Islamic Unit Study Guide

10 October 2016

In Arabic, the word “Islam” means submission or surrender, it is derived from the root word “salam” in which you can also derive the root words peace and safety. 2. What is Zamzam? The name of the holy well located in Mecca believed to be revealed when Abraham’s infant son Ishmael kicked the ground desperate for water. Millions of Muslims today drink from the well while performing their pilgrimage to Mecca 3. What is the Ka’bah? One of the most sacred sites in Islam, it is a large marble structure located in the middle of al Masjid al Haram (Sacred Mosque).

It’s said to be built by Abraham and his son Ishmael to dedicate to Allah, and also houses the sacred Black Stone. No matter where you are, Muslims supposed to be facing the direction of Kaaba when in prayer. 4. Fully describe the role Abraham played in Islam. Ibrahim is considered to be the father of both Arabs and of Jews according to Muslims. It’s also believed that he is neither a Jew nor a Muslim, but somebody who is a hernif – somebody who essentially and intrinsically knows that there is really only one God.

Much of what Islamic tradition is about, along with rituals such as the Hajj – stem from the pre-Islamic era and are translated into Islamic rituals through Ibrahim. The Kaaba was built because God spoke to Ibrahim about constructing a sacred house for God. 5. When was Muhammad born? 570 AD, Mecca 6. What did Muhammad dislike about his birthplace, Mecca? It was filled with idol worship and when he was assigned by God to call people to Islam per God revelation of Quran to him, the disbelievers disliked his views against discrimination.

The people of Mecca were steeped in their ways and opposed Muhammad and his small group of followers in every way. 7. Describe the “Night of Power” and how Muhammad became the Messenger of God. The Lailat ul-Qadr or “Night of Power” is the night in which the Holy Quran is revealed to the Prophet Muhammad. At the age of 40, while engaged in a meditative retreat, Muhammad received his first revelation from God through the Archangel Gabriel. Muhammad began to recite the words he heard from Gabriel and to preach the truth which God had revealed to him. . What is the “Night Journey? ” Be sure to include in your answer a discussion of Isra and Miraj. The Night Journey starts out with the Isra, where Gabriel presents to Muhammad the heavenly winged steed called the Buraq. With the Buraq, he then journeys to the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem where he met and prayed with Prophets Moses, Abraham, Jesus, and John. Gabriel then gives Muhammad the decision to drink the wine or milk, Muhammad chooses the milk which fulfills the prophecy.

After this, is the Miraj, where Muhammad is ascended into heaven and passes the seven heavenly realms, where he meets God. 9. What is the significance of Medina? It’s considered the first Islamic Republic and is the location of the first Mosque built 10. Describe in detail the Five Pillars of Islam: · Shahada : It is the declaration of belief in the oneness of God and acceptance of Muhammad as God’s prophet. · Salat : The practice of formal worship to Allah · Zawat : · Sawm : Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence.

In the terminology of Islamic law, the observance of sawm during the Islamic holy month of Ramadan. · Hajj : the pilgrimage to Mecca that every Muslim is required to make at least once in his life, provided he has enough money and the health to do so 11. Briefly describe the conflict between the Sunni and Shi’ite Muslims. The schism occurred when the Islamic prophet Muhammad died in the year 632, leading to a dispute over succession to Muhammad as a caliph of the Islamic community spread across various parts of the world which led to the Battle of Siffin.

Sectarian violence persists to this day from Pakistan to Yemen and is a major element of friction throughout the Middle East. 12. What does “caliph” mean? The chief Muslim civil and religious ruler, regarded as the successor of Muhammad. 13. What is an “Imam? ” The title of a Muslim leader or chief 14. Describe in detail the holy writings of Islam: · Qur’an : the sacred text of Islam, divided into 114 chapters, or suras: revered as the word of God, dictated to Muhammad by the archangel Gabriel, and accepted as the foundation of Islamic law, religion, culture, and politics. Hadith : Hadith is the collection of the Prophet Muhammad’s statements and actions coupled with the statements and actions of his companions believed to have been collected 150 years after Muhammad’s death, and it is the basis of jurisprudence for Islamic or Sharia law. Muslims classify hadith in four different categories. The first three categories refer specifically to Muhammad. Awl are the transmissions of Muhammad’s statements, fi’liare the transmission of Muhammad’s deeds or actions, and taqrir are the actions or deeds of the Prophet’s companions or others that Muhammad has approved of.

The fourth category of classification is qudsi, which are the Prophet’s words, inspired by Allah, that are not recorded in the Qur’an. · Sharia : the moral code and religious law of Islam. Sharia deals with many topics addressed by secular law, including crime, politics, and economics, as well as personal matters such as sexual intercourse, hygiene, diet, prayer, and fasting. Though interpretations of sharia vary between cultures, in its strictest definition it is considered the infallible law of God—as opposed to the human interpretation of the laws 15.

Describe in detail the Aqida. Be sure to include the six articles of the faith. 16. Explain the concept of Jihad. Be sure to include the meaning of the word “Jihad,” and the distinction between “Lesser Jihad” and “Greater Jihad. ” 17. What is the meaning of the Star and Crescent Moon, the symbol of Islam? The crescent moon and star symbol pre-dates Islam by several thousand years when polytheism was the majority in the Middle East. The crescent and star are often said to be Islamic symbols, but historians say that they were the insignia of the Ottoman Empire, not of Islam as a whole. 8. What is the Aqiqa? Islamic practice of shaving the head of the newborn male and contributing the weight in silver for charity as well as 2 lambs. One lamb is slaughtered for a baby girl. 19. Briefly define the following groups: · Nation of Islam : an organization composed chiefly of American blacks, advocating the teachings of Islam and originally favoring the separation of races: members are known as Black Muslims. · Wahabi : a follower of ? Abd al-Wahhab (1703–1792), who stringently opposed all practices not sanctioned by the Koran.

The Wahhabis, founded in the 18th century, are the most conservative Muslim group and are today found mainly in Saudi Arabia.  The Twelvers : the largest branch of Shi’ite Islam. Adherents of Twelver Shi’ism are commonly referred to as Twelvers, which is derived from their belief in twelve divinely ordained leaders, known as the Twelve Imams, and their belief that the Mahdi will be none other than the returned Twelfth Imam who disappeared and is believed by Twelvers to be in occultation. 20. Define the following terms: · Arabia Peninsula of southwest Asia between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf.

Politically, it includes Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, and Kuwait. Arabia has an estimated one third of the world’s oil reserves. · Allah Islamic word for God · Ishmael Son of Abraham · Muslim A believer and follower of the teachings by the Prophet Muhammad · Mecca City is Saudi Arabia, the religious centre for one of the five pillars of pilgrimage (hajj) · Abu Bakr One of the close companions of Prophet Muhammad and the first caliph · Khailifahs Muslim religion leaders or chiefs Mosque Muslim house of worship · Ramadan The ninth month of the year in the Islamic calendar, a time of fasting. · Hajj The religious pilgrimage to Mecca, one of the five pillars of Islam · Sufism Islamic mysticism · Ali Cousin and son in law of Prophet Muhammad, a caliph · · Hidden Imam Twelver Shii doctrine holds that the twelfth imam did not die but went into a spiritual form of existence known as occultation, and will return at the end of time as a messianic Mahdi to restore justice and equity on earth.

The sacred dress of Muslim pilgrims, consisting of two lengths of white cotton, one wrapped around the loins, the other thrown over the left shoulder. · Kafir Infidel or pagan · Id Al-Fitr A festival that ends the fast of Ramadan · Id Al-Adha Commemorates Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son Ishmael · Sunnah The way of life prescribed by the normative of Islam · Tawhid Asserting and maintaining the divine unity, Islam’s central doctrine. · Ummah Means “the people” in Arabic, it refers to collective community of Islam peoples

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