Jackie Robinson

2 February 2018

Breaking the color barrier, Jackie Robinson became the first African-American to play in baseball’s major leagues.

The youngest of five children, Robinson was raised in relative poverty by a single mother. He attended John Mir High School and Pasadena]noir College, where he was an excellent athlete and played four Sports: football, basketball, track, and baseball. He was named the region’s Most Valuable Player in baseball in 1938. Robinsons older brother, Matthew Robinson, inspired Jackie to pursue his talent and love for athletics.Matthew won a silver medal in the 200-meter dash-?just behind Jesse Owens-?at the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin. Jackie continued his education at the University of California, Los Angels, where he became the university’s first student to win varsity letters in four sports. In 1941, despite his athletic success, Robinson was forced to leave UCLA just shy of graduation due to financial hardship.

He moved to Honolulu, Hawaii, where he played football for the semi-professional Honolulu Bears.

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His season with the Bears was cut short when the United States entered into World War II.From 1942 to 1944, Robinson served as a second lieutenant in the United States Army. He never saw combat, however. During boot camp in 1 944 in Fort Hood, Texas, Robinson was arrested and court-martial after refusing to give up his seat ND move to the back of a segregated bus when ordered to by the driver. Robinsons excellent reputation, combined with the united efforts of friends, the NAACP and various black newspapers, shed public light on the injustice, and he was ultimately acquitted of the charges and received an honorable discharge.His courage and moral objection to segregation were precursors to the impact Robinson would have in major league baseball.

Breaking the Color Barrier After his discharge from the Army in 1 944, Robinson began to play baseball professionally. At the time, the sport was segregated, and African-Americans ND whites played in separate leagues. Robinson began playing in the Negro Leagues, but he was soon chosen by Branch Rickety, president of the Brooklyn Dodgers, to help integrate major league baseball. He joined the all-white Montreal Royals, a farm team for the Brooklyn Dodgers, in 1946.Robinson later moved to Florida to begin spring training with the Royals, and played his first game in Beets Field for the Brooklyn Dodgers on April 15, 1947-?becoming the first black player to compete in the major leagues. Rickety knew there would be difficult times ahead for the young athlete, and o made Robinson promise to not fight back when confronted with racism. Rickety also personally tested Robinsons reactions to the racial slurs and insults he knew the player would endure.

From the beginning of his career with the Dodgers, Robinsons will was tested.Even some of his new teammates objected to having an African-American on their team. People in the crowds sometimes jeered at Robinson, and he and his family received threats. Despite the racial abuse, particularly at away games, Robinson had an outstanding start with the Royals, leading the International League with a . 349 batting average and -985 fielding percentage. His successful year led to his promotion with the Dodgers, and subsequently, his history-making designation as the first African-American player in Major League Baseball.The harassment continued, however, most notably by the Philadelphia Phillips and their manager, Ben Chapman.

During one infamous game, Chapman and his team shouted derogatory terms at Robinson from their dugout. Many players on opposing teams threatened not to play against the Dodgers. Even his own teammates threatened to sit out. But Dodgers manager Leo Drencher informed them that he would sooner trade them than Robinson. His loyalty to the player set the tone for the rest of Robinsons career with the team.Baseball Hero Others defended Jackie Robinsons right to play in the major leagues, including League President Ford Prick, Baseball Commissioner Happy Chandler, Jewish baseball star Hank Greenberg and Dodgers shortstop and team captain Pee Wee Reese. In one incident, while fans harassed Robinson from the stands, Reese walked over and put his arm around his teammate, a gesture that has become legendary in baseball history.

Jackie Robinson succeeded in putting the prejudice and racial strife aside, and showed everyone what a talented player he was.In his first year, he hit 12 home runs and helped the Dodgers win the National League pennant. That year, Robinson led the National League in stolen bases and was selected as Rookie of the Year. He continued to wow fans and critics alike with impressive feats, such as an outstanding -342 batting average during the 1949 season. He led in stolen bases Thayer and earned the National League’s Most Valuable Player Award. Robinson soon became a hero of the sport, even among former critics, and was the subject for the popular song, “Did You See Jackie Robinson Hit That Ball?An exceptional base runner, Robinson stole home 19 times in his career, setting a league record. He also became the highest-paid athlete in Dodgers history, and his success in the major leagues opened the door for other African-American players, such as Satchel Page, Willie Mays, and Hank Aaron.

A Voice for African-American Athletes Robinson also became a vocal champion for African-American athletes, civil rights, and other social and political causes. In July 1 949, he testified on discrimination before the House UN-American Activities Committee.In 1952, he publicly called out the Yankees as a racist organization for not having Rosen the color barrier five years after he began playing with the Dodgers. In his decade-long career with the Dodgers, Robinson and his team won the National League pennant several times. Finally, in 1 955, he helped them achieve the ultimate victory: the World Series. After failing before in four other series match-ups, the Dodgers beat the New York Yankees. He helped the team win one more National League pennant the following season, and was then traded to the New York Giants.

Jackie Robinson retired shortly after the trade, on January 5, 1957, with an impressive career batting average of . 311. Causes and Legacy After baseball, Robinson became active in business and continued his work as an activist for social change. He worked as an executive for the Chock Full O’ Nuts coffee company and restaurant chain, and helped establish the African American-owned and -controlled Freedom Bank. He served on the board of the NAACP until 1 967 and was the first African-American to be inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1962.In 1972, the Dodgers retired his uniform number of 42. In his later years, Robinson continued to lobby for greater integration in sports.

He died from heart problems and diabetes implications on October 24, 1972, in Stamford, Connecticut. He was survived by his wife, Rachel Sum, and two of their three children. After his death, his wife established the Jackie Robinson Foundation dedicated to honoring his life and work. The foundation helps young people in need by providing scholarships and mentoring programs.While serving in the military, Jackie Robinson was arrested for refusing to move to the back of a segregated bus. In 1947, he made history when his debut with the Brooklyn Dodgers ended racial segregation in Major League Baseball. Jackie Robinson became he first black player in the major leagues in 1947, signing with the Brooklyn Dodgers.

He was named Rookie of the Year in 1947, National League MAP in 1949 and a World Series champ in 1955. Http://www. Biography. Com/people/ Jack Roosevelt Robinson was born in Cairo, Georgia in 1919 to a family of sharecroppers.His mother, Millie Robinson, single-handedly raised Jackie and her four other children. They were the only black family on their block, and the prejudice they encountered only strengthened their bond. From this humble beginning would grow the first baseball player to break Major League Baseball’s color airier that segregated the sport for more than 50 years.

Growing up in a large, single-parent family, Jackie excelled early at all sports and learned to make his own way in life. At UCLA, Jackie became the first athlete to win varsity letters in four sports: baseball, basketball, football and track.In 1 941, he was named to the All-American football team. Due to financial difficulties, he was forced to leave college, and eventually decided to enlist in the U. S. Army. After two years in the army, he had progressed to second lieutenant.

Jackass’s army career was cut short when he was court-martial in relation to is objections with incidents of racial discrimination. In the end, Jackie left the Army with an honorable discharge. In 1945, Jackie played one season in the Negro Baseball League, traveling all over the Midwest with the Kansas City Monarchs.But greater challenges and achievements were in store for him. In 1947, Brooklyn Dodgers president Branch Rickety approached Jackie about joining the Brooklyn Dodgers. The Major Leagues had not had an African- American player since 1889, when baseball became segregated. When Jackie first donned a Brooklyn Dodger uniform, he pioneered the integration of repressions athletics in America.

By breaking the color barrier in baseball, the nation’s preeminent sport, he courageously challenged the deeply rooted custom of racial segregation in both the North and the South.At the end of Robinsons rookie season with the Brooklyn Dodgers, he had become National League Rookie of the Year with 12 homers, a league-leading 29 steals, and a . 297 average. In 1 949, he was selected as the Nil’s Most Valuable player of the Year and also won the batting title with a 342 average that same year. As a result of his great success, Jackie was eventually inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1962. Jackie married Rachel Sum, a nursing student he met at UCLA, in 1946.As an African-American baseball player, Jackie was on display for the whole country to judge.

Rachel and their three children, Jackie Jar. , Sharon and David, provided Jackie with the emotional support and sense of purpose essential for bearing the pressure during the early years of baseball. Jackie Robinsons life and legacy will be remembered as one of the most important in American history. In 1 997, the world celebrated the 50th Anniversary of Jackass’s breaking Major League Baseball’s color barrier.

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