Investigation About Acid Rain

1 January 2017

Acidification also occurs when base cations such as calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium are leached from the soil. This leaching increases with increasing precipitation. Plants take bases from the soil as they grow, donating a proton in exchange for each base cation. Where plant material is removed, as when a forest is logged or crops are harvested, the bases they have taken up are permanently lost from the soil. Acidification can also be caused by the oxidation of sulfide soil minerals during mining or land development, acid deposition from industrial atmospheric pollutants (e. . sulfur dioxide) or land contamination. The ways to prevent soil acidification are, develop and implement a Soil Acidification Management Strategy as a component of the proposed State Soil Protection Policy, covering all types of acid soils, finalise and implement the draft State Lime Supply Strategy incorporating sustainability principles, develop an agreed baseline of the extent and severity of soil acidification in WA. 3. Explain why normal rain is acidic? Acidity in normal rain is caused by dissolved carbon dioxide, which produces carbonic acid (H{-2}CO{-3}).

Excessive amounts of sulfur and nitrogen released by cars and industrial processes makes normal rain acidic. Forest fires, volcanic activity, and heavy industry all pump sulfur dioxide and/or hydrogen chloride into the atmosphere. These compounds are very soluble in water, and react with it to produce, respectively, sulfuric acid, carbonic acid and hydrochloric acid. Therefore, all normal rain are acidic because the processes that releases compounds which produces acidic characteristic when dissolved in water vapour in the atmosphere is continuous and is increasing drastically day by day. This process has became a cycle. . ) Acid rain causes major environmental problems in some industrialised countries. In some detail, describe how the rain is produced and the problem it causes. Industries, exoz gas produces acidic gases such as Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is produced from burning of fossil fuel(petroleum, coal) containing sulfur as an impurity. Coal combustion is by far the major source of sulfur dioxide emitted into the atmosphere. During combustion, sulfur is oxidized to form sulfur dioxide (SO2). Sulfur dioxide rises into the atmosphere and is oxidized once again in the presence of atmospheric hydroxyl radicals to form sulfur trioxide (SO3).

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Sulfur trioxide reacts with atmospheric water droplets to form sulfuric acid (H2SO4). This is the acid rain. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are also formed through fossil fuel use in vehicles and power generation plants which are burnt as fuels. In contrast to sulfur, nitrogen is not an impurity but rather an main part of the organic material making up fossil fuels. Fossil fuel combustion releases nitrogen into the atmosphere, usually in the form of nitric oxide (NO). Nitric oxide (NO) is oxidized by atmospheric molecules, such as ozone (O3) or hydrogen dioxide (HO2), to form nitrogen dioxide (NO2).

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) reacts with OH in the atmosphere to form nitric acid (HNO3). Nitric acid can also form when nitrogen dioxide (NO2) reacts with the nitrate radical (NO3) in the presence of atmospheric water or aldehydes. The problem acid rain causes are SO2 (g)+O2(g) -> SO3(g) Afterwards, it becomes sulfuric acid when it joins with hydrogen atoms in the air. SO3(g)+H2O(l) -> H2SO4(aq 1. ) 2NO2(g) + H2O(l) -> 2H+ + NO3 – + NO2 – 2. ) NO(g) + NO2(g) + H2O(l) -> 2H+ + 2NO2 – 3. ) 3NO2(g) + H2O(l) -> 2H+ + 2NO3 – + NO(g) Acid rain on human CAN CAUSErespiratory problems.

The sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emission gives risk to respiratory problems such as dry coughs, asthma, headaches, eye, nose, and throat irritation. Polluted rainfall is especially harmful to those who suffer from asthma or those who have a hard time breathing. But even healthy people can have their lungs damaged by acid air pollutants. Acid rain can aggravate a person’s ability to breathe and may increase disease which could lead to death. It can harm us through the atmosphere or through the soil from which our food is grown and eaten from. Acid rain causes toxic metals to break loose from their natural chemical compounds.

Toxic metals themselves are dangerous, but if they are combined with other elements, they are harmless. They release toxic metals that might be absorbed by the drinking water, crops, or animals that human consume. These foods that are consumed could cause nerve damage to children or severe brain damage or death. Scientists believe that one metal, aluminum, is suspected to relate to Alzheimer’s disease. Acids have a corrosive effect on limestone or marble buildings or sculptures. It is well established that either wet or dry deposition of sulfur dioxide significantly increases the rate of corrosion on limestone, sandstone, and marble. ulfur dioxide plus water makes sulfurous acid SO2 + H2O –> H2SO3 sulfur trioxide plus water makes sulfuric acid SO3 + H2O –> H2SO4 The sulfuric acid then further reacts with the limestone in a neutralization reaction. Limestone: CaCO3 + H2SO4 –> CaSO4 + H2CO3 H2CO3 –> CO2 gas + H2O The calcium sulfate is soluble in water and hence the limestone dissolves and crumbles. Acid rain can decrease the growth and yield of crops in agriculture. in severe cases destroy vast areas of crops that are being grown. Acid rain can also increase the acidity in pond and lakes thus affecting and killing aquatic life. 5. The mining and processing of metal sulfide ores can cause a number of major problems in some environments. Use an example from Western Australia to discuss this statement in detail. The nickel exploration in the late 1960s and early 1970s led to the discovery of numerous nickel sulphide deposits. The deposits are found in volcanic areas in the Archaean Yilgarn Block of Western Australia mainly on Mt Keith. Metal sulphide ores availability in Western Australia was doubled in 1997 by the opening of Western Mining Corporation’s new $A145 million plant alongside the Kalgoorlie nickel smelter 15km south of the Kalgoorlie-Boulder.

Hazards created when a sulphide dust ignition occurs can include fire, toxic gases, oxygen deficiency and/or damage from an explosion. Open pit mining, conventional drill, blast, load and haul to get to the deposits Environmental issues can include erosion, formation of sinkholes, loss of biodiversity, and contamination of soil, groundwater and surface water by chemicals from mining processes. Gold mine, lime Esperance, Kambalda nickel smelter

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