State reforms generally peaceful but in RI instability when 1840 group led by Thomas Door and the Pep’s Party submitted and won a new state constitution by the people; 1842 2 simultaneous governments, Door rebellion quickly failed 4. In south election laws favored planters and politicians from older counties, limited influence of newly settled western areas 5.
Everywhere women could not vote, no secret ballots-?despite limitations numbers of voters increased faster than population 6. Originally electors chosen by legislature, by 1828 popularly elected except SC 2.The Legalization of Party 1 . Higher levels of voter participation due to expanded electorate but also threatening of party organization and loyalty 2. Asses/asses saw permanent, institutionalized parties become desirable part of political process. Began at state level in NY w/ Martin Van Burden’s factional “Buckskins”. Party’s preservation thru favors, rewards, patronage leaders goals 3.
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Parties would check/balance one other, politicians forced 2 rep the will of the people 4. By late Asses new idea of party spreading beyond NY, Jackson’s 1828 election seemed to legitimate new system.By 1 8305 national 2;party system: anti-Jackson forces called Wigs, his followers called Democrats 3. President f the Common Man 1 Democratic party embraced no uniform ideological position, committed to offer equal protection and benefits by assaulting eastern aristocracy to extend opportunity to rising classes of the W and S, preserve white-male democracy thru subjugation of African Americans and Indians 2. Jackson’s first targets entrenched officeholders of fed government, wanted to simplify official duties to make office more accessible.Removed nearly 1/5 of office- holders removed b/c misuse of government funds or corruption 3. Jackson’s supporters embraced “spoils system”, making right of elected officials to point followers to office established feature of American politics 4.
Supporters worked to transform presidential nomination system- 1832 national party convention held to replace congressional caucus, considered democratic triumph b/c power from people and not aristocratic caucus 5. Spoils system and convention limited power Of entrenched elites (permanent officeholders, caucus elite), but neither really transferred true power to the people 2.Our Federal Union 1. Calhoun and Nullification 1 . Late 1 sass many in SC came to see “tariff of abominations” as responsible or stagnation of state economy (really due to exhausted farmland unable to compete with new western lands). Some considered remedy thru secession 2. Vice President Calhoun offered alternative in theory of nullification- idea like Madison and Jefferson KY and VA Resolutions of 1798-1799.
Argued fed government created by states, therefore states final arbiter (not Congress or courts) of constitutionality. Convention could be held to null and void law within state 2.The Rise of Van Burner 1 . Appointed Sec of State 1829 by Jackson, also member of Prep’s of unofficial circle of allies in “Kitchen Cabinet’. After supporting Peggy Eaton in affair over acceptance into cabinet wife social circle gained favor w/ President 2. By 1831 Jackson had chosen Van Burner to succeed him in WHO, Calhoun presidential dream ended 3. The Webster-Haynes Debate 1 .
January 1830 proposal to temporarily stop western land sales led SC Seen. Robert Haynes to claim slowing down W growth means for east to retain political and economic power.Hinted at uniting S + W against “tyranny” 2. Nationalist and Whig Seen. Daniel Webster attacked Haynes and Calhoun for challenging integrity of the Union. Debate ensued over issue of states’ rights s national power 3. Jackson announced at Democratic Party banquet “Our Federal Union-let must be preserved”, lines drawn been Jackson and Calhoun 4.
The Nullification Crisis 1. 1832 tariff bill in Congress gave SC no relief from “tariff of abominations”, state convention held- voted for nullification of tariffs of 1828 & 1 832, duties collection w/in state.Calhoun resigned UP became Seen. , Haynes now Governor 2. Jackson insisted nullification treason, strengthened federal forts in SC. 1833 Pres. Proposed bill to authorize use of military to see acts of Congress obeyed 3.
No states supported SC, State itself divided. Seen Henry Clay offered compromise that tariff would be gradually lowered so that by 1842 it would be at same level as in 1816. Compromise + force bill passed March 1833 4. SC state convention met and repealed its nullification of the tariffs, but also nullified the force act (symbolic of null. Exegetical) 3. The Removal of the Indians 1 . White Attitudes Toward the Tribes 1.
In 1 8th century many whites considered Indians “noble savages” who had inherent dignity, by 19th century more hostile attitude especially among whites in W and territories, simply “savages” 2. White westerners wanted amoeba b/c feared continued contact + expanding white settlements would lead to endless violence, & Indian lands valuable 3. Only fed gobo had power to deal w/ Indians after Sup. Court decisions. Indians created new large political entities to deal w/ whites 2.The Black Hawk War 1 . In Old Northwest Black Hawk War 1831-1832 to expel last of Indians there 2.
Conflict notable for violence of white military efforts, attacked even when Chief Black Hawk was surrendering and killed Indians fleeing battle 3. The Five Civilized Tribes 1. asses gobo worried about remaining “Five Civilized Tribes” in South- successful agricultural society, Constitution forming Cherokee Nation 1827 2. Fed governed in early 1 9th century thru treaties to remove tribes to West and open lands to white settlement.Negotiation process unsatisfying + slow 3. Congress passed Removal Act 1 830 to finance defy negotiations w/ tribes in order to relocate them West, pressure from state covets to move as well 4. In GA Sup.
Court decisions of Cherokee Nation v Georgia (1 831 ) and Worcester v Georgia (1832) seemed to protect tribal lands 5. 1 835 treaty signed with minority tribe in Cherokee nation ceding all land to GA, but majority of Cherokees refused to recognize its legitimacy. Jackson sent army under General Winfield Scott to drive them westward to reservation 4.Trials of Tears 1 . Forced trek to “Indian Territory” began winter 1838. Thousands died before destination, dubbed “Trail of Tears” 2. Cherokees not alone: BTW 1830-1838 nearly all “Five Civilized Tribes” expelled from Southern states & relocated to Indian Territory created by Congress in Indian Intercourse Act of 1834.
Undesirable land far from whites 3. Only Seminole in Florida resisted relocation. Under pressure had agreed to cede land and move to Indo. Territory, many members of tribe moved 1. But 1835 minority led by chief Solaces staged uprising.Jackson sent army, conducted campaign of systematic extermination but successful guerilla warfare forced gobo to abandon war in 1842 5. The Meaning of Removal 1 By end of asses almost all major Indian societies relocated to far less hospitable lands west of Mississippi on reservations surrounded by forts 2.
White movement west impossible to have stopped, but alternative to removal could have been some form Of co-existence like in NW trading posts, TX 3. BY mid-1 9th century Americans believed western lands had no pre-existing civilization.Natives could not be equal partners, were obstacles to be removed, “lacked intelligence, industry and moral habits for improvement” 4. Jackson and the Bank War 1. Fiddle’s Institution 1. Bank of United States in asses had WHQL in Philadelphia, branches in 19 cities, by law only place gobo could deposit its funds 2. Conducted private business issuing credit, bank notes used throughout country, restrained less well-managed state banks.
Pres Nicholas Fiddle had made bank sound + prosperous. Regardless, Jackson wanted to destroy it 3.Opposition came from “soft-money” faction who wanted more currency in circulation. Made up of state banks, resisted Bank of Use’s efforts to restrain free issue of notes from State banks 4. “Hard money” faction wanted gold and silver to back currency, suspicious of expansion and speculation. Jackson supported hard- money 5. Jackson did not favor renewal of bank charter after 1836 expiration.
Fiddle tried to save bank by granting financial favors to influential men, named Daniel Webster made legal counsel (gained Clay’s support). Recommended renewal bill 1 832 to make bank issue in 1 832 elections. . Bill passed Congress but Jackson vetoed it, could not be overridden. In 1832 Jackson + Van Burner elected despite opposition to bank over opposition Clay 2. The Monster Destroyed 1 . Jackson determined to destroy “monster Bank quickly.
To weaken it removed gobo deposits (two Tree. Secretaries fired b/c feared financial desalination, third Roger Tangy complied) 2. When administration transferred funds from Bank to pet banks, Fiddle called in loans and raised interest rates- hoped would cause financial distress and recession that would persuade Congress to recharge Bank 3.Financial conditions worsened winter 1833/1 834, two sides blamed it on each other. Finally Fiddle contracted credit too far for his own allies in the business community, began to fear his efforts to save ban threatening their own 4. Fiddle forced to grant credit in abundance on reasonable terms, tactics ended change of re-charter. End in 1836 empowered unstable bank system 3.
The Tangy Court 1 . Jackson moved against economic nationalism support of Supreme Court, after Marshall died 1 835 named Roger Tangy chief justice 2.Charles River Bridge v Warren Bridge (1837) BTW company chartered by state for toll bridge monopoly and company applying to legislature to pay for toll-free ridge. Tangy ruled that gobo’s goal to promote general happiness took precedence over right of contract and property, therefore state had right to amend contract o advance well-being of community 3. Reflected Jackson ideal that key to democracy expansion of economic opportunity that could not occur if corporations maintained monopolies and choked off competition from newer companies 5.The Changing Face of American Politics 1. Democrats and Wigs 1 .
Democrats in 1 sass envisioned expanding economic and political opportunity for white males, limited gobo but one that removed obstacles to opportunity, defense of Union, attacking corruption, radical branch called Loco’s 2. Wigs favored expanding power feed gobo, industrial and commercial development, knit country into consolidated economic system, cautious westward expansion b/c feared territorial growth would produce instability, embraced industrial future and commercial and manufacturing greatness 3.Wigs supported by merchants and manufactures of EN, wealthy Southern planters, western commercialism’s. Democrats supported by smaller merchants and workingmen of EN, S planters suspicious of industry, agrarian westerners 4. Above all wanted to win elections: Wigs connected w/ Anti- Masons to resent “undemocratic” Freemasons (such as Jackson and Van Burner). Irish and German Catholic immigrants supported Democrats b/c aversion to commercial development, Evangelical Protestants supported Wigs 5. Wigs led by “Great Triumvirate” of Henry’ Clay, Daniel Webster, John Calhoun.
836 election Deems united behind Jackson’s choice of Van Burner for candidate, but Wigs could not agree on single candidate. Clay, White, and William Henry Harrison ran for regional interests, defeated by Van Burner 2. Van Burner and the panic of 1837 1 . Van Burner elected on economic boom that reached height 1836- canals and railroads being built, easy credit, land business booming, gobo revenues from sales + 1 833 tariff created surpluses that allowed reduction of natal debt 2. Congress passed 1836 “distribution” act to return surplus to states, used to fund highways, railroads, canals, created economic boom 3.Withdrawal of fed funds strained state “pet” banks, forced to call in loans. Jackson issued “specie circular” that required payment for public land sales be in gold or silver or currency backed by them b/c feared rampant speculation 4.
Circular reduced financial panic during Van Burden’s presidency banks and business failed, food riots- largest depression in American history to that point 5. Both parties responsible for panic- surplus redistribution a Whig measure, Jackson’s circular, but also panics in England and W.