Introduction and Conclusion Strategies
Increasing self confident, adding friends and partner, correcting verbal and non-verbal immunization, having experience to face unexpected situation to speak inferno of public, increasing achievement in career, and delivering opinion. Speech as a part of communication has its own structure in order to make the ideas can be transferred easily. Furthermore Else and Paperbacks (1970, p. 28-30) noted that plot structure of speech Include three separate but Integrated parts : the beginning, middle, and end. Abstract part contains of the overview of the speech and gives the audience a sense of what they are going to receive.Body contains of materials that orator is going to liver for the audience, and conclusion contains of summarize of the speech.
Penthouse each part has their own important points, but some sections receive more attention than others section because of the way people listen. For instance, Lucas (2009) points out that the first priority In audience’s attention Is abstract.
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In abstract section, orator can gain the highest attention of the audience because they are most ready to be informed, persuaded, and entertained.The second priority is conclusion because the listener might hope an inspiring closing which can change their life. The last priority is body because the attention of listener will up and down in this section. The introduction and conclusion part appear in every speech because most of the listeners give their attention In Introduction and conclusion, orator needs to consider some strategies of Introduction and conclusion to grab attention of the audience to make his/ her speech can be delivered easily.Lucas (2009) talked about 4 kinds of strategies in introduction of speech, that is relating the topic to the audience, stating the importance of your topic, startling the audience, arousing the curiosity odd audience, asking the audience, using a quotation, and telling a story.
He also mentioned 6 kinds of strategies In conclusion of speech, that is signaling the end of the speech, reinforcing the central Idea, summarizing speech, ending with quotation, making a dramatic statement, and referring to the Introduction.Astute (201 1 ) also talked about 7 kinds odd strategies in introduction of speech, that is using grabber, telling a Joke, using quotation, telling a story, using games, using statistic data, and using visual aids. She also mentioned 5 kinds of strategies in conclusion of speech, hat are summarizing each point in body section, making a clear and brief closing sentence, using a rhetorical question, using a quotation, making a repeated statement. Barack Obama deliver more than one speech In a day using many kind of his speeches in order to make sure that his idea can be delivered clearly.It is very interesting that every single word from his speech become a topic to persuade many people because Barack Obama also used those strategies. His speech in every occasion become an attention of people in many countries. Thornton wrote in arteriosclerosis.
Com about the analysis of Beam’s speech, miss We Can” . He analyzed beam’s speech and found that Obama used an arousing the audience’s curiosity in his introduction by giving a sentence which told the audience that there is something that must be changed. This strategy refer to the introduction strategy by Lucas.Obama also used anecdotes to deliver the problems of his speech by using an anecdote about Dunking Donuts employee refer to the problem of human resounding. This strategies refer to the strategy by Astute. Based on the literature and explanation review above, the writer is interested in analyzing the introduction and conclusion strategies used in Beam’s speeches entitle “The Analysis of Introduction and Conclusion Strategies Used in Beam’s Speeches” 2. Problem The problem formulation of this final report are as follows: * What are the introduction and conclusion strategies used in Beam’s speeches? .
Purpose and benefit The purpose of this writing is : * To know about the introduction and conclusion used in Beam’s speeches. The benefit of this final report are : * To enlarge the writer’s knowledge about introduction and conclusion strategies used in Beam’s speeches. * To give contribution to English Department about the introduction and conclusion strategies in speech. To be a useful reference in analyzing introduction and conclusion strategies used in Beam’s speech. 4.In the other hand, Silage (2009) define public speaking as communication practice of a speaker sharing ideas with an conclude that public speaking is a communication technique of sharing ideas in front of people through speech in order to deliver information or alter someone’s view or opinions. B.
Speech Types Tone (2010) states that speech has 4 different types based on its purpose : persuasive speech, informative speech, inspiration speech, and entertaining speech. * Persuasive speech means that the primary purpose is to influence the thinking or behavior of the audience.In order for the audience to be willing to listen to you they have to like you, respect you and trust you. They must be able to identify with you in some way and you have to give them a reason why they should listen to what you have to say. * Informative speech means that the purpose is to teach the audience something new or to expand their existing knowledge. It may mean exposing them to a topic or idea they know nothing about, showing them how to use a piece of equipment, or helping them learn a new skill. Inspiration speech means that the repose of an inspirational speech is to ask your audience to improve in one of several ways, personally, emotionally, professionally, or spiritually.
The inspirational speaker relies more on emotional appeal than logical appeal. The speaker is attempting to connect with the individual listener’s feelings. The speaker explains why and how the situation is changing or why their current emotions, fears or goals may be inadequate or counterproductive. Inspirational speakers motivate the audience and challenge them to do more at a higher level and specify the benefits they can expect if they do so.Entertaining speech means that the speaker will present a serious point in low-key humorous key. The speaker needs to be a showman when he/she is doing an entertaining speech. If it’s supposed to be humorous then your attitude must be fun and lighthearted.
The speaker’s primary goal is to make sure that the audience has a great time. C. The structure of Speech Lucas (2009) states that there are 3 parts in structure of speech, there are abstract, body, and conclusion. Each parts have different function in speech.The abstract part contains of an introduction of the topic of the speech. The body part is the longest ND detailed part in speech, it is contains of the supporting materials related to the topic. The conclusion contains of the summary of the topic.
Penthouse each part has their own important points, but some section receive more attention than others section because of the way people listen. Lucas (2009) indicates that listeners have the following priorities: * First priority Abstract : You can count on listener’s greatest physical and mental attention at the outset of the speech.They are most ready to be informed, persuaded, or entertained. Use this opportunity to create a good impression and don’t squander the chance. Second priority – Conclusion : You have the second highest attention at the end of the speech. The audience wants the true sense of ending. On a more basic level, they may hoping for an inspiring close because they alienist plain tired of sitting.
* Third priority – Body : You have the listener’s lowest attention in the middle of the speech. It is not that the listener focused as they are at beginning and end.D. Introduction According to Nordstrom, introduction is the opening of essay and speech, which typically identifies the topic, arouses interest, and prepares the audience for the velveteen of thesis. Introduction plays a special role in making essay or speech skill. In making essay, introduction needs much of writer’s attention. A good introduction in essay should identify the topic, provide essential context, and indicate the particular focus of the essay.
These important points also need to be considered in speech.There are four important function of introduction in speech, it is gain the attention and interest of the audience, gain the goodwill of the audience, clearly state the purpose of the speech for the audience, and preview the speech for audience. The first two function is to make the audience want to listen to the orator and the other two function is to help the audience listen to the orator. By seeing the importance of introduction in speech, some expert such as Stephen Lucas and Astute point out several strategies that can be used by an orator to make their introduction become more interesting for the audience. E.The Introduction strategies in Speech Lucas (2009) points out 1 1 introduction strategies used in speech, they are: 1. Get attention and interest In a process of getting attention and interest from the audience, there are several tragedies which help the audience to caught up in your speech, they are: a.
Relate the topic to the audience People pay attention to the things that affect them directly. If you can relate the topic to the audience, they are much more to be interested in it. B. State the importance of your topic Begin the speech by telling the audience how important the topic that you are going to deliver. . Startle the audience One surefire way to arouse interest quickly is to startle the audience with an arresting or intriguing statement. D.
Arouse the curiosity of the audience One way to draw them into your speech is with a series of statements that progressively whet their curiosity about the subject of the speech. E. Question the audience Asking a rhetorical question which is meaningful and firmly related to the speech is another way to get your listener thinking about your speech. F. Begin with quotation Another way to arouse the interest of the audience is to start with using a well known or famous quotation.You might choose your quotation from Shakespeare or Confucius, Bible, poem, song, or film. G.
Tell a story You can use a provocative, amusing, dramatic or suspenseful story to begin our beech. The story should also be clearly relevant to the main topic of speech. 2. Reveal the story In the process of introduction, be sure to state clearly the topic of your speech. If you do not, your listener will be confused. And once they are confuse, your chances of goodwill Credibility is mostly a matter of being qualified to speak an a given topic and being perceived as qualified by your listeners.The credibility can come from reading, classes, interview, friends, and other sources.
Goodwill is showing the audience the reputation of the speaker while the speaker should also defuse the hostility right at he start of the speech. 4. Preview the body of speech One way to help the audience caught up the topic of the speech, we can show them the preview of the body of the speech. You can use some preview statement such as definition and background which can be understood by the audience. Astute (2011) also points out several strategies in introduction part of the speech : 1.Punch (1998) states that qualitative research is empirical research where the data are not in the form of number. Robinson (2010) states that description method, as opposed to an experimental or normative method, develops knowledge by describing observed situation, events, and object.
In this report, the writer will use this method to describe the introduction and conclusion strategy that is used by Obama in his speech. 3. Method of collecting data The writer will use document analysis as method of collecting data.The writer will analyze the speech transcript of Obama, classifying the introduction and conclusion part in every speech, and finding the introduction and conclusion strategy that is used by Obama. 4. Method of data analysis In analyzing the data, the writer used following steps: 1. Collecting Barack Beam’s speech transcripts 2.
Reading the Barack Beam’s speech transcripts 3. Classifying the introduction and conclusion part in Beam’s speeches. 4. Deciding the introduction and conclusion strategy used by Obama. 5. Counting the total of each strategy used by Obama.