Joints and Body Movements

8 August 2016

Laszlo Vass, Ed. D. Version 42-0014-00-01 Lab RepoRt assistant This document is not meant to be a substitute for a formal laboratory report. The Lab Report Assistant is simply a summary of the experiment’s questions, diagrams if needed, and data tables that should be addressed in a formal lab report. The intent is to facilitate students’ writing of lab reports by providing this information in an editable file which can be sent to an instructor. Purpose: What is the purpose of this exercise?

To identify and define the structural categories of joints and joint movements, as well as discuss the function of the synovial joints in the body. To be able to describe how tearing a tendon affects the muscle it corresponds with. To describe how losing articular cartilage affects the corresponding joint, its bones and the associated muscles. Are there any safety concerns associated with this exercise? If so, list what they are and what precautions should be taken. Gown, glove, goggles, proper clean up. exeRcise 1: Questions A.

Joints and Body Movements Essay Example

As you observe the skull, explain how the structure of the sutures between the cranial bones is related to the overall function of the cranium. At birth, an infant’s skull has six cranial bones separated by strong, fibrous elastic sutures. These sutures are what allow the infant’s skull to squeeze through the birth canal, as they allow the cranial bones to overlap each other during the process, and then allow for brain growth and development. By 12-18 months they grow together, and remain flexible during infancy and childhood. In adulthood the cranial sutures stay together. B.

Why are synarthroses an important component of fibrous joints? Synarthroses are joints that do not move, such as the joints in the skull that never move in adulthood. Since the sutures between the different bones in the cranium do not move in adulthood, this also protects the brain. exeRcise 2: Questions A. Cartilaginous joints exhibit amphiarthroses. Why is this important? Amphiarthroses are slightly movable joints connected by fibrocartilage, including the vertebrae of the spinal column. The intervertebral discs join each vertebrae and allow movement, allowing us to bend over and side to side. B.

Structurally, how are cartilaginous joints similar? Cartilaginous joints are similar in that they allow more movement between bones than a fibrous joint but less than the highly mobile synovial joint. exeRcise 3: Questions A. Which type of synovial joint has the least amount of movement? Synarthrosis has the least amount of movement under normal conditions and is very fibrous. B. Why are diarthroses important for synovial joints? Diarthroses are important for synovial joints because they are synovial joints where two bones are bound together by a joint capsule, forming what is called a joint cavity.

In synovial joints a fluid called synovial fluid is found which lubricates the joints making them movable. C. Which synovial joint is most movable? Diarthrosis is the most movable synovial joint. D. What are the four structural characteristics that all synovial joints share? 1. Two-layered articular capsule 2. Synovial membrane 3. Hyaline cartilage 4. Bursae exeRcise 4: Questions A. Which of the body movements was the most difficult to perform? Why? The hip rotation was the most difficult to perform because its range of motion is limited. B.

Hinge joints like the elbow and knee have limited movement. Why are these types of joints more prone to injury? The elbow and knee joint are more prone to injury because they are only capable of moving in two directions (hinge joints), so if that joint is forced to move in another direction it may result in injury and often does. C. When performing flexion on the arm, the biceps muscle (on the anterior of the arm) contracts. What happens to the triceps muscle (on the posterior of the arm) as this action is performed? The tricep muscle will retract, as the bicep muscle contracts.

D. Both the shoulder and the hip are ball and socket joints. Why does the shoulder have a greater range of motion than the hip? The hip joint is larger and deeper than the shoulder joint. The hip joint is also weight bearing, and much more constrained and more stable, whereas the shoulder joint is more mobile. The shoulder depends more on the muscles, which connect it to the ball for movement and function ability. exeRcise 5: obseRvations Sketch your chicken wing: Label the bones, muscles, tendons and joints. exeRcise 5: Questions A.

What effect will the tearing of a tendon have on its corresponding muscle? The tearing of a tendon will cause the corresponding muscle to shrink, due to the decreased tendon activity. B. Why are ligaments harder to heal than tendons? Ligaments are harder to heal than tendons because they have a limited blood supply. , which assist is transporting protein and nutrients to help repair damage. C. Compare and contrast tendons and ligaments. Tendons and ligaments are both muscle tissues. Tendons are tough flexible bands of fibrous tissue that connect the muscles to bones.

Ligaments are long stringy collagen fibers that create bands of tough, fibrous connective tissue and connect bone to bone. D. What is the function of fascia? Fascia assists in holding skin to muscle. E. What effect would the loss of articular cartilage have on a joint, its bones and their corresponding muscles? The loss of articular cartilage will cause corresponding joints to feel stiff and painful, and may even cause it to lock up. The loss of articular cartilage eventually will cause osteoarthritis, which is a process caused by either wear and tear or disease.

Conclusions Explain how skin, bones, and muscles are related to each other. Why is this relationship important to the understanding of the skeletal and muscular systems? This relationship is important because it is the muscles that are what helps/protects our bones to allow proper movement and function ability. Skin provides protection from outside elements and also against exposure to outside elements in regards to our skeletal and muscular systems. Without one or the other or both we would not be able to function normally.

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