Organizational Assessment : Effectiveness vs. Efficiency This journal is being chosen related to the Organizational Theory, Design and Change for chapter 1 about the Organization Effectiveness. i. What was the aim of the study? An organization had its own goals and mission. There were many ways that could be implement in order to make sure that the organization will achieves whether it short or long term goal. The term effectiveness and efficiency was always being the indicator of the organization performance. This study will determine the differentiation, features, proximities or values of the effectiveness and efficiency.
There were some people believe that there is no difference between effectiveness and efficiency, but according to Mouzas (2006), each of these terms have their own distinct meanings. ii. Model that being used in this study. As stated in the chapter 1, under “How Does an Organization Create Value? ” there is value creation. Value creation takes places at three stages which are input, conversion and output. To differentiate the meaning of effectiveness and efficiency, the authors of this study has adapted a model from Frey and Widmer (2009) regarding effectiveness and efficiency.
Figure 1 Chain of effects Based on Figure 1, we can see that efficiency information provides different data compared to effectiveness. As we can see, under the effectiveness it concern about output, outcome and impact. It measures the on how the organization will achieve their goals or the way outputs interact with the economic and social environment. For the efficiency aspect we can see it concern about the input and output. According to (Low, 2000), the efficiency will measure on how successfully the inputs have been transformed into outputs. iii. What is the result of the study?
This study was using the obstructive measure approach where the authors had collected finding from other resources. In order to come out with conclusion, they had gathered many findings related to the effectiveness and efficiency. They highlighted few points such as the meaning, differences, characteristics, and how it will be dependence toward each other. According to the study by Pinprayong and Seingthai (2012), they suggest that return on assets (ROA) is suitable measure of overall company performance, since it reveals how profitable organizations assets are in making revenues.
Total assets turnover will measure the ability of a company to use it assets to efficiency generate sales; therefore it can be treated as effectiveness. As conclusion, they had come out with formula of: Organizational performance = effectiveness x efficiency; iv. Limitations In some cases effectiveness concept is being used to reflect overall performance of the organization, since it is a broader concept compared to the efficiency. It gets challenging to explore the efficiency factor if it is included under effectiveness assessment v. Conclusion
The characteristics of effectiveness and efficiency Figure 1. 1 shows that the organizations cannot survive without effectiveness policy. Even though the organization is an inefficient but effective, organization still have a chances to survive. Usually, organization that in high effectiveness and high efficiency are well known as high performance entities. Effectiveness is a much broader perspectives, which touch about quality, value, satisfactions, output and environments. Efficiency is on how well the input was transformed into output.
Effectiveness and efficiency, they influence each other. In order to achieve all the organizations goals and had an excellence in competitive performance, organizations should find way on increasing the efficiency and effectives evenly. 2. Impact of Employee Adaptability to Change Towards Organizational Competitive Advantage This journal is being chosen related to the Organizational Theory, Design and Change for chapter 4 about the Basic Challenges of Organizational Design i. What was the aim of the study?
A change in the most understandable way is the moving process from one point to another. It’s not a must to do things for an organization, but in order to make sure the organization in can compete and achieve the better performance, changes should be made. Although changing is the good things to do, but it have own limitations and it cannot easily made, so that why this study had being conducted. The purpose of this study is to know how the competitive advantages have the significant effect on training and development, empowerment and maintaining in the organization.
It is stated in this study, that their aim is to identify and to discuss the reasons why employees didn’t easily adapt the changes than those eager to adapt the change in any case. ii. Model that being used in this study. There were three variables that being used for this study which are training and development, empowerment and culture. These variables will tested in order to know the relationship of the variables towards the employee adaptability to change which is a moderator and competitive advantage being a dependent variable. iii. What is the result of the study?
Before come out with a conclusion, data must be collected and analyze. For this study they had distributed 80 questionnaires towards employees within service sector organizations and others. On the basis of the data conducted from the person engage in the executive, supervisors and staff position. Table 2. 1 Descriptive Analysis The findings were analyzed by using descriptive statistics. Based on the result gathered by questionnaires, the authors will use the correlation of the statistical interference in order to identify the hypothesis had being developed this study and relationship between the discussed variables.
Above we can conclude that training & development is good for the employee to adapt the change and organizations leads it competitive advantage. For the empowerment, they score greater mean that training & development which is good to the employee. Lastly, from the table its show that good culture has influence on the organizational competitive advantage. iv. Conclusion In order to make an organization competence, they should a changing process toward the better environments. But, changes are not easily made. They will be some people that against on the changing process.
That is why, the adaptability is important. As being stated in this study, employee adaptability is more dependent on the parallel activities that preceded along with the others activities in the organization and these activities helps the employee to perform more enthusiastically and impatient to demeanor any challenge or adapt any change whatever it will be. 3. Organizational Culture and Its Themes This journal is being chosen related to the Organizational Theory, Design and Change for chapter 7 about Creating and Managing Organizational Culture. i. What was the aim of the study?
Organizational culture is a about sharing value and norms that will help on controlling organizational members interactions within each other and with people outside the organization. As written in this journal, culture within an organization acts as a critical role in the organizations everyday operations. In order to validate this statement, a study about an organizational culture had being conducted. The purpose of this study is to know in deeper what is an organizational culture, models related, themes and the importance toward an organization. ii. Model that being used in this study.
As being stated earlier, organization culture can be described as a set of theory consist of values, beliefs, and understanding that members share in common. It also helps in the ways of thinking that could help while making decision. From the perspective of Andrew Brown (1995, 1998), the organization culture: “Refers to the patters of beliefs, values and learned ways of coping with experience that have developed during the course of an organization’s history, and which tend to manifested in its material arrangements and in the behaviors of its members”.
One of those models that being adapted in this study is the Onion Diagrams, by Hofstede. He was dividing culture into four layers which consist of symbols, heroes, ritual and values. Figure 3. 1 Onion Diagram Based on the Figure 3. 1 above, the core level in the culture level is value; values are intimately connected with moral and ethical codes which determine what people ought to be done. The second level is rituals, which is describing the collective activities that considered essential. The next level is heroes.
According to Deal and Kennedy (1982), hero is a great motivator; heroes are also persons who possess characteristic which are highly prized. Symbols are the most overt element of culture and are the gestures, objects, words or acts that signify something different or wider from the others, and which have meaning for individual or group. iii. The importance of this study In order to have a rapid organization development, organization culture can be used as a tool to help the organization reach success.
It also can be a management tool, which managers can use some values to control and direct employee behavior. In addition, the importance of the organization culture toward the development of an organization seconded with statement from Campbell and Stonehouse (1999) said: “Culture can also have influence on; employee motivation; employee morale and ‘good will’; productivity and efficiency; the quality of work; innovation and creativity and the attitude of employees in the workplace”. iv. Conclusion
As stated in this study, they highlighted that in order to achieve a successful culture, managers shouldn’t ignore organizational culture and its themes, because culture can be used as a competitive advantage during organizational development, and a strong culture (one in which beliefs and values are widely shared and strongly held) can also offer many advantages, such as cooperation, control, communication or commitment. 4. Re conceptualizing Organizational Role Theory for Contemporary Organizational Contexts i.
Aim and introduction of the study. The purpose of this study is to know deeper regarding the organizational role theory and to identify what are the issues related to the organizational theory that will limit it usage. In this study, they were several issue that being listed out regarding organizational theory. Based on Katz and Kahn (1966) state that the assignment of work-roles prescribes the behavior of employees are expected to comply, so that they are able to perform their speci? ed tasks and duties effectively.
He also mentions that organizational role theory (ORT) is help to de? ne a “role-set” for the individual, employee and determine the speci? c role-behaviors the employee. Beside that according to According to Biddle (1986), George (1993), and Smithson and Stokoe (2005), the diminishing usefulness of classical ORT can be traced to three part. There are the limitations in its role-taking, role-consensus and role-con? ict assumptions. The theoretical issues discussed indicate about the development of ORT has failed to keep the change in the organizational context.
Data Collections This research consists of two-stage qualitative data gathering process. The ? rst stage included the questionnaire-survey to a sample of employees and the second stage data collection process to collect the data required to answer the second research question. The uses of semi-structured interview allowed the researcher to strengthen the investigation. The respondent reported that charity, education, social are the important impact on their working life. iii.
Result Summary To simplify the results for this study it can be divided into two summaries: Research Summary 1 Although the research findings supported the relevance of the “work-family/work-life balance” literature to ORT, there was evidence that at least four other categories of non-work roles needed to be considered for the effective management of human resources. In terms of work-roles, academics and practitioners must remain aware of the work-roles currently recognized by classical ORT.
In terms of work-family roles, they need to recognize the specific impacts of the work-family interface, and become aware of the limitations of “family-friendly” practices that serve only to enable workers to spend more time at work Research Summary 2 There were two things that will be highlighted in these summaries. First, the recognition that employees (both actual and potential) are multi-faceted is incorporated into the model in three important ways.
In the pre-employment phase, the model now requires the employer to attain a level of understanding of the potential employee’s family and non-family roles that they need to enact for their self-validation, self-recognition and overall wellbeing. In the initial employment phase, it requires that employers consider the interaction between the most important non-work-roles (as identified by the employee) and the work-roles to be bestowed on them. iv. Conclusion Finally it can conclude that, this research suggest the employees perceived had a signi? cant impact on their working-life.
ORT needs to incorporate for an effective HR policy framework. It also recommends that further investigation into ORT’s role in the workplace and further exploration. 5. Organization Theory and Methodology This is a summary of the article “Organization Theory and Methodology” by Michael C. Jensen in Harvard Business School. In this research the researcher find the relation between positive and normative theories, the importance to the research effort of the choice of tautologies and definitions, the nature of evidence, and the role of mathematics.
The author mentions that, the major reason for the early successes of operations research and its later failure can be traced to the nature of the theories. In addition, According to Alchian (1950), organization need not assume that agents are engaged in purposeful activity for the models to work. Besides that, Hayek (1979) emphasizes most of the complex phenomena that make up human culture were never consciously invented by any individual and much of human culture is still not well understood.
Furthermore, there is evidence in Chandler’s (1962), work that the organizational innovations that led to the large, integrated, multi-divisional firms in the early 1900’s were accompanied by substantial innovations in accounting practices. Moreover, the behavior of the organization is the equilibrium behavior which made up of maximizing agents with diverse and conflicting. The Construction of a theory of organizations involves creating a theory that describes the equilibrium behavior of these complex contractual systems where the individual agent is the elementary unit of analysis.
On the other hand, the choice of tautologies or definitions has a large impact on the success or failure of research efforts. As a conclusion, the researcher says that the competition in research is an important element for innovation and makes progress at product markets. He also mention that, ideal process described about the important aspects of the environment, monitoring and bonding technology that derive a theory that is consistent with those contracts.