Iran’s Political System
Differences between the President and the Leader: * The Supreme Leader has absolute power, while the president is under the Leader’s Rule, and has formal functions of the executive branch * The Supreme Leader is elected by the Assembly of Experts of Leadership. The president is elected through popular vote. * While the Supreme Leader can only be taken off his post by the Assembly of Experts, the President can be taken off by the Supreme Leader. * The supreme leader has exclusive control over armed forces, foreign affairs, judicial systems and the nuclear arsenal of the country.
The President controls the cabinet and appoints ambassadors and governors. ?The Supreme Leader is the absolute rules and the president the chief executive with limited powers. ————————————————- THE EXECUTIVE As we already said, the Islamic Republic of Iran has a unique political system. It has the trappings of a republican system while maintaining the absolute rule of an elite revolutionary Islamic council. For this reason, the country has a Supreme Leader and a President at the same time.
The Executive is basically the President and his cabinet. The president is chosen by the general electorate every four years and he chooses his cabinet ministers, but they have to be approved by the Majles or parliament. THE LEGISLATIVE The Legislative is unicameral. The majles, which is made up by 290 members is elected every four years. The ones in the seats of the Majles are the top runners of the elections held on each multiple-member district. The Majles pass out bills, but they have to be approved by the Council of Guardians, which is clerically dominated. THE JUDICIARY
Finally, the Judiciary is made up by a chief Judge and a Supreme Court independent of the executive and legislative but appointed by the Leader. The Supreme Court alongside the four-member High Council of the Judiciary are joined together to supervise the enforcement of laws and establish judicial and legal policies. Then, there are lower courts, which include a special clerical court, a revolutionary court, and a special administrative court. So, Iran’s political systems are a Party System, in which the ruling clergy restricts most party and organizational activities.
POLITICAL PARTIES AND ELECTIONS Iran has several political groups of opposition which are: * The Liberation Movement: A moderate Islamic Party. Secular despite its religious orientation and favors the strict separation of mosque from state. * The National Font: Originated by a campaign to nationalize the country’s oil resources. Committed to nationalism and secularism. Banned by the conservative clergy as they felt threatened by it. * The Mojahedin: Tried to synthesize Marxism and Islam. Fvor equality, social justice, martyrdom, and redistribution of wealth. The Fedayin: Modeled itself after the Marxist guerrilla movement of the 1960’s. * The Tudeh: Formerly pro-Soviet communist party. ELECTIONS: Iran’s constitution promises free elections, but the republic’s democratic features have been sacrificed for its theocratic, authoritarian ones. Therefore, the Islamic Republic has lost a major component of its legitimacy. THE ROLE OF DIFFERENT INSTITUTIONS: * The Guardian Council or Council of Guardians: The 12-member Council of Guardians is one of the most powerful, unelected institutions in the Islamic
Republic of Iran. The supreme leader appoints six clerical members. The head of the judiciary, on advice of parliament, appoints six lay members. All 12 members are appointed to six-year terms. * The Assembly of religious experts: The Assembly of Experts, one of three institutions whose members are directly elected by popular vote (the parliament and the presidency are the others), is part of Iran’s complex constitutional structure of theocratic, democratic and authoritarian governance. * The Expediency Council: