Institutionalized Racism: the Negro Leagues
Social Life of African American baseball players c. Game time I. Opposing teams and players and the Abuse they dispersed ii. Umpires and the Abuse they distributed 4. Life in the Negro Leagues as portrayed by the story, Fences a. Stylistic techniques used by August Wilson to show the struggle of African American players.
I. Symbolism at the end ii. Images of how they lived iii. Context of the text that displayed details about their life 5. Contributions of Negro Leagues as portrayed in Jackie Robinson: The a.Moral support to African Americans in the communities and around the I. Role Models for the African American youth of America ii.
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Sense of Pride for the African Americans of America iii. Opportunity for African Americans during this time . Inventions brought out by the Negro Leagues I. Shin guard ii. Batting Helmet iii. Hit-and-run bunt technique c. Economic strength amongst the African American community I.
Business and the opportunity it presented to the African American community 6. Conclusion a.Restatement of thesis: Although there was a strong sense of inequality amongst the entire American society during this time, African Americans have proved to be aides in the process of making the game of baseball better for the future. B. Hook: the African American teams were a constant reminder that segregation and inequality existed. INTRODUCTION “Over the decades, African American teams played 445-recorded games against white teams, winning sixty-one percent of them. ” (Conrad, pig.
) The Negro Leagues were an alternative baseball group for African American baseball player that were denied the right to ay with the white baseball payers in the Major League Baseball Association. In 1920, the first African American League was formed, and that paved the way for numerous African American innovation and movements. Fences, and Jackie Robinson: The Biography, raises consciousness about the baseball players that have been overlooked, and the struggle they had to endure simply because of their color.Americans could not participate in any activity with whites, whether it is of public or unsocial nature. These laws displayed the mentality of the time, which inevitably filtered into the realm of baseball; at this point, segregation had gone so far as to prohibit any blacks from merely playing baseball with whites. It Was not until 1 933, when “a former pitcher, Andrew ‘Rube’ Foster, formed the first black league, called the Negro National League, which contained such teams as the SST. Louis Stars, Pittsburgh Crawford, Philadelphia Stars, New York Lincoln Giants, and the Newark Eagles.
Then, in 1937, the Negro American League was formed to rival the opposing Negro National League that consisted of the Memphis Red Sox, Kansas City Monarchs, Cleveland Buckeyes, Detroit Stars, and the Hillsdale Daisies. ” (What Relegates: Internet) The two leagues “continued to go strong until the color line was broken in 1947, when the great Jackie Robinson signed with the Brooklyn Dodgers. ” Because of this, “C]the Negro National League folded following the 1948 season and the Negro American League [folded]њin 1960. ” (What Relegates: Internet) Moreover, just as the laws stated, the AfricanAmericans were not treated as equals even in the game of baseball. In fact, teams other than the Crawford, and the Red Sox had to rent out baseball stadiums from the MIL teams in order to play. Yankee Stadium was said to have profited hundreds of thousands of dollars a year just by renting out the stadium to the Negro Leagues. Shadow-Ball further illustrates the substantial differences in funding between the MIL, and the Negro Leagues.
Because they Negro Leagues didn’t have the money to buy supplies such as baseballs in some instances, they created Shadow-Bali.In this process, the “players loud actually practice hitting the ball and catching a ball that wasn’t actually there. In fact, they would go full practices without even having a ball, which further enhanced their discipline and focus. ” (Conrad, pig. 6) but in some instances, when they couldn’t play in Major League ballparks, they were simply left to play on the dilapidated fields various areas – wherever they could find a field. Other than this, the players in the Negro Leagues did not make as much money as their counterparts who played in the MIL. For example, in Jackie Robinsons case, he “signed his contract with theDidgeridoos the Major League minimum salary: $5,000њfor the year.
” (Ramped, pig. 167) Furthermore, in general, “Negro leaguers made about a quarter of what their counterparts in the major leagues were making,” but they kept their spirits alive, obliterated the negative energy, and kept playing the sport they levelheaded. (Conrad, pig. 2) PHYSICAL AND MENTAL ABUSE From the 1 ass’s, to about the sass’s, racism and the ideology of Jim Crow, had powered the United States’ citizens frame of mind. At this time, Violence in the African American community was excessively in occurrence.In fact, at desegregation campaign that was led by Dry. Martin Luther King Jar.
In 1963, “images of police dogs and fired hoses turned on demonstrators, including woman and children,” still haunt those that had lived throughout that time. (Ramped, pig. 374) Moreover, peaceful marches led by Dry. King, were often broken up by police officers with the aide of tear gas, whips, and clubs. Not to mention the fact that at this time, church bombings were ramped. African American churches were often bombed, along with homes and other places they claimed for themselves.But “in JulyD19640after the shooting off 15 – ear – old Harlem boy, James Powell an off – duty police officers]erupted the worst riots there since 1 943” and all because he whistled at a white women.
(Conrad, pig. 9) More importantly, struggles in the household had to be endured by African Americans along with their problems in the community. “l saw Josh Gibbon’s daughter yesterday. She was walking around with raggedy shoes on her feet. Now I bet you Selkirk daughter main ‘t walking around with raggedy shoes on her feet. ” (Wilson, pig. 9) This quotation from the story, Fences, conveys a lot of information.
Basically, t displays the Negro players inadequate payments, the harsh conditions in which they lived, and societies means of throwing them to the side. Josh Gibson was said to be the premier power hitter in baseball history. While he played for the Negro Leagues, he knocked in ” a career 962 homeruns,” which was more than any baseball player in history had ever accomplished. (What Regulates: Internet) On the contrary, Selkirk played right – field for the Yankees, and only hit a mere . 263, but still got paid more than the powerful catcher Josh Gibson.A social life for players in the Negro Leagues was a difficult task. Not only did they have to endure hatred letters, and constant threats, but they also were excluded from daily procedures such as eating dinner.
For example, in Jackie Robinsons case, ‘tat mealtime]Jack ate alone other players, eating in public with a black man was an embarrassment. ” (Ramped, pig. 238) What’s more, is the fact that blacks were excluded from all other “white” places, such as bathrooms, restaurants, and even stores; blacks had their own places to go to, which were set aside specifically for their needs.In all, the white community did everything in their power to keep African Americans s far away from the “white culture” as possible. On the other hand, the social lives of African Americans Were not the only thing that Was impaired they also had to deal with hardships during game time. Abuse went beyond the social realm, and carried itself on the playing field. In fact, opposing teams, and players exhibited many types of abuse, which was focused towards the African American players of certain teams.
For instance, when Jackie Robinson would sit on the bench, he would look into the opposing dugout, and see the players “point bats at [him] and make aching gun – like noises,” which signified the opposing players hatred for a Negro player. (Ramped, pig. 176) Moreover, as Jackie Robinson could recall from his past playing baseball, “the things the Phillips shouted at me from their benches, have been shouted at me form Other evenhandedness sound jus the same in the Big Leagues as they did in the Minor Leagues. ” (Ramped, pig. 73) As you can see, “Jim Crow was in charge even on the playing field. When Jack went out for the baseball team, he was stopped. ” The individual that was in charge later replied that: “I’ll break this team up before I have a Niger on it.
” (Ramped, pig. 91) Thus, as you can see, racism even in baseball was extremely powerful at the time, but it was not the end. Even the umpires donated to the racism in baseball. In baseball, at this time, umpires used their dictatorship over the game to call strikes, and throw players out of the game to benefiting Crow.