attention to the process of research and development while creating innovation (Tiwari, 2008). Evaluating the experience of Apple Corporation in managing innovation process it worth to say that since the company follows the Steve Job’s philosophy of innovation.
This philosophy indicates by main rules the company constantly follows while creating innovation and comes with being execute better that anyone else, even though the substitute product is already exist in the market, never settle and stop at good enough in their approach to products and one of major rule is contact to customers (Hwanq, 2012). Exactly the process of communication to final customers gives Apple Corporation the most appropriate feedback about customers’ experience in using Apple’s products.
Such primary information is an excellent base for research and development the product lines in future and continue managing innovation. One of the brightest examples from Apple Corporation’s experience of managing innovation was in the year 2010. After launching the new iPhone4 in the global market, Apple faced the problem that microphone and antenna did not work as it was expected. At that time it was the newest 4th generation of iPhone highly innovative by functions, design and main characteristics.
After Apple started receiving complaints from all around the world, the company decided to retrieve all the new iPhone from the market and improve the expected quality (Benderoff, 2010). Apple Corporation’s behaviour and principles as an entrepreneurial organisation An entrepreneurial organisation called the group of business owners who take an active part and meet on regular basis to share business experience and information to help developing business (The Business Dictionary, 2012). The behaviour of Apple Corporation as an entrepreneurial organisation includes a wide range of activities and process applied and managing by owners.
One of the major characteristics is that company employees are constantly seek for gaining knowledge and deep understanding of its craft to facilitate a new innovation. Being leading company in its industry Apple keeps “step ahead” compare to the main competitors. The team keeps focusing on only the most important projects which give a great opportunity to save the time, space and attention to the products, re-visiting it again and again to reach the higher expected standard of creativity and innovation (Webb, 2012).
A part of Apple’s behaviour is the principle to work and win as a team. The team works in a small group very close to each other focused and united by the same targets growing the collective confidence and beliefs, supporting each other to complete the task with the best result (Lashinsky, 2011). Apple Corporation is very selective to those who want to join the team. The company recruit professional in its craft, people who are good at what they are doing.
Such an approach implemented due to giving the best opportunities for employees to express their knowledge and skills into innovation process and develop through constant learning. Another characteristic which describes Apple Corporation’s behaviour as an entrepreneurial organisation is embracing technology. Using the latest and highly innovative technology Apple aims to generate innovations but not only replace the existing ones. This absolutely fits with iterative approach using technology to rapidly model ideas and scenarios to test, learn and then move to the next iteration (Webb, 2012).
For the Apple Corporation being an extremely innovative leading global company the neutering entrepreneurial spirit might seem counterproductive, but the company’s approach to its workforce with the highest requirements in both professional and innovative ways is a way to success (Willis, 2012). Conclusion In the present highly dynamic business environment the creativity and innovation take one of the highest meanings for successful business operation.
Creative thinking, ability to generate new ideas and successfully implement it into products or services gives any company a beneficial position among competitors. Even though the process of innovation takes a quite long time and passes through many important steps it results into totally new presentation of goods and services customers experienced before. Apple Corporation has been a leading company in the industry of personal computers and softwares and by its results even creates and represents a business sector itself.
Highly creative and innovative products develop through very careful and hard processes. The main philosophy Apple Corporation follows in creative a new products is to be different from others in every details. The innovative process comes through small teams working close to each other and united by the same ideas and goals. Apple Corporation is a bright example of the company to learn and deeper evaluate the creativity and innovation, its implementation and development.