Keystone XL Pipeline Essay Sample
The Keystone XL Pipeline system is used for transporting oil from the Athabasca oil littorals in Alberta Canada to the United States. There are four different stages of this grapevine. Phases one and two are already complete. The first stage of the grapevine starts at the Keystone Hardisty Terminal in Canada and Michigans at Wood River and Patoka. Illinois. and so phase two starts in Steele City. Nebraska and stretches down to Cushing. Oklahoma. The completed grapevine is over 2000 stat mis long. Then you have phase three that would transport the oil to Nederland. Texas and Houston. Texas. Phase four is would get down in Alberta. Canada and run through Montana and South Dakota and articulation with the bing grapevine in Steele City. Nebraska ( Keystone XL Pipeline Project ) . The oil will be transported to oil refineries located in Illinois. Oklahoma and The Gulf Coast of Texas. There are two current grapevines coming from Alberta. Canada to the United States.
Keystone stage one was wholly built in 2010 and set in approximately 1900 mile grapevine from Hardisty. Alberta. Canada to America’s Midwest and is linking about 35 100 barrels of oil per twenty-four hours to Illinois. Keystone phase two was built in 2011 added 300 stat mis to Oklahoma increasing to 590. 000 barrels of oil per twenty-four hours. TransCanada is already looking into the hereafter with Keystone stage three trusting to be built off the Gulf Coast increasing to 1. 1 million barrels of oil per twenty-four hours. Like all other grapevines. the undertaking must procure licenses. land rights and other commercial contracts in the United States and Canada to continue. The oil brought into the United States from the Athabasca oil littorals is bitumen and demands to be exhaustively cleaned. which means firing it at a high temperature. and this will take to air pollution and higher nursery emanations. Environmental organisations have been buttonholing against the grapevine due to the possible negative impact it can hold on air. H2O and wildlife. President Obama postponed any determination until 2013 ( Confronting Keystone Again ) .
The 4th stage of the grapevine has many different proposed waies as one way has the grapevine traveling through the Ogallala aquifer ( Environmental Impact Of The Keystone XL Project ) . An oil spill in that country could pollute the full H2O reservoir. It is said that Canadian and American people can non hold on the same thing. but the Keystone XL Pipeline Project has made that statement incorrect. As of today some Americans and Canadians have to the full committed to the building of the Pipeline from Hardisty. Alberta to Steele City. Nebraska. Although both sides of the lodger agree to the fullest on the grapevine ; the president of the United States of America does non hold. TransCanada who is the lead manufacturer of the grapevine has applied for a Presidential Permit. which is required as the grapevine will traverse the Canada/U. S. boundary line. in the yesteryear which in 2010 was passed as the same in 2011. but now in 2012 it has been declined. TransCanada has re-applied on May 4th 2012 and is expecting blessing within the first one-fourth of 2013 ( Keystone XL Pipeline Project ) .
Those who are in support of this grapevine have many grounds they have come up with to demo why everyone else should besides back up this grapevine. Today. about half of the oil used in The United States is imported for foreign states and will increase as we use up domestic resources. Reducing our dependence foreign oil would assist excite the economic system. cut down of all time increasing oil monetary values and our duty in the Middle East would be lessened. Although lessen America’s dependance on foreign oil is impossible unless everyone uses less and seeks other signifiers of renewable resources. The undertaking will make 20. 000 high pay occupations and 118. 000 spin off occupations from the building. I do hold that we need more occupations and building is one manner to make more occupations. but there are other things that could be built that will non merely make building occupations. but besides occupations inside the construction once it is built.
Independent surveies find during the life span of the grapevine it will lend $ 5. 2 billion in belongings revenue enhancements to communities along the path. Grapevines are the safest methods for the transit of crude oil merchandises compared to other methods. Harmonizing to The International Tanker Owners Pollution the figure of spills during the 2000‘s have decreased dramatically to 3. 7 % . TransCanada would be responsible to protect human wellness and the environment ( Keystone XL Pipeline Project ) . Oil spills are more common than TransCanada wants to demo. That oil spill has cost BP tonss and tonss of money and so the consequence to the ecosystem is atrocious ( Environmental Impact Of The Keystone XL Project ) . In Michigan in 2010 about one million gallons of oil was spilled into the Kalamazoo River by Enbridge. and will be around 800 million dollars to clean up. The company besides knew prior to the Kalamazoo River catastrophe that the subdivision of grapevine was damaged. Enbridge was besides connected to an oil spill in Wisconsin of 1000 barrels ( Hall. Jim ) .
The grapevines will hold to inspected and maintained to guarantee there is no oil spill in the Midwest. I can merely conceive of the sum of harm done if an oil spill hit in Nebraska or Kansas merely earlier harvest clip. TransCanada has already run this grapevine through the Dakotas. Nebraska. Missouri. Illinois. and Oklahoma. TransCanada proctors and controls our grapevine systems from a computerized control centre that is staffed 24 hours a twenty-four hours. If an oil spill were to happen. TransCanada is able to close down the grapevine and insulate the affected pipe subdivision from service within proceedingss ( Keystone XL Pipeline Project ) . Oil spills make one of the biggest musss and can kill an full ecosystem ( EPA Objects To Keystone Pipeline Expansion ) . We saw what happened in the H2O with the oil spill in the gulf seashore. and now we are speaking about it on land. What will go on if the oil lines interruption and destroy harvests and citizens dreams? It is clip to halt the Keystone Pipeline XL Project before oil covers the heartland.