1) Intensive farming practices include growing high-yield crops, using fertilisers and pesticides and keeping animals indoors. Food production is increased but there are unwelcome side effects.

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2) Prevents energy being transferred from the crop to consumers. Reduces biodiversity. May poison helpful organisms.

3) Chemical insecticides (which kill insect pests).
Herbicides which kill plants or weeds.

4) Ground water contamination: Chemicals can reach underground aquifers if there is persistent product use in agricultural areas. Resistance: Overuse of the same pesticide can encourage resistance in the target pest. Poisoning hazards: Pesticide operators can risk poisoning through excessive exposure if safe handling procedure are not followed and protective clothing is not worn. Poisoning risks depend on dose, toxicity, duration of exposure and sensitivity.

5) plants can grow without soil, but they cannot grow without the necessities that soil provides. Plants need support, nutrients, protection from adverse temperatures, an even supply of moisture, and they need oxygen around the roots. It is possible to provide these necessary components for plant growth without soil.

6) Advantages

Some of the reasons why hydroponics is being adapted around the world for food production are the following: No soil is needed for hydroponics
The water stays in the system and can be reused – thus, lower water costs It is possible to control the nutrition levels in their entirety – thus, lower nutrition costs No nutrition pollution is released into the environment because of the controlled system Stable and high yields

Pests and diseases are easier to get rid of than in soil because of the container’s mobility It is easier to harvest
No pesticide damage
Plants grow healthier
It is better for consumption

1) ADVANTAGES OF HYDROPONICS
PLANTS CAN BE GROWN ANYWHERE
Today, space is increasingly at the premium. With hydroponics, plants can be grown anywhere where no soil exists and light is available. For example, plants can be grown on a rooftop or next to the window sill. In Japan, vegetables are grown in the supermarket itself and it supplies crispy fresh vegetables to the shoppers. It saves money on transport and thebenefit of having fresh produce offset the high cost of city land. Therefore, hydroponics farming can be viable irrespective of the value of land.

Page 2 Intensive Farming Essay

BETTER CONTROL OVER PLANT GROWTH
A soil system is difficult to keep in control due to the complex chemical and biological nature of the soil. Plantsnutrients are frequently not available to plants due to poor soil structure or unfavourable soil pH value. Plants growing in soil are also frequent competitors for the essential in the soil solution. On the contrary, a hydroponics grower has the freedom to regulate the composition of the nutrient solution and the frequency of the feeding of nutrient. This gives the hydroponics grower a considerable degree of control over the plant growth.

DISADVANTAGES OF HYDROPONICS

1. STARTING COST IS HIGH

The initial cost for construction of the hydroponics system is high, so, a hydroponics farmer may be limited in growing crops that either give a high return or rapid turn-over.

2. SOUND TECHNOLOGICAL KNOW HOW IS REQUIRED FOR PROPER TRAINING

Trained personnel knowledgeable in the principles of plant nutrition and operation of commercial hydroponics are necessary to manage a hydroponics farm, as the failure rate is high in the hands of amateurs.

2) Prevents energy being transferred from the crop to consumers

3) It keeps energy efficient.
4) Organic farming is a form of agriculture that relies on techniques such as crop rotation, green manure, compost and biological pest control.

5) Crop diversity
Crop diversity is a distinctive characteristic of organic farming. Conventional farming focuses on mass production of one crop in one location, a practice called monoculture.

Soil management
Organic farming relies heavily on the natural breakdown of organic matter, using techniques like green manure and composting, to replace nutrients taken from the soil by previous crops. Weed management

Organic weed management promotes weed suppression, rather than weed elimination, by enhancing crop competition and phytotoxic effects on weeds. Organic farmers integrate cultural, biological, mechanical, physical and chemical tactics to manage weeds without synthetic herbicides.

Tillage – Turning the soil between crops to incorporate crop residues and soil amendments; remove existing weed growth and prepare a seedbed for planting; turning soil soil after seeding to kill weeds; Mowing and cutting – Removing top growth of weeds;

Flame weeding and thermal weeding – Using heat to kill weeds; and Mulching – Blocking weed emergence with organic materials, plastic films, or landscape fabric.

6) Biological control is a method of controlling pests (including insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases) using other living organisms. It relies on predation, parasitism, herbivory, or other natural mechanisms, but typically also involves an active human management role.

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