Journeys End Revision Essay Sample
OCR Drama Exam Tasks
Students have to take one inquiry to reply from a pick of three. The first of the three picks will ever be extract-based. The infusion is normally one to one and a half pages in length with the inquiries concentrating straight on the infusion ( mentioning to ‘this moment’ or ‘this extract’ . or utilizing the word ‘here’ ) . These inquiries do necessitate an apprehension of the whole text. but close attending to the printed infusion is the cardinal demand for successful replies.
At least one undertaking will concentrate on a broader subject than the extract-based inquiry. Questions frequently ask for a response to a character or a relationship. but non merely as a impersonal character survey where you show what you think of the character and why. but more as a weighing up of what the character adds to the impact of the drama. The Drama texts are the lone country of the specification which can offer an empathic/re- originative undertaking ask foring pupils to compose as one of the characters.
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Such inquiries will non needfully be set. but they frequently appear as the 3rd pick. Empathic inquiries are a popular and successful option for many campaigners who enjoy the chance to believe and experience as a character at a peculiar minute in the drama instead than follow the more conventional essay attacks.
Set in the trenches at Saint-Quentin. Aisne. in 1918 towards the terminal of the First World War. Journey’s End gives a glance into the experiences of the officers of a British Army foot company in World War I. The full narrative plays out in the officers’ dugout over four yearss from 18 March 1918 to 21 March 1918.
In the British trenches before St Quentin. Captain Hardy converses with Lieutenant Osborne. an older adult male and public school maestro. who has come to alleviate him. Hardy gags about the behavior of Captain Stanhope. who has turned to alcohol in order to get by with the emphasis which the war has caused him. While Hardy gags. Osborne defends Stanhope and describes him as “the best company commanding officer we’ve got” . Private Mason. a servant cook. is everlastingly non caring about the deficiency of ingredients and quality of nutrient he serves up. Second Lieutenant Trotter is a rotund soldier who likes his nutrient ; he can’t stand the war and counts down each hr that he serves in the front line by pulling circles onto a piece of paper and so coloring them in. Second Lieutenant Raleigh is a immature and naif officer who joins the company. Raleigh knew Stanhope from school where he was skipper at rugger and refers to him as Dennis. He admits that he requested to be sent to Stanhope’s company. Osborne intimations to him that Stanhope will non be the same individual he knew from school as the experiences of war have changed him ; nevertheless Raleigh does non look to understand. Stanhope is angry that Raleigh has been allowed to fall in him and depict the male child as a hero-worshipper.
As Stanhope is in a relationship with Raleigh’s sister Madge. he is concerned that Raleigh will compose place and inform his sister of Stanhope’s imbibing. Stanhope tells Osborne that he will ban Raleigh’s letters so that this does non go on ; Osborne does non O.K. . Stanhope has a acute sense of responsibility and feels that he must go on to function instead than take leave to which he is entitled. He criticises another soldier. Second Lieutenant Hibbert. who he thinks is forging neuralgia so that he can be sent place alternatively of go oning contending. Osborne puts a tired and slightly intoxicated Stanhope to bed. Stanhope ( and the other officers ) refers to Osborne as ‘Uncle’ . Act II
Trotter and Mason converse about the bacon vermillion rockfishs which the company has to eat. Trotter negotiations about how the start of spring makes him experience youthful ; he besides talks about the altheas which he has planted. These conversations are a manner of get awaying the trenches and the world of the war. Osborne and Raleigh discourse how slowly clip base on ballss at the forepart. and the fact that both of them played rugger before the war and that Osborne was a headmaster before he signed up to contend ; while Raleigh appears interested. Osborne points out that it is of small usage now. Osborne describes the lunacy of war when depicting how German soldiers allowed the British to deliver a hurt soldier in No Man’s Land and the following twenty-four hours the two sides shelled each other to a great extent.
He describes the war as “silly” . Stanhope announces that the barbed wire around the trenches needs to be mended. It is announced that an progress will happen on Thursday forenoon and that this information has been gathered from a captured German soldier. They province that this means the onslaught is merely two yearss off. Stanhope confiscates a missive from Raleigh take a firm standing on his right to ban it. Stanhope is in a relationship with Raleigh’s sister and is worried that. in the missive. Raleigh will uncover Stanhope’s turning alcohol addiction. Full of self-loathing. Stanhope accedes to Osborne’s offer to read the missive for him ; the missive is in fact full of congratulations for Stanhope. The scene ends with Stanhope softly excepting from Osborne’s suggestion to re-seal the envelope. Scene 2
In a meeting with the Sergeant Major it is announced that the onslaught is taking topographic point on Thursday. Stanhope and the Sergeant-Major discuss conflict programs. The Colonel relays orders that the General wants a foray to take topographic point on the German trench prior to the onslaught. “a surprise daytime raid” . all old foraies holding made under screen of dark. and that they want to be informed of the result by seven p. m. Stanhope provinces that such a program is absurd and that the General and his staff simply want this so their dinner will non be delayed. The Colonel agrees with Stanhope but says that orders are orders and that they must be obeyed. Later it is stated that in a similar foray. after the British heavy weapon barrage. the Germans had tied ruddy shred to the spreads in the barbed wire so that their soldiers knew precisely where to develop their machine guns.
It is decided that Osborne and Raleigh will be the officers to travel on the foray despite the fact that Raleigh has merely late entered the war. Hibbert goes to Stanhope to kick about the neuralgy he states he has been enduring from. Stanhope states that it would be better for him to decease from the hurting. than for being shot for abandonment. Hibbert maintains that he does hold neuralgies but when Stanhope threatens to hit him if he goes. he breaks down shouting. The two soldiers admit to each other that they feel precisely the same manner. and are fighting to get by with the emphasiss that the war is seting on them. Osborne reads aloud to Trotter from Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. his chosen reading and another effort to get away from the worlds of the war. The scene ends with the idealistic Raleigh. who is untouched by the war. saying that it is “frightfully exciting” that he has been picked for the foray. Act III
There is verification that the foray is still traveling in front. The Colonel states that a German soldier demands to be captured so that intelligence can be extracted from him. Osborne admits to Stanhope that he knows he’s likely non coming back and asks Stanhope to look after his most precious ownerships and direct them to his married woman if he does non come back after the foray. In the proceedingss before traveling over the top Raleigh and Osborne talk about place – the New Forest and the town of Lyndhurst. in order to go through the clip. Smoke-bombs are fired and the soldiers move towards the German trench. a immature German soldier is captured. However Stanhope finds out that Osborne has been killed although Raleigh has survived. Stanhope sardonically states: “It’ll be terribly nice the Brigadier’s pleased” when the Colonel’s first concern is whether information has been gathered. non whether all the soldiers have returned safely ; six of 10s enlisted work forces have been killed. Scene 2
Trotter. Stanhope and Hibbert drink and speak about adult females. They all appear to be basking themselves until Hibbert is annoyed when Stanhope tells him to travel to bed. and he tells Stanhope to travel to bed alternatively. so Stanhope all of a sudden becomes angry and begins to shout at him and tells him to unclutter off and acquire out. Stanhope besides becomes angry at Raleigh. who did non eat with the officers that dark but preferred to eat with work forces below his rank. Stanhope is offended by this and Raleigh finally admits that he feels he can non eat while he thinks that Osborne is dead and his organic structure is in No Man’s Land. Stanhope is angry because Raleigh had seemed to connote that he didn’t attention about Osborne’s decease because he was eating and imbibing. Stanhope yells at Raleigh that he drinks to get by with the fact that Osborne died. to bury. Stanhope asks to be left entirely and angrily Tells Raleigh to go forth. Scene 3
The German onslaught on the British trenches attacks. and the Sergeant Major Tells Stanhope they should anticipate heavy losingss. When it arrives. Hibbert is loath to acquire out of bed and into the trenches. A message is relayed to Stanhope stating him that Raleigh has been injured by a shell and that his spinal column is damaged significance that he can’t travel his legs. Stanhope orders that Raleigh be brought into his dugout. He comforts Raleigh while he lies in bed. Raleigh says that he is cold and that it is going dark ; Stanhope moves the taper to his bed and goes deeper into the dugout to bring a cover. but. by the clip he returns. Raleigh has died. The shells continue to detonate in the background. Stanhope receives a message that he is needed. He gets up to go forth and. after he has exited. a howitzer hits the dugout doing it to fall in and bury Raleigh’s cadaver.
Fictional characters Discussed
Captain Dennis Stanhope
Captain Dennis Stanhope. a British officer whose three old ages in the forepart lines have made him a difficult. misanthropic. and heavy-drinking adult male. Stanhope is first and foremost a soldier. nevertheless. and when his immature friend is fatally hurt. he returns instantly to his responsibilities as commanding officer. Lieutenant Osborne
Lieutenant Osborne. Stanhope’s 2nd in bid. He is a middle-aged adult male who was a school teacher in civilian life. Osborne is dying to maintain peace in the company. He is killed. along with several other members of a busting party sent out to capture some captives from whom the colonel of the regiment hopes to obtain information. Lieutenant Raleigh
Lieutenant Raleigh. a school friend of Stanhope and the brother of Stanhope’s fiancee. Raleigh worships Stanhope as a hero and can barely acknowledge his old friend when he meets him in the forepart lines. Raleigh is a fledgling young person. full of verve. who shortly makes friends with Osborne. He can non understand how the other work forces in the company can observe after Osborne and several others are killed in the busting party. Raleigh is fatally wounded in a German onslaught. Second Lieutenant Hibbert
Second Lieutenant Hibbert. an officer in Stanhope’s company who is a skulker and a coward. Stanhope bullies Hibbert into remaining on responsibility after Hibbert tries to acquire a physician to give him a medical alibi for being relieved from responsibility.
‘CAPTAIN HARDY. a ruddy faced. cheerful-looking man…intently drying a sock over a candle fire. ’ – Sherriff chooses to get down his drama with a humourous image that causes the audience to allow down their guard. Everything seems happy and relaxed: the contrast when the existent state of affairs becomes clear is all the more effectual. The audience are made to concentrate foremost on a taper which will go important at the terminal of the drama.
‘Don’t have excessively much H2O. It’s instead strong today’ – underlines the unpleasantness of army life ( H2O tasting of germicide ) . but besides strikes a note on the first page that will be echoed at the very terminal of the drama: both Hibbert and Raleigh ask for H2O merely before their deceases.
‘and those horrid small things like Ananas comosuss – you know’ – The usage of babyish linguistic communication is frequent and helps do the war seem endurable. Compare Osborne reading Alice in Wonderland.
‘A dug-out got blown up and came down in the men’s tea. They were terribly annoyed. // Osb. There’s nil worse than soil in your tea. ’ – A batch of trench talk is ‘counter-intuitive’ temper. Cipher makes much of the fact that. seemingly. no 1 died or was earnestly injured. alternatively the focal point is on the relatively minor catastrophe of contaminated tea.
‘By the manner. you know the large German onslaught is expected any twenty-four hours now? ’ – Sherriff begins to construct up audience tenseness. This is the first indicant of what this drama is truly traveling to be approximately. Historically. the ‘big attack’ was the Kaiserschlacht. the last large German offense of the war. The prong of the onslaught at Saint-Quentin. where Journey’s End is set. was called Operation Michael.
‘There’s more conveyance than usual coming up…bringing up tonss and tonss of men’ – Sherriff once more increasing the tenseness.
‘… my last officer. He got lumbago the first dark and went home’ – This introduces the subject of ‘going sick’ which will affect Stanhope and Hibbert. Hardy doesn’t seem to care much about losing an officer with ‘backache’ ( another hard unwellness to name. like Hibbert’s neuralgy ) . and this will contrast starkly with Stanhope’s attitude.
‘I hope we’re lucky and acquire a youngster heterosexual from school. They’re the sort that do best. ’ – so much of the drama revolves around school. specifically because Osborne was a instructor and Stanhope and Raleigh are merely out of school. This is a serious remark from Osborne: immature work forces of 18/19 seemingly tended to maintain their nervus longer than older soldiers. Although Osborne is serious. we can see Sherriff emphasizing the flooring facet of the utmost young person of those contending in 1918.
‘You maintain yourself in by hanging your weaponries and legs over the side. ’ – Army life is presented as shocking – no proper beds. no nice water…
‘115 rifle grenades – I shouldn’t utilize them if I were you ; they upset Jerry and do him violative. Besides. they are rusty. in any case’ – Hardy’s attitude to the war is exceptionally easy-going. He doesn’t attention about rusty rifle-grenades. Sherriff includes this illustration of an ( older ) hapless company commanding officer to contrast with Stanhope who enters after this brief introductory scene which serves. among other things. to construct up the audience’s involvement in his character before he appears.
“Because he’s stuck it till his nervousnesss have got battered to spots. he’s called a drunkard” This quotation mark shows how much Osborne cares about Stanhope and besides how much he respects him.
“You’ll find the other officers call me uncle” Shows how sort and reliable Osborne can be.
“Drinking like a fish as usual? ” ( says Hardy ) . This quotation mark merely backs up the fact that Stanhope is an alcoholic.
“You know you mustn’t anticipate to happen him rather the same” Osborne kindly warns Raleigh so he doesn’t acquire a daze when he meets Stanhope.
“How terribly quiet it is” Raleigh says – this shows how unusual the ambiance must hold been in the front line.
“Another small worm seeking to writhe home” Says Stanhope speaking about Hibbert whom he disrespects because he is seeking to travel place.
“Yes. I’m a hero” sardonically says Stanhope as he doesn’t see himself to be the hero Raleigh believes him to be.
“Without being doped with whisky – I’d go huffy with fright” Stanhope knows he has a imbibing job.
“He’ll write and state her I reek of whiskey all day” Stanhope is worried that Raleigh will compose place and state his sister about him. This gives him the thought to ban Raleigh’s letters.
“Dear old Uncle. insert me up” Says Stanhope to Osborne – their relationship is about father to boy at times.
“You lament on gardening” Trying to speak about something else instead than war is common throughout the drama.
“You don’t think i’m traveling potty? ” Asks Stanhope to Osborne which once more shows how much Stanhope trusts Osborne.
“D’you understand an order? Give me that missive! ” Stanhope demands the missive from Raleigh as he thinks there is something about him in it.
“I’m shirking with my revolver…going off by accident” Stanhope threatens to hit Hibbert if he deserts.
“How terribly nice – if the brigadier’s pleased” sardonically after Osborne’s decease Stanhope shows small regard for those above him.
“Steady. old male child. Just prevarication at that place softly for a bit” The caring side of Stanhope when Raleigh has been earnestly injured.
Journey’s End Essay
During Raleigh’s school old ages. Stanhope had been his hero. Stanhope had already won the Military Cross and had the experience of three years’ war service. one twelvemonth of which was as a company commanding officer. His repute stands high with his officers and work forces. and Raleigh hears many good remarks about Stanhope being the best company commanding officer in the battalion. Raleigh joined the company as a direct consequence of his school experience. He wanted to go on in the war the hero worship of Stanhope that he had indulged in at school. It was a natural development that the superb rugger captain and house prefect should go a glorious war hero. Osborne knew that Raleigh still saw Stanhope as a hero even though Stanhope himself could non believe or recognize it: Osborne: Small male childs at school frequently have their heroes. Stanhope: Yes. Small male childs at school do. Osborne: Often it goes on as long as-Stanhope: -as long as the hero’s a hero. Osborne: It frequently goes on all through life.
After Raleigh’s reaching. Stanhope addresses merely two curt comments to him in Act One and for most of the repast Raleigh remains soundless. Therefore. there is no indicant of Raleigh’s reaction to the alteration of attitude in his former friend. Stanhope suspects what he must be experiencing and his ain desperation at cognizing that his alcoholic province will be reported Raleigh’s missive place embitters him. This is merely Stanhope’s position. nevertheless. as Osborne tells him: `You imagine things’ . The world is shown a few proceedingss subsequently when Raleigh’s missive is read out: `I’m terribly proud to believe he’s my friend’ . Osborne’s old expressed sentiment that Raleigh would travel on wishing him proved to be true: `I Journey’s End Essay 2
Journey’s End Essay
believe Raleigh’ll travel on wishing you – and looking up to you – through everything. There’s something really deep. and instead all right. about hero-worship’ . Chumminess
Hibbert’s one purpose is to acquire off from the front line every bit shortly as possible and to accomplish this he feigns illness. He prepares the land every bit shortly as he enters the dugout by declining supper. owing to `this beastly neuralgia’ . Stanhope is unimpressed and characterizes him to Osborne as `another small worm seeking to writhe home’ . The crisis is reached the undermentioned afternoon when Hibbert makes a determined attempt to describe ill before the onslaught. He emerges from his sleeping-quarters to denote his going and. despite Stanhope’s resistance. takes his battalion and stick and efforts to go forth. The confrontation between the two work forces is extremely dramatic ; Hibbert alternately shouts hysterically and pleads. and finally he strikes his commanding officer. The flood tide is reached when Stanhope threatens to hit him if he tries to go forth and Hibbert. with surprising control. faces being shot instead than traveling back into the trenches. The chumminess engendered by the war is more than a mere friendly relationship ; it is a particular sort of bond partially imposed by the changeless menace of decease or mutilation: Hibbert: Do delight allow me travel Stanhope –
Stanhope: If you went – and left Osborne and Trotter and Raleigh and all those work forces up at that place to make your work – could you of all time look a adult male heterosexual in the face once more – in all your life” The Horror of War
Stanhope finds himself looking beyond surface world and a wont has grown on him of looking `right through things. and on and on – boulder clay I get scared and stop’ . He has esthesiss of everything traveling farther and farther off until he is the lone thing left in the existence and he finds trouble in fighting back to normalcy. The feeling had come over him merely that forenoon as he had looked across no man’s land and beyond: Journey’s End Essay 3
Journey’s End Essay
Stanhope: `I was looking across at the Boche trenches and right beyond – non a sound or a psyche ; merely and tremendous field. all churned up like a sea that’s got muddier boulder clay it’s so stiff that it can’t move. You could hold heard a pin bead in the quiet ; yet you new 1000s of guns were hidden at that place. all ready cleaned and oiled – 1000000s of slugs lying in pouches – 1000s of Germans. waiting and believing. Then bit by bit. the feeling came -` Trotter is to the full cognizant of their state of affairs and finds his ain manner to get by with it. Pulling one hundred and 44 circles to stand for the hours they must pass in the line and so taging them off one by one is. for him a device to command the anxiousness he portions with the others ; each circle filled in will convey the clip of alleviation nearer and nearer. We catch a glance of his deeper feelings in his conversation with Stanhope: Stanhope: `I enviousness you Trotter.
Nothing disturbances you. does it? You’re ever the same. ’ Trotter: `Always the same. am I? ( He sighs ) Little you know -` He does non enlarge on this. but we are cognizant that under his carefree outside he is concealing the frights that afflict them all. Hibbert is the officer who can non take it any longer. He doesn’t want to transport on ; he wants to be out of the trenches every bit shortly as he perchance can. He owes it to `this beastly neuralgia’ . As the concluding onslaught begins. his deficiency of fiber is shown once more. He delays traveling to his station in the trenches by inquiring for some H2O and imbibing it really easy. and he is merely persuaded to go forth by the necessity to attach to Mason from the dugout. Even Hibbert will non dishonor himself in forepart of a retainer.
Conflict: Stanhope and Hibbert
In most dramas there is struggle: this could be a battle or battle between characters. or within an single character. It may be a physical battle. but in most instances it is a clang between characters over what they want. In Journey’s End. there is a physical struggle. in the really obvious war between the British and the Germans. Osborne is killed. off-stage. by a grenade ; and the six work forces who die with him on the foray are likely killed by machine-gun slugs. Raleigh dies onstage of a shell lesion to his dorsum. The drama ends with a shell falling on the dug-out. There is besides physical struggle when Hibbert strikes at Stanhope on page 55. Stanhope breaks the stick and prepares to hit Hibbert for striking an officer and deserting. However. there is besides struggle between characters here. Hibbert is determined to go forth the Front Line ; Stanhope is determined he stays.
Conflict: Stanhope and Raleigh
There is a changeless struggle between Stanhope and Raleigh. caused by Raleigh being posted to Stanhope’s company. It begins on page 18. when Stanhope considers Raleigh’s reaching to be more than a happenstance. doing him afraid of what Raleigh will believe of him and what he might compose about him to Madge. It ends movingly at the terminal of the drama when Raleigh is brought. deceasing. to Stanhope in the dug-out. One really powerful minute in this struggle starts on page 88 when Raleigh comes into the dug-out after losing the dinner on the dark of Osborne’s decease. and ends on page 91. the decision of the scene.