The process received a fillip after Drucker (and others) stressed the role of knowledge as an organization resource, and Senge popularized ‘learning organizations’ Objective of knowledge management: The purpose of KM is to gather, categorize, store and spread all knowledge that is needed to make the organization both grow and prosper. It is not as much a technology change as it is a cultural change, Value of knowledge management : Organizations compete increasingly on the base of knowledge (the only sustainable competitive advantage, according to some) * Most of the work is information based (and often immersed in a computing environment) * The products, services, and environment are more complex than ever before * Workforces are increasingly unstable leading to escalating demands for knowledge replacement/acquisition The Knowledge management benefits can be categorized into three which include: * knowledge benefits intermediate benefits * organizational benefits A typical example would be of an organization such as a manufacturing firm or an academic institution or a government agency which has numerous physical files. Categorization and segregation into working databases allows the employees who need specific information to access the databases more efficiently through word or category searches instead of having to sift through so many folders.
Updating of these databases will also result in having the most recent and relevant information and knowledge stored and easily accessible by any employee who may need any specific information These are the benefits which will have an impact on the way an organization thinks and operates to achieve its objective, for example, to provide quality education, quality products and services, or quality programs to bring about the good of civil society.
In a constantly evolving and competitive environment, organizations are faced with the problem of having to continuously improve in the area of creating innovative products and service that would meet the constantly evolving needs and wants of their customers. Patronage from customers is the only way ahead for the success of any organization both small and big.
Considering the huge number of physical files in an organization example, as the databases are organized the decision maker has the necessary information and knowledge to substantiate or justify research and development initiatives that leads to more innovations which in turn leads to the creation of new products and services. These initiatives may seem a bit costlier for the company in the beginning stages. But if these initiatives when looked at on a long-term perspective help the organization to create products and services and then sell them to a market that needs or wants them.
This helps the organization to actually reap the rewards of satisfied customers translating into increased sales revenues which helps offset the initial capital sunk into the research and development initiatives. ) Searching for knowledge and receiving knowledge 2) Restructuring the knowledge 3) Making knowledge explicit 4) Associating the knowledge with the actions described in the process model 5) Making knowledge available for actions which need it and delivering it to the right agents in the right moment 6) Updating knowledge and change management ) Quality management A. Searching and Receiving Knowledge * Data, information and knowledge does not come from itself * Some sources of knowledge are known, others have to be found * The management’s task is to: 1. Get an overview over sources and organize the search for them 2. Determine the times (or periods) when sources have new knowledge 3. Organize the access to and the flow from the sources 4. Receive the demanded knowledge properly 5. Classify and receive the knowledge which came in but not on demand * Sources 1.
Document Oriented Knowledge Structure 2. Tables 3. Content Oriented Knowledge Structures 4. Linguistic tools, Thesaurus etc. are useful. B. Restructuring Knowledge The task of the knowledge management is to organize Restructuring Pointing out weaknesses and getting other sources Restructuring has two aspects: * Restructuring of a single input document * Embed in or distribute the input over the whole knowledge structure Different agents may need knowledge C. Making Knowledge Explicit It is the purpose of data mining techniques to make knowledge in data bases explicit.
The knowledge management has to organize this: * Where are weak points ? * Which information can be helpful for improvement ? * How to obtain the information ? Knowledge in texts can at least partially be made explicit by * Extracting key words\ * extracting phrases * extracting abstracts D. Which Knowledge for What ? Knowledge in business Is oriented on business processes Influences partially the general structure of the Processes Has to allow a fast and optimal representation of the knowledge in actual contexts E. Organizing the Use of Knowledge Missing Knowledge creates errors * Too much knowledge confuses * Knowledge for each task has to be accessible for the right persons at the right time at the right place in the needed format * This task is very complex and uses different techniques F. Change Management * Knowledge is not invariant but undergoes continuous changes. These changes have to be reported at the right time to those agents who need it. * The report can be given on demand as well as proactive. * The change management organizes this in a systematic way.
G. Quality Management * Quality decreases over time due to changes (external as well as internal) if no reaction takes place. The quality of the processes has to be controlled continuously: 1. Observation of the environment data 2. Observation of the process * Interpretation of observed data on the basis of quality models. * The results of the control are transformed into actions which re-establish the quality. * The knowledge manager has to ensure the quality of the knowledge and has in particular to deal with knowledge gaps.
Technology is a primary enabler of KM practices Technologies Supporting knowledge management : 1. Project management 2. Work flow 3. Extranets 4. Document management 5. Web conferencing 6. Decision support system 7. Data warehouse 8. Groupware 9. Intranet Examples of company implementing knowledge management 1. Pfizer credits KM practices for discovering the hidden benefits of the Viagra drug. 2. Chase Manhattan, one of the largest banks in the US, used Customer relationship management KM initiatives to increase its annual revenue by 15% 3.
Ford Motor Company accelerated its concept-to-production time from 36 months to 24 months 4. Rolls-Royce’s Knowledge Acquisition and Modeling Process improves project management processes. 5. Shell Oil’s Global Learning and Development involves continuous learning around the exploration and production process 6. World Bank Institute focused on improving development projects funded through the World Bank. Top ten world wide companies I knowledge management : 1. 80-20 2. Appian 3. Astoria 4. ATG 5. Attensity 6. Avenue A|Razorfish 7. Autonomy 8. AXS-One 9. Basis Technology 10. Butterworth-Heinemann