Kumbh Mela

9 September 2016

The enormous losses of vegetables produced in the country are mainly because of the lack of proper infrastructure for storage and transportation under controlled conditions. Of late, Supply Chain Management (SCM) is gaining importance due to globalization. A supply chain is a set of three or more organizations linked directly by one or more of the upstream or downstream flows of products, services, finances, and information from a source to a customer.

Supply chain management, then, endorses a supply chain orientation, and involves proactively managing the two-way movement and co-ordination of goods, services, information and funds (i. e. the various flows) from raw material through to end user. In this survey we have collected various information regarding the growth and input factor affecting the production of fruits and vegetables through various sources like journals, government report, Centre for monitoring Indian economy pvt. Ltd. CMIE) report, Indian institute of vegetable research etc as our secondary data sources, while actual survey data as primary data source. This rural survey was conducted using participatory approaches, including meetings with beneficiaries, interviews with local person, children over and under 14 years, women and key people related to these schemes in agriculture sector. We with our team made several site visits for the programs running by central government to discuss schemes implementation with people directly.

Kumbh Mela Essay Example

In combination with these processes, we also conducted a literature review of pertinent material (including sector-specific studies, research journals, CMIE data, research by private institutions and the Government of India, as well as research documents). The outcome of this survey gave us the proper status of the schemes running in Ganga belt. It also helps us to under why the schemes fail or it does not have the desire outcome with which it was started. The outcome of this survey provides us with ground level data which help us in introspecting the causes of the schemes success and failure

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY INTRODUCTION AND RESEARCH MEHODOLOGY India is the land where there is diversity not only in religion, tradition, language, caste, creed , colour but also in the climatic and soil condition . In India total geographical area is around 328 million hectare and it constitute net sown area of 140,861 thousand hectare and gross sown area of around 166,009 hectares . Agriculture is the backbone of Indian Economy. About 65% of Indian population depends directly on agriculture and it accounts for around 22% of GDP.

Agriculture derives its importance from the fact that it has vital supply and demand links with the manufacturing sector. During the past five years agriculture sector has witnessed spectacular advances in the production and productivity of food grains, oilseeds, commercial crops, fruits, vegetables, food grains, poultry and dairy. India has emerged as the second largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world. Of all the states of India U. P has a significant role in Agricultural production in which 45% of the total land mass is utilized for production where gross sown area 24,927 hectares and net sown area 16,417 hectares.

The population of India is increasing at a very fast rate, the present population is around 1. 21 billion and to cater this large population we need 268. 6 million tonnes of food but the total domestic food production is 218. 2 million tonnes of food. 26% of the population is below poverty line and are not able to buy their first meal. There are large number of Fruits & vegetables grown in U. P region like potato ,onion ,cabbage , cauliflower , chilly , garlic , ladyfinger , oilseed , brinjal ,tobacco ,mango , guava , watermelon and many more .

Allahabad constitute a very important role in vegetable and fruit production especially mango , guava , watermelon ,potato ,onion , chilly , garlic etc . it is consumed not only in the vicinity of Allahabad but it is also transported to various other major states of India like Maharashtra ,Gujarat , Delhi etc. Allahabad has a very fertile land because of the efficient rainfall and most importantly its presence near the gangetic plain which makes the land very fertile and rich in minerals which enhances the productivity of land . the gangetic region of starts from himachal Pradesh from where it enters in U.

P region and it passes through Kanpur ,Allahabad and then enters in bihar. The gangetic region of Allahabad constitute shringverpur ,phaphamau, shivkuti ,allapur, jhunsi and from there ganga meets the river Yamuna and saraswati and form Sangam . this gives a value addition in the soil of Allahabad because it is situated at the confluence of the three river which enhances the fertility of the soil. There has been tremendous increase in production of vegetables in UP. In vegetable production, UP ranks second among all states after West Bengal.

Vegetables are grown all over the state on an area of more than 13 lakh hectares producing more than 248 lakh tons. Major vegetables are potato, tomato and peas (leading state), sweet potato (second among states), cabbage (sixth among states). The major pocket areas for vegetable production in Uttar Pradesh are Saharanpur, Meerut, Gaziabad, Agra, Mathura, Mainpuri, Etawah, Farrukhabad, Kannauj, Lucknow, Unnao, Sultanpur, Allahabad, Kaushambi, Pratapgarh, Varanasi, Jaunpur, Ghazipur, Basti, Sant Kabir Nagar, Sidharth Nagar, Ballia, Gorakhpur, Kushinagar and Maharajganj.

Marketing of Horticultural Agri-produce in UP is regulated by the Krishi Utpadan Mandi Adhiniyam, 1964. Under this act, there is one state owned Rajya Krishi Utpadan Mandi Parishad. Rajya Krishi Utpadan mandi Parishad was established at the state level in the year of 1973. Under the horticulture mission, UP has targeted to produce 145 Lakh MT of Potato, 380 Lakh MT of fruits and 131 Lakh metric tones of vegetables in the year 2009/10. The total per capita consumption of fruits in UP is around 2 kg and for vegetable it is 7 kg.

There are various research institute conducting research on improved variey of fruits and vegetables like Indian Institute of vegetable research and fertility of the soil both these factors form a very strong base for vegetable and fruit production but the also because of the few factors Allahabad is not able to give its maximum and the plight of farmers is increasing day by day and that is the reason that we the student of MNNIT has conducted a research survey. OBJECTIVE

The prime objective of a our survey is to decipher the laguna in the production of vegetables and fruits and to understand the the plight of farmers in carrying out agricultural activity like how they do the faming activity , their awareness level regarding government schemes and improved variety of seeds ,what is the condition of supply chain , the availability of storage house , transport and infrastructure facility , in short we can say total study revolve around production level at farmer stage to its supply in the mandi for sale and transport to other city and states . his will give the idea of factors which throw some light on poor plight of farmers and how this problem can be resolved . RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Meaning of Research Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. Once can also define research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation. The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English lays down the meaning of research as “a careful investigation or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge. Redman and Mory define research as a “systematized effort to gain new knowledge. ”Some people consider research as a movement, a movement from the known to the unknown. It is actually a voyage of discovery. We all possess the vital instinct of inquisitiveness for, when the unknown confronts us, we wonder and our inquisitiveness makes us probe and attain full and fuller understanding of the unknown. This inquisitiveness is the mother of all knowledge and the method, which man employs for obtaining the knowledge of whatever the unknown, can be termed as research.

Research is an academic activity and as such the term should be used in a technical sense. According to Clifford Woody research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organising and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis. D. Slesinger and M.

Stephenson in the Encyclopaedia of Social Sciences define research as “the manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalising to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the practice of an art. ”3 Research is, thus, an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement. It is the persuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment. In short, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solution to a problem is research.

The systematic approach concerning generalisation and the formulation of a theory is also research. As such the term ‘research’ refers to the systematic method NEED OF SURVEY For the about said reasons the government both central and state has from time to time introduce different schemes for the proper upliftment of agriculture sector as a whole. These schemes have wide diversity some are meant for increasing productivity rate for farmers. These schemes have immensely helped our rural sector to increase their productivity rate thus strengthening the agriculture sector.

But in spite of all these and many more schemes the ground implementation of these programmes are very low. The schemes are prepared on government papers and remains there. The utility which they should be generating is not up to the expectations and so the people are not benefitting from them at all or they are partially benefitted to overcome all these surveys are needed from time to time to check the implementation of any schemes at ground level. This motivates us to perform rural survey about production of agriculture products in area around Allahabad and to check whether they are really benefitting the rural areas or not.

Objectives of Research The purpose of research is to discover answers to questions through the application of scientific procedures. The main aim of research is to find out the truth which is hidden and which has not been discovered as yet. Though each research study has its own specific purpose, we may think of research objectives as falling into a number of following broad groupings: 1. To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it (studies with this object in view are termed as exploratory or formulative research studies); 2.

To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group (studies with this object in view are known as descriptive research studies); 3. To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else (studies with this object in view are known as diagnostic research studies); 4. To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables (such studies are known as hypothesis-testing research studies). Our objective is to understand the Supply Chain Management of Fruits and Vegetables in Ganga Basin at Allahabad.

First we have done Literature Review for understanding the basis Agriculture scenario in Allahabad and its nearby area in Literature Review we studied various report like Government of India Reports, Center for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE), Reports from various Institute in Agriculture Sector and other various literature related to this and then we had prepare a Questionnaire in which questions for various concern related to farmers are compiled together and then we did a Survey nearby area of Allahabad such as Raiya, Sauraov, Sultanpur akbar, Holagad and Shrgverpur.

In this survey we have collected various information regarding the growth and input factor affecting the production of fruits and vegetables through various sources like journals , government report ,Centre for monitoring Indian economy pvt. Ltd. (CMIE) report ,Indian institute of vegetable research etc. based on the data provided by these sources we have done analysis of the current situation in comparison to earlier stuation . e came to know various factors like rainfall diversity , different types of soil in different parts , kinds of fruits and vegetables grown in different region , how the gangetic plain has a supremacy over the production of wide variety of fruits and vegetables ,how the farmers conduct the farming activity ,middleman involvement , finance provided by financing organization , e-chaupals being organized to assist the farmers ,what is the role of fruits and vegetables in the food security , supply chain affecting the transportation of produced product etc.

After Having Responses of Questionnaire, we have to compile all the responses in one place for interpreting it. For this we took the help of SPSS Software then FORMULATION For proper carrying out of rural survey we first formulate strategy to select the target area where this survey could be carried out. We choose outskirts of Ganga vasin of Allahabad as our target area as it is one of important city of Uttar Pradesh and also have large rural areas near it which is suited for this kind of survey. Also the areas are mostly connected through roads movement from one place to other place for data collection will not be a problem. METHODOLOGY

This rural survey was conducted using participatory approaches, including meetings with beneficiaries, interviews with local person, children over and under 14 years, women and key people related to these schemes in agriculture sector. We with our team made several site visits for the programs running by central government to discuss schemes implementation with people directly. In combination with these processes, we also conducted a literature review of pertinent material (including sector-specific studies, research journals, CMIE data, research by private institutions and the Government of India, as well as research documents).

FINDINGS The outcome of this survey gave us the proper status of the schemes running in Ganga belt. It also helps us to under why the schemes fail or it does not have the desire outcome with which it was started. The outcome of this survey provides us with ground level data which help us in introspecting the causes of the schemes success and failure. FIELD OF STUDY Our study is in following areas: 1. Various subsidies by the government 2. Availability of resources 3. Agricultural financing schemes 4. Vegetables storage facilities 5. Irrigation facilities 6.

Means of transportation 7. Role of intermediaries 8. Types of vegetables 9. Vegetables Market 10. Availability of labour 11. Capital required for production 12. Ratio between input and output 13. Alternative Employment 14. Financing scheme by the government We have selected SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT OF VEGETABLES for study. We know that this is originally a subject of field study where collection of data and personal observation as well as investigation is most important. We also know that a farmer is not only a person of a particular but also an active member of society.

As an active member of society He /She should always deal with the improvement of society CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW LITRETURE REVIEW Extending between 8°4? and 37°6? N, and 68°7? and 97°25? E, India is the world’s second most populous nation (est. 1. 14 out of 6. 62 billion (UNFPA, 2007). Bound by the Himalayas to the north, and tapering into the Indian Ocean between the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea, the Indian subcontinent covers 3. 29 million km2 —just 2. 4% of the world land area, yet it supports 15% of the global population.

One-third of India’s population is under the age of 15. Rainfall patterns vary across the subcontinent. There are six broad climatic types, from arid desert to alpine to humid tropical, with four seasons: winter (January-February), summer (March to May), monsoon (June to September) and post-monsoon (October to December). The Himalayas block cooling winds from the north, so winters in India are milder and summers hotter. The climate is essentially ? tropical? for much of the subcontinent aside from the north-eastern areas and the Himalayan foothills.

Cropping is in two seasons: kharif and rabi. Rabi is the spring harvest season, with crops sown September to November and extending up into February and March, with most productivity in areas that receive the north-east monsoon. The kharif is the main cropping season in much of India, commencing in June with the south-west monsoon and extending into autumn (September to November). Most of the rain, tank, and canal-fed areas are cropped in the kharif. Frequency of Monsoon Failure Monsoon failure is experienced in some parts of the country almost every year.

The long-term trend shows that drought is experienced at least once in five years inall the states except in the north-east. The periodicity of drought is as high as once in three years in states like Rajasthan, AndhraPradeh, Haryana, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir and west Uttar Pradesh (Table 1). Further, besides amount of rainfall, its distribution is also an important determinant of the level of farm production. In some years crop Output turned out to be higher than normal even under rainfall deficit, and vice versa.

According to official sources, monsoon rains are erratic 40% of the time (GOI 2009). This implies that monsoon rains follow a pattern in which the behaviour of monsoon is close to the long-term average of the pattern in 60% of the cases, while in 40% of the cases it deviates from the long-term average of the pattern. The probability of erratic monsoons being as high as 40% requires a strategy to adjust to such pattern; otherwise we would be losing out on precious production in four out of 10 years. Gigantic region The river Ganga has significant economic, environmental and cultural value in India.

Rising in the Himalayas and flowing in to the Bay of Bengal, the river traverses a course of more than 2,500 km through the plains of north and eastern India. The Ganga basin – which also extends into parts of Nepal, China and Bangladesh – accounts for 26 per cent of India‘s landmass, 30 per cent of its water resources and more than 40 per cent of its population. The Ganga also serves as one of India‘s holiest rivers whose cultural and spiritual significance transcends the boundaries of the basin. India is drained by more than 12 major river systems (basins) with a catchment area of more than 2,500,000 Sqkm.

These river systems are grouped into four broad categories: the Himalayan rivers, the Peninsular rivers, the Coastal rivers and the Inland rivers. In addition to the Ganga, the Himalayan river system includes the Indus and Brahmaputra river basins. The Ganga River (about 2525 km long) is fed by runoff from a vast land area bounded by the snow peaks of the Himalaya in the north and the peninsular highlands and the Vindhya Range in the south. The basin encompasses an area of more than a million square kilometers (1,186,000 Sqkm) spread over four countries: India, Nepal, Bangladesh and China.

With 861,404 Sqkm within India itself, the Ganga basin is the largest river basin in India and covers approximately 25 per cent of India‘s total geographical area. [pic] FIG-1 SOURCE : Ministry of External Affairs. 2007. Agriculture overview The Ganga River flows through the five states of Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal. The extent of the entire Ganga basin is, however, spread over six more states (Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh and Rajasthan) in addition to the aforementioned five.

The extent of river Ganga within these states is given in Table 2. 2 and Figure 2. 1. In the entire basin, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand together share the maximum basin area of 34%, followed by Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Jharkhand. The Indo-Gangetic Alluvial Plains (IGP) is among the most extensive fluvial plains of the world and cover several states of the northern, central and eastern parts of India. The IGP occupies a total area of approximately 43. 7 m ha and represent eight agro-ecological regions (AER) and 14 agro-ecological subregions.

The area of the IGP is nearly 13% of the total geographical area of the country, and it produces about 50% of the total foodgrains ,Fruits and vegetables to feed 40% of the population of the country. The IGP developed mainly by the alluvium of the Indus, Yamuna, Ganga, Ramganga, Ghagra, Rapti, Gandak, Bhagirathi, Silai, Damodar, Ajay and Kosi rivers. Due to the very fertile land, Gigantic plain is very rich in production of vegetables like Potato, Tomato, Onion, Sweet Potato, Cabbage, Brinjal, Pees, Carrot and many more.

It also provide proper facility for irrigation either by canals, by increasing water level , which increases the percentage yield of a crop compare to other regions. Most of U. P. come under gigantic plain. Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh is Located in the Northern region of India which has a population of 166 million, making it India’s most populous state (16% of India). The state occupies an area of 240, 928 sq km (9% of India) and covers a large part of the highly fertile and densely populated upper Gangetic plain.

The state shares an international border with Nepal and is bounded by the Indian states of Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Bihar Its administrative and Legislative capital is Lucknow, and the Financial and Industrial capital is Kanpur. Based on agro-climatic conditions, the state is divided into 9 zones as Terai region, western plain region, central western region, south western region, central plain region, bundelkhand region, north eastern plain region, eastern plain region and Vindhya region.

In the Terai region, part of the district Saharanpur, Muzzafarnagar, Bijnaur, Moradabad, Rampur, Bareilly, Pilibhit, Shahjahanpur, Lakhimpur, Bahraich and Shravasti are the districts. The soil type of this zone is mostly alluvial and clayey alluvial and contains sufficient quantity of carbonic materials. The average annual rainfall of this zone is 1150 mm. In Western Plan Region, Bijnaur, Moradabad, Jyoti-ba-phule Nagar, Rampur, Bareilly, Badaun and Pilibhit are the major districts under this zone. This is very fertile region and the soil type is mostly sandy & clayey the average annual rainfall of this zone is 700-1000 mm.

The Central Western Region comprises Saharanpur, Muzzafarnagar, Meerat, Bagpat, Ghaziabad, Gautambudh Nagar and Buland Shahar districts. The soil of this region are clayey- alluvial alluvial, sandy alluvial and sandy types. The average annual rainfall of this zone is 600-965 mm. Agra, Firozabad, Mainpri, Etah, Aligarh, Mahamaya, Nagar and Mathura districts fall under the South-Western Region. The soil is mostly of aravalli, sandy, sandy-alluvial, alluvial & clayey alluvial type. Some area also has saline & sodic soils. The average annual rainfall of this zone is 750 mm.

Allahabad Allahabad is located at in the southern part of the Uttar Pradesh at an elevation of 98 metres (322 ft) and stands at the confluence of two rivers, the Ganges and Yamuna. The region was known in antiquity as the Vats country. Allahabad is one of the fastest growing cities in India at present. The ancient name of the city is Prayaga (Sanskrit for “place of sacrifice”), as it is believed to be the spot where Brahma offered his first sacrifice after creating the world. It is one of four sites of the mass Hindu pilgrimage Kumbh Mela.

The land of the Allahabad district that falls between the Ganges and Yamuna is just like the rest of Doab, fertile but not too moist, and is especially suitable for the cultivation of wheat, rice, vegetables and fruits. If we talk about vegetables potato, onion, garlic, carrot, cabbage, brinjal, pees, cauliflower generally find out at Allahabad. If we talk about fruits Allahabad is famous for its Guvava and other fruits like mangoes, banana, papaya, litchi are also found. Agriculture Production [pic] FIG-2 SOURCE: Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute, Indian Council of Agricultural Research.

Agriculture is the dominant economic activity in the state of Uttar Pradesh. The state has experienced rapid structural changes in the process of economic development. The demographic changes along with improving infrastructures, have inflated land values and crop prices, a trend which has converted agriculture into a potentially highly profitable enterprise. Many researchers have reported about the gradual transformation of farmmen into business-men; they have specialized, developed more efficient managerial techniques and utilized the total resources on their farms more intelligently.

The transition in agriculture is also accompanied by globalization of the marketplace, adoption of technological advances and expansion of government policies designed to support agriculture. Agricultural diversification in the state is highly intensified towards fruits and vegetables production, associated with diversification of diet, meeting the changing domestic market demand and increasing the export potential. Cultivation of fruits and vegetables crops has made rapid strides over the past two decades and has been one of the most rapidly expanding sectors of the state agriculture.

The resultant diversification which is due to favourable agro-climatic conditions suitable for cultivation of a wide range of fruits and vegetables, offers a higher income-generating strategy to a large number of marginal farmers of the state (75. 6% of the state operational landholdings account for marginal farmers). The state is the second largest horticultural producer in the country, with 11. 16 per cent contribution to the national horticultural production. and ranks third in vegetables production, contributing around 16 per cent to the country’s vegetables production.

It ranks first amongst Indian states in the production of fruits (7%) and potatoes (40%) out of their total production in the country. Over the past two decade, there has been a conscious and coordinated effort to diversify the agricultural base to develop domestic markets as well as increase export potential. This paper provides an assessment of agricultural diversification trends towards fruits and vegetables production in the state of Uttar Pradesh. in the first part, food consumption, crop production patterns and value of output in the region during the past two decades are reviewed.

Next, the farmers’ perceived risks on a variety of sources and the use of different risk management strategies are discussed. The principal contribution is drawing of attention towards some neglected aspects of diversification, especially the bio-physical and economic constraints to the process of fruits and vegetables production systems. The flexibility of farmers in responding to diversification opportunities is constrained by farm investment, socio-economic factors, environmental factors and marketing of fruits and vegetables.

Crop diversification to fruits and vegetables involves risks due to high resource requirements and perishable nature of the products. Starting from the socio-economic risks, environmental and marketing risks also make it a more complex farming enterprise, as perceived by the farmers. To assess the change in structure of agricultural production system, annual growth rates during pasttwo decades were estimated for area, production and yield of the selected crops in Uttar Pradesh. Data revealed that there was a sharp decline in growth of area under maize (-1. 5%) and oilseeds (-3. 69%) production during 1991-92 to 2005-06 (Table 1). The area under rice and wheat production has also experienced a negative growth during 2001-02 to 2005-06. However, during this duration, pulses were grown on more area, as is evident by a moderate growth of 1. 17 per cent in their area. The notable growth in area was recorded under vegetables production, which was 2. 12 per cent during 1991- 92 to 2001-02 and 2. 67 per cent during 2001-02 to 2005-06; the highest 3. 08 per cent being during 1991-92 to 2005-06.

It is clear that shift in most of the crop areas that occurred during 1991-92 to 2005-06 appeared to be diverted towards the production of high-value crops like fruits and vegetables. It is also evident from the Table 1 that a strong decline in production was experienced by foodgrains (-2. 04%) during 2001-02 to 2005-06 and oilseeds (-2. 12%) during 1991-92 to 2005-06, as the farmers have been induced to diversify their cropping system towards high-value commercial crops. This structural change in agricultural production s due to the socioeconomic and technological adjustments which farmers adopted to maximize their income. The area under foodgrains declined in the state mainly due to diversification of production towards horticultural crops. Production of fruits and vegetables is more profitable in comparison to cereals and other crops. Relative profitability of fruits was more than 8-times higher than other agricultural commodities, which induced the farmers to diversify in their favour for enhancing their income. Cucrops is more suited to the small farm holders, since these crops are labour-intensive and provide regular flow of income.

However, the absence of appropriate markets and rise in supply may adversely affect the prices and opportunities for higher income to smallholders (Joshi et al. , 2005). India ranks first in global production of okra; and second in cabbage,cauliflower, eggplant, pea, onion, and tomato; and third for potato. However, yields/ha are not world-ranking, except in the case of tomato (highest in world ranking of yield), okra, and cauliflower (equivalent to world averages) (Working Group on Horticulture, Plantation Crops and Organic Farming, 2007).

Between 2000/01 and 2004/05, production changes of major commodities varied from a reduction of -4. 2%/annum (for cauliflower), to an increase of 37. 2% /annum (for onions), with onion production showing strongest growth from 2002/03 to 2004/05. Area under production for most major commodities expanded more slowly, or declined (cauliflower) between 2000/01 and 2004/05, with the area under onions rising sharply between 2002-03 and 2005/05 to meet export opportunities.

Production of spices also is very significant (Appendix 1). The area of harvest of chili (771,200 ha) exceeded that of eggplant (530,300 ha) in 2004-05 but productivity was low (NHB, 2006; Spices Board of India, 2007) Area under vegetables and annual production vary considerably among states and regions with production highest in West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, and Bihar Some production from several states also supplies major cities.

Of the states with populations exceeding 2 million, state-wise per capita production is highest in West Bengal, Orissa, and Nagaland, and lowest in Rajastan , Madhya Pradesh, and ManipurOne trend that is boosting the growth of vegetable production (and thus cropping diversification), is the expansion of contract farming in many states (Ahluwalia, 2005) fostered by marketing alliances (such as the village-level associations promoted by Mother Dairy Fruits and Vegetables

Ltd, a subsidiary of the National Dairy Development Board (Birthal and Joshi, 2007) and restrictions in India’s laws on agricultural land, which prevent corporate bodies (investors) from operating large-scale farms. Under such cooperative arrangements, corporate buyers select suitable areas, organize farmers to produce the crops they require under contract, and provide them with planting material and technical supervision. This reduces risks for farmers and improves buyer access to the quality and types of produce needed.

The vegetable growing sector comprises the production of trade in fresh and refrigerated vegetable varieties of underground (roots, tubers) and above ground parts of herbaceious plants (fruits, stems and leaves etc. ) The sector can be divided into products originating from protected vegetable-growing and from outdoor cultivation. India is the second largest producer of Vegetables in the world (after China) with an average production of 50. 99 million tonnes. India also produces 18. 3 million tonnes of tubers and root crops annually.

It is estimated that requirements of vegetable in the country would be about two to three times more than present production. Both area and productivity have to be increased to meet the national requirement of vegetables. The important vegetables grown are potatoes, onions, green peas, cauliflower, okra, cabbage, tomatoes, eggplant, carrots, green chillies. The estimated production is of 67. 0 million tonnes grown over about 6. 25 million hectare. India, again ranks second in the world production after China.

Many exotics and luxury vegetables like gourds, pumpkins, leeks, mushrooms, asparagus, cucumbers are also grown. In a small way some organically grown vegetables are also available. In a recent development many technically qualified professionals have adapted to modern methods of cultivation and mechanized farming. Some glass and polyhouses to grow flowers and vegetables are also coming up. Production of vegetables is estimated at 67. 0 million tonnes. It exports about 400 thousand tonnes of vegetables valued at Rs. 200 million. Sources of Risks in Fruits and Vegetables Production Environmental Risks- Agricultural production takes place in an environment characterized by highly variable biophysical, economic, political and institutional conditions, which poses several types of risks. Risk perceptions play a key role in the production and investment behaviour of farmers. But, only limited attention has been paid to understand its nature and distribution in cash-crop farming such as fruits and vegetables.

To get a deeper understanding of the major factors constraining production of fruits and vegetables, an analysis of the farmers’ perception on major sources (investment, socio-economic, environmental, production and marketing) of risks in fruits and vegetables was carried out. The mean and standard deviations (SD) in farmers’ responses towards various drivers of investment risks in production of fruits and vegetables were analyzed separately (Table 4).

The rising cost of fuels has been perceived as the most important risk in production of both fruitSocial risks in production of fruits and vegetables are associated with human resources and legal issues. The major sources of social risks are family issues, healthcare, government regulations, laws, liability and unemployment. In addition, farmers face uncertainty about the economic consequences of their actions due to their limited ability to foresee factors like change in prices and biological responses to different farming practices. The farmers’s and vegetables.

The other important sources of risk in this category are lack of or poor electric supply, lack of irrigation facilities and deficiency of micronutrients. perceptions about the socio-economic sources of risks in fruits and vegetables production are presented in Table 5. Poor linkages in research and extension (mean 3. 87) were found to be the top ranked sources of risks, followed by lack of capital (mean 3. 78), lack of storage facilities for farm produce (mean 3. 66), inadequacy of land (mean 3. 51), lack of training facilities (mean 3. 51), poor access to credit (mean 3. 0) and land fragmentation (mean 3. 35). Market Risks The marketing of fruits and vegetables has become one of the critical areas where farmers are exploited. Market risks are the result of variations in supply and demand for crops that are not subjected to price controls and the inability of controlled markets to respond timely and efficiently to changes in the market conditions. Variations in theprice fetched by the farmers are a reflection of the market risk. Moreover, market risks may be due to factors affecting the timely delivery of produce to markets or quality of produce (e. . poor feeder roads, non-existence of storage/ transportation facilities, bulk and perishable nature of the produce). Consequently, the farmers are forced to sell their produce to the traders at cheaper prices. The steep fall in market prices during the harvest season has been the most common grievance of the farmers. High perishability of fruits and vegetables is the biggest challenge to farmers and has been ranked as the highest risk with a mean score of 3. 83 (Table 8). Lack of discriminatory pricing system (mean 2. 7) based on quality and grades of produce and lack of coordination among farmers (mean 2. 92) are the other highly ranked sources of risks by the farmers. Exploitation by middlemen, lack of transparency in the marketing system, lack of information and marketing infrastructure have also been perceived as sources of market risks, but on a lower scale. market. the highest risk with a mean score of 3. 83 (Table 8). Lack of discriminatory pricing system (mean 2. 97) based on quality and grades of produce and lack of coordination among farmers (mean 2. 2) are the other highly ranked sources of risks by the farmers, Exploitation by middlemen, lack of transparency in the marketing system, lack of information and marketing infrastructure have also been perceived as sources of market risks, but on a lower scale. Nutrition value Fruits and vegetables are critical source of nutrients and other substances that help protect against chronic diseases, including heart diseases and cancer, stroke and other chronic diseases (Prior and Cao, 2000; Produce for Better Health Foundation, 1999; Quebedeaux and Elisa, 1990; Southon, 2000; Tomas-Barberan and Robins, 1997).

Fruits, and vegetables play a significant role in human nutrition, especially as sources of vitamins (C, A, B6, thiamine, niacin, E), minerals, and dietary fiber (Quebedeaux and Bliss, 1988). Their contribution as a group is estimated at 91% of vitamin C, 48% of vitamin A, 30% of folacin, 27% of vitamin B6, 17% of thiamine, and 15% of niacin in the U. S. diet. Fruits and vegetables also supply 16% of magnesium, 19% of iron, and 9% of the calories. Other important nutrients supplied by fruits and vegetables include folacin, riboflavin, zinc, calcium, potassium, and phosphorus.

Some components of fruits and vegetables are strong antioxidants and function to modify the metabolic activation and detoxification disposition of carcinogens, or even influence processes that alter the course of the tumor cell (Wargovich, 2000). Food Security Food security refers to the availability of food and one’s access to it. A household is considered food-secure when its occupants do not live in hunger or fear of starvation. According to the World Resources Institute, global per capita food production has been increasing substantially for the past several decades. 1] In 2006, MSNBC reported that globally, the number of people who are overweight has surpassed the number who are undernourished – the world had more than one billion people who were overweight, and an estimated 800 million who were undernourished. [2] According to a 2004 article from the BBC, China, the world’s most populous country, is suffering from an obesity epidemic. [3] In India, the second-most populous country in the world, 30 million people have been added to the ranks of the hungry since the mid-1990s and 46% of children are underweight. o commonly used definitions of food security come from the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA): 1. Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social[22] and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. [23] 2. Food security for a household means access by all members at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life.

Food security includes at a minimum (1) the ready availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods, and (2) an assured ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways (that is, without resorting to emergency food supplies, scavenging, stealing, or other coping strategies). (USDA)[ The concept of food security has undergone considerable changes in recent years. Food availability and stability were considered good measures of food security till the seventies and the achievement of self-sufficiency was accorded high priority in the food policies of developing countries.

Though India was successful in achieving self-sufficiency by increasing its food production and also improved its capacity to cope with year-to-year fluctuations in food production, it could not solve the problem of chronic household food insecurity. This necessitated a change in approach and as a result, food energy intake at household level is now given prominence in assessing food security. It has become common practice to estimate the number of food insecure households by comparing their calorie intake with required norms.

However, the widely accepted norms of the level of calorie intake required for overcoming under-nutrition have been questioned. Nutritionists argue that the energy intake is a poor measure of nutritional status, which depends not only on the nutrient intake but also on non-nutrient food attributes, privately and publicly provided inputs and health status (Martorell and Ho, 1984). The non-food factors which influence biological absorption are also considered as important for food security as food factors. It is suggested that the assessment of malnutrition should be based on outcome measures rather than input measures (ibid).

The suggested outcome measures include anthropometric measures, clinical signs of malnutrition, biochemical indicators and physical activity. Outcome indicators are more closely related to health and functional capacity. Among the outcome measures, anthropometric measures are considered to have an advantage over other indicators since body measurements are sensitive to even minor levels of malnutrition whereas biochemical and clinical indicators, on the other hand, are useful only when the level of malnutrition is extreme.

In policy design, a distinction is made between transient and chronic food security. Transitory food insecurity is associated with the risks related to either access or the availability of food during the off-season, drought and inflationary years and so forth. Policies such as those relating to price stabilization, credit, crop-insurance and temporary employment creation are initiated for stabilizing the consumption of the vulnerable groups. In contrast, the problem of chronic food insecurity is primarily associated with poverty and arises due to continuously inadequate diet.

The strategy to overcome this problem includes intervention (agricultural production programmes, infrastructure, human resource development, etc. ) to raise the purchasing power of the poor through the endowments of land and non-land assets and by generating employment opportunities, as well as long-term growthmediated interventions to improve food availability and incomes of the poor. India is one of the few countries which have experimented with a broad spectrum of programmes for improving food security.

It has already made substantial progress in terms of overcoming transient food insecurity by giving priority to self-sufficiency in foodgrains and through procurement and public distribution of foodgrains, employment programmes, etc. However, despite a significant reduction in the incidence of poverty chronic food insecurity persists in a large proportion of India’s population. At the national level, we have solved the problem of food security which is reflected in mounting buffer stocks. Yet, there are millions of food insecure and undernourished people in India. The limitation is not food supply, but food distribution.

Careful consideration of food security requires moving beyond food availability and recognizing the low incomes of the poor. It is also important to recognize the choices that households and regions face, including exploitation of natural resources when incomes fall short. Substantial human resources are wasted due to malnutrition related diseases. Vision 2020 should aim at complete eradication of food insecurity, both chronic and transient. Productivity generated by technological innovation particularly in less endowed areas and vibrant rural non-farm sector hold the key to eradicate food insecurity.

Annualised Compound Growth Rates of Food Production and Population Growth- (Per cent per annum) [pic] Table -1:Sources: FAO, State of Food and Agriculture; Govt initiatives Agriculture human resource development 1. Twenty-five new Experiential Learning Units were added to the existing 220 Units in 49 universities, to develop entrepreneurship skills amongst students. 2. Niche Area of Excellence was also supported at 30 locations to achieve global competence in agricultural research and education. 3. Hon’ble President of United States of America, Mr.

Barack Obama, visited the agricultural EXPO on 6 November 2010, organized jointly by CII and USAID in Mumbai on the theme “Tools and implements for drudgery reduction of farm women workers”. 4. He took keen interest and appreciated the women-friendly tools and implements developed by the ICAR. 5. The Institutes located at Almora and Port Blair evolve technologies to meet the needs of tribal and hill farmers. 6. Four varieties, namely two varieties of maize, one variety each of wheat and millet, were released for cultivation. 7.

The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) and Department of Agricultural Research and Education (DARE) signed an MoU with Kansas State University, Manhattan, USA and one Work Plan with International Water Management Institute for Scientific and Technical Cooperation. 8. Besides, one collaborative project was implemented in collaboration with University of Saskatoon, Canada. 9. India will be contributing US $0. 5 million under Window I and US $ 2. 36 million under Window III by the end of the financial year to CG Institutes. 10. National Agriculture innovation project

Trends In Crop Phenology At Indo Gangetic Plain- Crop productivity showed significant increasing trends in about 68% and 53% of the net-sown area(NSA) in kharif and rabi respectively;31% in kharif and 45% in rabi did not show any discernible trends. by Vinay Sehgal Division Of agriculture Physics,Indian Agriculture Research Institute ,New Delhi AgriDaksh For building online expert systems 1. AgriDaksh has modules on knowledge model creation , knowledge acquisition, problem identification, knowledge retrieval and ask questions to experts and administration. . With its use , it is possible to build online expert systems for each and every crop in lesser time and resources USAR For managing salt-affected lands and irrigation waters USAR is a user friendly field-scale Decision Support System(DSS),developed for managing enviromental and agricultural productivity related situations created by saline soils & irrigation waters. This technology has been extensively validated on several controlled experimental and farmers fields,and will be of immense value for resource management planning. Food Corporation of India

The Food Corporation of India was setup under the Food Corporation Act 1964, in order to fulfill following objectives of the Food Policy: 1. Effective price support operations for safeguarding the interests of the farmers. 2. Distribution of foodgrains throughout the country for public distribution system. 3. Maintaining satisfactory level of operational and buffer stocks of foodgrains to ensure National Food Security FCI has played a significant role in India’s success in transforming the crisis management oriented food security into a stable security system. NABARD

National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) is an apex development bank in India based in Mumbai, Maharashtra. It has been accredited with “matters concerning policy, planning and operations in the field of credit for agriculture and other economic activities in rural areas in India. NABARD and Allahabad-The Lucknow unit of the National Bank of Agriculture and Rural Development has sanctioned a project under its Rural Innovation Fund to Bioved Research Institute of Agriculture and Technology (BRIAT) Allahabad for establishment of lac cultivation processing and value addition facilities in Allahabad district. NHRDF- The NHRDF implements various projects funded by the Ministry of Agriculture Government of India; NAFED; National Horticulture Board (NHB); UNDP and ICAR on different vegetables, particularly on onion and garlic under its research and developmental programmes. The NHRDF has been considered as National Agency for implementing the different components of National Horticulture Mission (NHM) of Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperation Government of India from the year 2005-06 and onwards National Farmers Co. Operative Ltd. 1. National Farmers Co. Operative Ltd. as been registered as a notified under the section 7 of the MSCS Act 2002 (39 of 2002) and the rules framed there under. 2. Government  aid is subject to the provision of Section 61 of the MSCS Act 2002 the Central government may provide aid to National  Farmers Co-operative Ltd. , on the terms and conditions  nautically agreed eypen  in order to attain social and economic betterment through natural – aid in accordance with the Co-operative Principle. 3. KISAN SEWA KENDRAS 4. FARMER’S DEVELOPMENT BAZAARS 5. NAFO SUPER BAZARS 6. FARMING TOOL’s BAZARS 7.

NAFCO FOODS Objectives of NAFCO 1. To provide seeds, fertilizers, cattle feed and other inputs for agriculture on fair rate based from National Farmers Co-operative Ltd. ’s Kisan Sewa Kendra & Farmer Development Markets. 2. Establishment and development of rural tourism & Transport System. Animal Husbandry Systems, Agriculture Equipments, Agro Base Storage Places and etc. 3. To establish Information, Training, education, research & other centers/programme and also operate National Rural Health Programme in Agriculture, Rural and other Areas in India. . To develop employment generate industries such as milk & food processing/ Products, Extraction of Oil & Edible oils, Agro base. Enhancing production and productivity of Horticulture India is fortunate to be endowed with a variety of agro-climatic zones and has a tradition of growing a wide range horticulture produce, vegetables have the largest share of production (60. 8 %). Vegetables not only contribute to the food basket of the country but are also a highly remunerative crop, providing quick returns to the farmer per unit of area. rops and profitability of farmers can be enhanced by encouraging ‘off-season’ production under protected cultivation in green houses, shade net houses. etc for generating income round the year. Moreover, vegetables form the most important component of a balanced diet. Assured availability of affordable, safe and good quality vegetables Availability of vegetables, particularly to the urban population, presents many challenges. Issues such as assured availability of safe and good quality vegetables at affordable prices continue to be a major challenge. Addressing this concern calls for concerted action on several fronts viz. roduction, logistics covering post harvest handling, storage, transportation, marketing, distribution and policy reform. In this background, a special initiative for the development of vegetables has been mooted with 100% central assistance under the Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana. States will identify the city they wish to take up in 2011-12 and develop the project for vegetable supply to the city. Perspective plan/strategic plan will be prepared based on the Baseline survey to assess the extant vegetable supply chain to the identified city, identify bottlenecks and potential vegetable growing clusters, existing as well as potential.

The project report formulated by States should invariably contain information on geography & climate, potential of vegetable development, availability of land, SWOT analysis, and strategy for development and plan of action proposed to be taken to achieve goals in the identified city of the State. The document should focus on adoption of cluster approach for production and linking with available infrastructure, or to be created, for post harvest management, processing, marketing and export.

Vegetable Initiative beneficiaries would also be entitled for assistance under National Mission on Micro Irrigation and other Schemes of DAC/other Departments of Government of India so that these schemes can ensure appropriate synergy and convergence for maximum benefit in the field. Ministry of Agriculture will communicate tentative outlay for the year by April to each State which will prepare the project on vegetable supply to the identified city through the State Horticulture Mission (SHM)/ Directorate of Horticulture/Agriculture within allocated sum.

SHM will attempt to address all issues relating to vegetable development, covering organisation of farmers group, identify/ select Aggregators and enable tie-up with Farmers Associations/Groups, production, post harvest management and marketing. Small Farmer’s Agri Business Consortium (SFAC) Small Farmers Agribusiness Consortium will provide professional support services towards baseline surveys, organization of farmers groups in identified clusters, provision for credit with support from NABARD, assessment of technology gaps and farmers group/association tie-up with aggregators, establishment and development of PHM infrastructure.

National Horticulture Research & Development Foundation (NHRDF), Nasik NHRDF will be involved for monitoring programmes relating to development of vegetables through vegetable seed/ seedling production, demonstration and HRD and analysis of data with regard to area under production, market arrivals, farm gate, wholesale and retail prices. Vegetable retail sector and supply chain The Indian retail sector is still in its nascent stage. The economic liberalisation policies and globalisation had ignited country’s economy for faster growth. Retail sector in India is at the crossroads today.

A shift between organised and unorganised retail sector is apparent, especially in the vegetable retailing zone. This shift is a call for transfer of consumerism towards organised retailing. The penetration of organized retail in the field of vegetable retailing will face fierce resistance from traditional retailers with their existing strong foothold. This resistance from the traditional vegetable retail cannot be ignored. The most important thing to note is that the traditional retail format supports a larger population and provides direct employments.

So there is no way that government or anyone an discount these foundation stones of Indian economy. The role of government and its policy are vital in supporting, improving, and developing traditional vegetable retailers. Vegetables, fruits, and grocery play a vital role for the existence of people and also a very influencing role in the economy. Though fresh fruit, vegetable, and grocery retail has been considered as a very low-margin business, the market potential has attracted Indian business houses and corporate, driving the forays through different models like single-format, multiformat or integrated urban-rural models (Sengupta, 2008).

To attract the global leaders in vegetable retailing, the government allows foreign direct investment in cash-and-carry type business model to the tune of 100 per cent. The joint ventures of domestic Indian companies with the global players are allowed to operate in India. However, the domestic companies have controlling stake in the vegetable and grocery retail. Currently, organised retailers are anchoring the metropolitan cities and urban markets.

Traditional Indian retailers account for 12 million retail outlets all over India and more than 40 percent of them sell vegetable and grocery (IBEF, 2008). Indian food retail consists of staple commodities comprising grains, pulses, and vegetables. The Indian food retail business, especially vegetable retailing is witnessing a rapid growth in India’s organised retail sectors. The traditional retailing of vegetables is not very much organized, amounts to 97% of the total market (Ernst & Young, 2006), is extremely localised and highly fragmented with large number of intermediaries.

The intermediaries between the customers and farmers are traditional retailers with different outlet formats-mom and pop shops, non-permanent shops in the market, pavement vendors, roadside vendors and push cart vegetable sellers, wholesale traders, commission agents and auctioneers. The farmers themselves sell their produces directly to the end consumers in local markets, regulated and unregulated ‘farmer markets’, or they sell to intermediaries—agents and organised retailers. The market place is usually in close proximity to the farmland and customers accessing the market live in and around locale.

Farmers selling vegetables directly to the customer amount to very small fraction by volume. Farmers sell bulk of their produces to agents and auctioneers. The agents buy small quantities of produces from farmers and transfer it to wholesalers directly or through another agent. The auctioneers are people who enter into buying contract with farmers for whole or partial quantity of the produce and sell the produce to an agent or a wholesaler. Auctioneers also transfer the vegetables to wholesalers directly or through another agent.

Wholesalers of vegetables sell to retailers—both traditional and organised retailers, and to customers, who buy in large quantity. Cart vendors, a type of traditional retailers, buy vegetables from wholesalers or organised retailers, sell to customers in mobile carts and deliver to customers at customer’s doorsteps. Wholesale market is a vital link in vegetable supply chain. Both the traditional and organised retailers are dependent on wholesale market with different propositions. Food Mileage When selling vegetables, the vegetables have to reach the users at the minimum possible time, otherwise it becomes waste.

The food mileage of vegetables causes considerable impact on the vegetable due to its perishable nature. The term ‘Food Miles’ or ‘ Food Kilometres’ refers to the distance the food travels from the location where it is grown or processed to the location where it is consumed, or in other words, the distance food travels from farm to plate. Food miles do not refer to the input material, effort, efficiency or energy of the crop yield. Food miles are a way of attempting to measure how far food has travelled to reach consumer.

That includes the journey from farm to processor, then from processor to retailer and finally from retailer to consumer. The food mileage impact is realised by players in the vegetable supply chain, from farmers to customers. “Food Mileage” is an indicator that evaluates impact on economic, social and ecological system and it associates the quality food availability, foods wastage and disposal. ‘Food miles’ is a factor to understand inefficiency of food supply chain. In economical or business perspective, every food mile is costly.

The transportation cost is directly propositional to the food miles. Every mile addition in transport is addition in the cost of the goods and the customer pays for it. The more the vegetables travel in miles, the less fresh they become. This means customers pay for vegetables, which have less initial nutritional value. Alternatively, to retain freshness, conditioning is required while transporting. Conditioned transport again adds cost to goods. When the food travels less; the money is reinvested closer to the farm land community and more financial contribution is provided to local economy. Plant dollar close to home and watch community grow” (Food Routes Network, 2008). Local farmers who sell directly to consumers receive a larger share of the profit for their food. The local family farmers spend their money with local merchants and build a stronger local economy. The social impact of higher mileage food is the food that comes in from abroad. The different food safety standard is more vulnerable to unsafe food. Vegetables with less mileage are fresh, preserve original taste, retain initial ingredients and more palatable.

Less food miles create more sense of closeness and trust. Ecologically, ‘food mileage’ is a convenient indicator of sustainability and sustainable development; wherein less food miles indicate more sustainability. Reducing food miles is reduction of emissions. Shorter distance travel leads to reduced usage of fossil fuels and thus, conservation. Minimum food travel signifies minimum pollution, environmental degradation and global warming. Fruits and vegetables processing, trading and marketing require some vital support of integrated supply chain management system.

Due to its perishable nature and more consistent application of quality standards, the organizations involved in business of these horticultural commodities have to face colossal quality problems. Therefore, one of the purposes of this research study was to collect information regarding current processing practices and quality attributes applied. For this purpose, an exploratory and qualitative research study was carried out by using the pre-tested questionnaire and to collect information from various organizations dealing in supply chain of these horticultural commodities.

Fruits and vegetables are perishable in nature and cannot be stored for longer periods, which result in very sensitive and complicated trading of these horticultural commodities and exposing big challenges to suppliers, processors and traders. In addition, the inconsistent availability of healthy fruits and vegetables from farm-gate to the consumers, continuous quality assurance push by the traders and supermarkets, competitive global environment, increasing trend of better supply by companies of other competitive countries and also more and more implications of quality standards (FruitVeB. 2008) are also other parallel competitive elements making this business more vulnerable and complex. Fruits and vegetables require certain effective post harvest management practices for better quality and ultimate price. Therefore, to cope with these challenges, the only integrated way to be applied from farm gate collection through washing, grading, packaging, storage and marketing to ultimate consumers is to establish the consistent and sustainable supply system of “Farm-To-Fork Approach”, currently transformed as Supply Chain Management (SCM).

Globally, the demand of fruits and vegetables is increasing like anything due to dietetic potentiality, which thereby, augmented the annual production and also enhanced the exports and imports of these horticultural commodities around the globe. According to Statistical Yearbook of FAO (2009), the world production of fruits and vegetables in 1996 was 98. 0 million tons which increased to 146. 0 million tons in 2007. Similarly, in 1996, the total exports were 20. 0 billion US$ which then increased to 44. 0 billion US$ in 2007, whereas, imports of these fruits and vegetables were 25. 0 and 49. billion US$ in the same years, respectively. In case of food sector, supply chain starts from farm-gate collection of raw materials, then processed and prepared and the finished goods continue downstream to regional and global distribution centers and finally enter retail stores, where they come in contact with the customers for consumption. In general, SCM is one entity, which helps foster to manage and meet customer needs by improving every element of the supply chain, whereas, the role of food safety, quality requirements and their evaluation in international trade is also receiving more and more attention.

Among the components of consumer behaviour, motives related to safety are getting stronger and as a result, an increasing attention is given to the interrelations of food safety, quality, supply chain and ethical issues (Joszef et al. , 2009). Presently, food markets are becoming globalised and food trade more and more concentrated and internationalized, but at the same time, quality assurance and traceability requirements against suppliers have also increased significantly (Spriggs, 1999).

Increased food safety requirements are now expected to exercise more strongly on fresh products (Unnevehr, 2000) due to the fact that food safety and quality components have an outstanding role with respect to fresh products supplied through marketing channels. Similarly, more safe food demands, traceability and inspection in the developed countries are higher than in countries of medium level and developing one. Risk and uncertainty have been the hallmark of these horticultural products and food business.

A long gestation period, seasonal production, significant transportation and logistical costs, the low value/weight ratio, poor infrastructure and the lack of any effective legal system to enforce fair trading, accentuates risk and uncertainty along the supply chain (Trienkens and Van der Vorst, 2007). The new age consumers are becoming more health conscious in terms of hygiene, source of the food, ingredients of processed food and caloric content. Food safety and quality requirements have an increasing importance around the globe (Kalei, 2008).

Dissemination and introduction of the quality assurance systems such as GLOBALGAP, International Food Standards (IFS), Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) etc. , as an urgent task, have become integral parts for both production and trade (Biacs, 1999). Without the realization of these systems, efficient marketing can be performed neither on the domestic nor on the international market. Marketing fresh produce: wholesale and retailing sectors Wholesale Development of the vegetable industry is constrained by poor marketing arrangements; there is a large gap between farmer and retail prices.

There are three main types of market (Working Group on Horticulture, Plantation Crops and Organic Farming, 2007): Rural periodic market – The farmers’ market, a village haat that operates on a specific day or days each week, with farmers selling direct to consumers (from a shelter/building, or the open air). There are more than 27,000 rural periodic markets operating. Quantities sold are small, but sales go direct from farmer to customer, so profit share can be reasonable.

Assembly markets- These are similar to farmers’ markets, except that produce is sold to traders who assemble, consolidate, and transport for sales elsewhere in the city or market. They are especially important in eastern India and in areas of concentrated production. Operations can be informal and involve the use of temporary ? collection centers? in production areas by traders/transporters. Farmer produce is assembled for transport to a city market, with the payment to farmer depending on the sale price at the regulated market. Terminal markets

At these markets, produce is sold to consumers or processors, or assembled further for a distant market or export. These markets involve well-organized merchants and are located in major cities (Bangalore, Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata). The Indian Government has aimed to control produce marketing through ? regulated? markets to encourage greater transparency and fair business. Today there are more than 7,000 of these markets, with state government-enacted Agricultural Produce Marketing Regulation legislation regulating competition, transactions, and market charges.

Although the laws have improved market function, reduced costs for producers/sellers, and provide frameworks for regulation and consultation, the agricultural marketing system is very inefficient. The government-regulated monopoly on wholesale markets has prevented development of competitive marketing, failed to help to farmers in direct marketing, retailing, or the supply of produce for processing, and prevented innovation in marketing and technology use (GoI, 2003).

Currently, the wholesale markets are dominated by a small number of traders. Transactions lack transparency. Grading and handling facilities are poor, and wastage is high due to poor logistics and lack of cool chain facilities. Although upgrading of government-regulated markets in the fresh produce sector has been proposed by the Indian Government, it will be critical to implement costefficient systems that optimize delivery of fresh produce to consumers and exporters through supermarkets and other retail outlets.

To assess benefit flows to farmers, Gandhi and Namboodiri (2004) examined the wholesale marketing of fruit and vegetables in Ahmedabad, Chennai, and Kolkata Markets. In vegetable marketing, direct contact between market commission agents and farmers was very low (< 50%) and secret bidding and simple transactions dominated. Farmer-share of the consumer rupee for vegetables varied from 40-69% in the main wholesale markets of Ahmedabad, Kolkata, and Chennai, but was as high as 85-95% at a smaller market in Chennai.

Regulation and supervision of an equitably represented market committee and perhaps the enforcement of open auctions would improve benefit flows, as could opening up the markets to more traders and buyers. Market infrastructure also needed attention: cool storage, loading and weighing facilities, provision of up-to-date information, and internet and telecommunications links (Gandhi Vasant and Namboodiri, 2004). To improve competitiveness, legislative changes are needed to enable various modes of ownership of markets, to stimulate private investment in private and public markets, and to ? rofessionalize? operations. Most state governments have adopted, or are in the process of adopting, the State Agricultural Produce Marketing (Development and Regulation) Act 2003, to enable the proposed transformations (GoI, 2003; Working Group on Horticulture, Plantation Crops and Organic Farming, 2007). Revisions to laws will free up marketing by co-ops and the private sector. The changes have been a key enabler of the establishment of the Reliance supermarket chain in some states. Supply Chain Management

The enormous losses of vegetables produced in the country are mainly because of the lack of proper infrastructure for storage and transportation under controlled conditions. Of late, Supply Chain Management (SCM) is gaining importance due to globalization. A supply chain is a set of three or more organizations linked directly by one or more of the upstream or downstream flows of products, services, finances, and information from a source to a customer. Supply chain management, then, endorses a supply chain orientation, and involves proactively managing the two-way movement and co-ordination of goods, services, information and funds (i. . the various flows) from raw material through to end user. The changing lifestyle and open economy have forced the manufacturers/suppliers to produce/supply quality products. Several factors are driving an emphasis on supply chain management. First, the cost and availability of information resources between entities in the supply chain allow easy linkages that eliminate time delays in the network. Second, the level of competition in both domestic and international markets requires organizations to be fast, and flexible. Third, customer expectations and requirements are becoming much more stringent.

So to satisfy the consumers, SCM system should operate with the two main objectives timeliness and quality. The Supply Chain Umbrella ,A large set of activities besides purchasing is part of supply chain management. Each of these seemingly diverse activities is part of a network that will define how efficiently and effectively goods and information flow across a supply chain. The activities include i. Purchasing: Most organizations include purchasing as a major supply chain activity since purchasing is the central focus. ii.

Quality control: Almost all organizations recognize the importance of supplier quality and the need to prevent rather than simply detect quality problems. Progressive organizations work directly with suppliers to develop proper quality control procedures and processes. iii. Demand and supply planning: Demand planning identifies forecasts of anticipated demand, inventory adjustments, orders taken but not filled and spare part and after-market requirements. Supply planning is the process of taking demand data and developing a supply, production, and logistics network capable of satisfying demand requirements. iv.

Material or inventory control: The material group is often responsible for determining the inventory level of finished goods required to support customer requirements, which emphasizes the physical distribution (i. e. , outbound or downstream) side of the supply chain. The inventory control group is often responsible for determining the inventory level of finished goods required to support customer requirements, which emphasizes the physical distribution (i. e. , outbound or downstream) side of the supply chain. v. Order processing: Order processing helps ensure that customer receive material when and where they require it.

It represents a link between the producer and the external customer. vi. Production planning, scheduling and control: Production planning, scheduling and control involve determining a time-phased schedule or production, developing short-term production schedules, and controlling work-in-process production. vii. Warehousing / distribution: Warehousing / distribution is particularly important for companies that produce according to a forecast in anticipation of future sales. viii. Customer service: Customer service includes a wide set of activities that attempt to keep a customer satisfied with a product or service.

Export of Vegetables The important vegetables exported are potatoes (28%), onions (7. 1%), cauliflower and cabbage (4%), okra (3%), others (50%). The exports are limited to Middle East, Europe, U. K. and Singapore etc. Amongst the vegetable items identified as having good export potential are : 1. Onion 2. Potato 3. Green vegetables: (a) Traditional: Okra, Bitter Gourd, Chilli and other seasonal Vegetables. (b) Non-traditional: Asparagus, Celery, Bell Pepper, Sweet Corn and Baby Corn.. 4. Organically grown vegetables. 5. Hybrid seeds

In vegetable exports, we shall have to concentrate on neighbouring countries such as Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Mauritius which have been the traditional outlets from our onion and potato exports. Green vegetables are also being sold in West Asian countries where the market could be further developed. Malaysia and Singapore also offer good potential. Non-traditional vegetables offer good scope for exports to European markets. Developed countries of Western Europe & South Asia offer good scope for export of non-traditional vegetables in both fresh and preserved form. Post harvest loses

The post harvest losses varied from crop to crop and within different stages (Table 1). Among the crops, the highest total loss was recorded in tomato (25. 25 %) followed by Banana (22. 00%). The highest post harvest losses were recorded during transportation in tomato and banana. Maximum loss during marketing was recorded in banana (12. 00%) followed by tomato (9. 75 %). Post harvest technology is an integral part of agriculture production and utilization system and it plays a key role in loss reduction, value addition, food security, employment and income generation.

Therefore, there is an urgent need for post harvest technology revolution in the country in general and UP in particular with strong linkages of storage, marketing and distribution. Commercial Advantages of growing Vegetables In today’s era of diversification of agriculture, farmers are now shifting from traditional subsistence agriculture to commercial agriculture. Land holdings are in general small in our country. This makes a farmer to adopt vegetable production. Reasons for increasing importance and scope of vegetables are: 1. Changing food habits of people and so their food baskets. . Increasing awareness of people towards balanced diet and concept of nutritional security. 3. Vegetables produce more biomass per unit area and fetch more prices per unit production so are more economical to grow. Yield of some vegetables with some commonly grown cereals is compared in Table-2. Proper fitment in farming systems: As vegetables are generally short duration crops, these are suitable for mixed, companion and intercropping. For example, some of the varieties of okra, radish, brinjal, chilli, and tomato are ready for harvesting within 45 to 60 days after sowing/ planting.

This results in high cropping intensity and higher income per unit area. Comparative yield per unit area of vegetables and cereals |S. N. |Crops |Average total yield ( Q/hac. ) | |1. |Wheat |20-25 | |2. |Paddy |25-30 | |3. |Potato |150-200 | |4. |Cauliflower |125-175 | |5. Watermelon |200-225 | |6. |Tomato |200-250 | |7. |Pea |60-70 | |9. |Okra |100-120 | Table-2 Source: Reproduced from Importance of vegetables. (Modern technology of vegetable production. p-5. In India, a big portion of farmers falls in marginal categories.

Vegetable growing is suitable for small and marginal farmers. Source of supplementary income:  A number of vegetables can be grown successfully as intercrop along with trees. Crop suitable for growing at early stages of planting of orchard are potato, okra, tomato, brinjal, sweet potato, peas and onion etc. For later stages crops that can be taken are Chilli, Palak and ginger. This way a farmer gets more profit from his forest plantation. Employment: Because of involvement of labour, it is source of intensive employment. Export potential: Vegetables have great export potential and source of foreign exchange.

In 2003, India exported 17 vegetables to the tune of 0. 92 million tones valued at 183. 3 million dollars. In addition, 1 total of 0. 22 millions tones of 14 processed vegetables worth 125 million dollars were also exported (Shanmugasundaram, S. , 2005, The Hindu Survey of Indian Agriculture, 2005). There is great demand for vegetable and vegetable products for export. Vegetables have shown to earn 20-30 times more foreign exchange per unit area than cereals (Verma et. al. 2002). Limitations in vegetable cultivation Adopting vegetable growing as business has some limitations also. These limitations are:

Perishability: As vegetables are perishable in nature, they need either very quick disposal (which causes glut in season) or proper processing (which is still lacking in our country). India is worlds’ second largest producer but 35% of produce is lost due to poor post harvest management. Infrastructure (Cold chain, roads, power and transportation):  Vegetables have very specific handling and storing requirements if their quality and freshness has to be maintained. Moreover, each product needs to be stored at specified temperature and humidity levels. Single chamber potato stores are not capable of sufficing such requirements.

Multi-chamber, multi-product cold stores are more suited for storing horticulture produce. Realizing the need, the national horticulture board has brought out a number of schemes that promote multi- product multi-chamber cold stores. The board not only provides grants for creation of new cold stores, but also for expansion and modernization of the existing ones. Cold stores, coupled with cold chain infrastructure would provide the much-needed boost to the sector. Cold chains too are an essential part of managing transfer of both the raw material as well as the processed products from one place to another.

Cold stores without the support of adequate cold chain infrastructure lose their significance as the quality of even a well-preserved raw material or processed product will deteriorate if not handle properly while transporting. Today cold chains are required right from the farm gate till the end product reaches the consumer. Other infrastructure issues like roads, power and transportation etc. also need to be addressed to prevent post harvest losses of vegetables. Processing could have been an excellent remedy, but only 2% of produce is processed. Present vegetable and fruit processing industry is extremely decentralized.

Around 70% of total processing unit fall under cottage industry. India’s share in international food trade is a minuscule 1. 5%. Value addition to foods by processing is a mere 7% against 23% in China, 45% in Philippines and 88% in UK. Marketing of vegetables is not very well organized in our country. It is dominated by more numbers of retailers and the price received by farmers is very less. Proper techniques of packaging in vegetable are still lacking. An overview of status of packaging in our country shows that about 30 per cent of the marketable vegetables perish due to improper post harvest management.

Sufficient quantity of HYVS is not available. Lack of knowledge among farmers regarding scientific cultivation practices of vegetables CHAPTER 3 DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS Introduction: In this chapter the main aim of this evaluation study is to gather information and critically analyze the data received during our Field survey. As we were limited to do our survey on the adjoining areas surrounding Allahabad due to time and proximity factors. We collected data from the three village areas namely Soraon, Holagarh and Shringeripur respectively. The analysis on the sample size surveyed is been as follows: – Land ownership Land ownership of the respondents | |Frequency |Percent |Valid Percent |Cumulative Percent | |Valid |Owned by Self |168 |100. 0 |100. 0 |100. 0 | [pic] Analysis: All the respondents that we survey owned their own land, there was no person found having leased subleased or subleased land ownership. 2. Size of the leased/sub leased land- size of the land if leased | |Frequency |Percent |Valid Percent |Cumulative Percent | |Valid |1-5 beegha |10 |6. |62. 5 |62. 5 | | |6-10 beegha |6 |3. 6 |37. 5 |100. 0 | | |Total |16 |9. 5 |100. 0 | | |Missing |System |152 |90. 5 | | | |Total |168 |100. 0 | | | size of the land if leased * types of crop sown on the land Crosstabulation | |types of crop |Total | | | |sown on the land | | | | |vegetables | | |size of the land if|1-5 beegha |Count |10 |10 | |leased | | | | | | | |% of Total |62. 5% |62. % | | |6-10 beegha |Count |6 |6 | | | |% of Total |37. 5% |37. 5% | |Total |Count |16 |16 | | |% of Total |100. 0% |100. 0% | Analysis :- Herewe see that majority of the land leased were in the group of 1-5 beegha. Also vegetables are being grown majorly in 1-5 beegha lands rather than 6-10 beegha lands. 3. Lease period :- lease period |Frequency |Percent | |Missing |System |168 |100. 0 | Analysis :-No data available on leasing period. 4 Crops Sown types of crop sown on the land | |Frequency |Percent |Valid Percent |Cumulative Percent | |Valid |vegetables |162 |96. 4 |96. 4 |96. 4 | | |fruits |5 |3. 0 |3. 0 |99. 4 | | |food grains |1 |. 6 |. 6 |100. | | |Total |168 |100. 0 |100. 0 | | [pic] Analysis: From the response that we got from the farmers, 96. 4% of farmers grow vegetables on their land like potatoes, tomatoes, brinjal etc for some parts of the year, while around 3 % grows fruits on their land and . 6% food grains. this was the data that we got when we surveyed during the month of November, which was the time of growing vegetables like potatoes. So there are more number of farmers engaged in vegetable production, though the farmers grow food grains during the other parts of the year. 5 Irrigation

Methods of irrigation | |Frequency |Percent |Valid Percent |Cumulative Percent | |Valid |Well |5 |3. 0 |3. 0 |3. 0 | | |tube well |112 |66. 7 |66. 7 |69. 6 | | |pumps |51 |30. 4 |30. 4 |100. 0 | | |Total |168 |100. 0 |100. 0 | | [pic] Analysis: After analyzing the sample of farmers we surveyed we get to know that around 66. % of land around Allahabad region is irrigated through tube wells, as around 112 farmers out of 168 said that they used tube well for their land irrigation, and 30% through pumps. It also tells that the modern day irrigation methods are being employed in the Allahabad surrounding region, Allahabad has 3 rivers, ganga jamuna and Yamuna, so the land also has plenty of water, so this can also be the reason for using more number of tube well, while only 3 % of the irrigated land that we surveyed is irrigated through wells and other sources of irrigation. Selling Market [pic] Market identification for the crop | |Frequency |Percent |Valid Percent |Cumulative Percent | |Valid |Alld city |23 |13. 7 |13. 7 |13. 7 | | |villages |132 |78. 6 |78. 6 |92. 3 | | |neighbouring |13 |7. 7 |7. 7 |100. | | |districts | | | | | | |Total |168 |100. 0 |100. 0 | | Analysis: From the person we surveyed we come to know that only 13. 7 percent of the villages come to Allahabad city to sell their produce, this can be attributed due the fact of poor transportation facility and poor supply chain connecting villages and Allahabad, thus not only degrading the quality of vegetables but also enhancement of the price.

Most of the produce of the farmers are sold in the villages or local market only around 78. 6% of total respondents. While only 7. 7% of the farmers go to near by markets, districts to sell their produce. this shows the poor transportation facility and supply chain in the villages adjoining Allahabad. 7 Selling Of Crops Selling of crops * Land ownership of the respondents Crosstabulation | | |Land ownership of |Total | | | |the respondents | | | |Owned by Self | | |Selling of crops |Own wholesale |Count |23 |23 | | | |% within Selling of crops |100. 0% |100. 0% | | | |% within Land ownership of |13. 7% |13. % | | | |the respondents | | | | | |% of Total |13. 7% |13. 7% | | |own retail |Count |100 |100 | | | |% within Selling of crops |100. 0% |100. 0% | | | |% within Land ownership of |59. 5% |59. % | | | |the respondents | | | | | |% of Total |59. 5% |59. 5% | | |through intrmediaries |Count |34 |34 | | | |% within Selling of crops |100. 0% |100. 0% | | | |% within Land ownership of |20. % |20. 2% | | | |the respondents | | | | | |% of Total |20. 2% |20. 2% | | |storage and distribution |Count |11 |11 | | | |% within Selling of crops |100. 0% |100. 0% | | | |% within Land ownership of |6. % |6. 5% | | | |the respondents | | | | | |% of Total |6. 5% |6. 5% | |Total |Count |168 |168 | | |% within Selling of crops |100. 0% |100. 0% | | |% within Land ownership of |100. % |100. 0% | | |the respondents | | | | |% of Total |100. 0% |100. 0% | [pic] Analysis: Around 60 percent of the farmers sell their produce by their self. some uses intermediateries while other uses storage facility, the storage facility is less used by the farmers because of poor storage facility available near by. 8 Storage of crops storing of crops |Frequency |Percent |Valid Percent |Cumulative Percent | |Valid |Near fields |14 |8. 3 |8. 3 |8. 3 | | |govt. warehouse |15 |8. 9 |8. 9 |17. 3 | | |wholesaler |24 |14. 3 |14. 3 |31. 5 | | |cold storage |90 |53. 6 |53. 6 |85. 1 | | |no storage required|25 |14. |14. 9 |100. 0 | | |Total |168 |100. 0 |100. 0 | | [pic] Analysis :- Maximum farmers store their crops in cold storage (53. 6%). Very few farmers store their crops in near field (3. 33%) and government warehouse (3. 93%). Some give it to whole seller (14. 29%) while there are some crops in which no storage is required (14. 88%). It means that cold storage facility were available in all the three villages and many farmers were using the facility. Perishability of crop |Serial No |Name of Crop |Time Period | | A |Potatoes |5-6 months | | B |Tomatoes |1 month | | C |Food grains |8-9 months | 0 Availability of subsidy availibility of subsidy | |Frequency |Percent |Valid Percent |Cumulative Percent | |Valid |Fertilisers |88 |52. 4 |52. 4 |52. 4 | | |Seeds |18 |10. 7 |10. 7 |63. 1 | | |no subsidy |62 |36. 9 |36. 9 |100. 0 | | |Total |168 |100. 0 |100. 0 | | pic] availibility of subsidy * size of the land if leased Crosstabulation | | |size of the land if leased |Total | | | |1-5 beegha |6-10 beegha | | |availibility of |Fertilisers |Count |4 |1 |5 | |subsidy | | | | | | | | |% of Total |25. 0% |6. 3% |31. % | | |Seeds |Count |3 |1 |4 | | | |% of Total |18. 8% |6. 3% |25. 0% | | |no subsidy |Count |3 |4 |7 | | | |% of Total |18. 8% |25. 0% |43. 8% | |Total |Count |10 |6 |16 | | |% of Total |62. % |37. 5% |100. 0% | Analysis: Most of the farmers are getting subsidies on fertilizer (52. 38 %) and on seeds (10. 71) while there 36. 90 % of the farmers are not getting any subsidies due to lack of knowledge and lack of facilities available in their region. Also on cross tabulation, we find that people with less land (1-5 beegha) avail greater amount of subsidy. Low availability of fertilizer is due to the fact that govt fertilizer shop are not functioning properly and they sell their fertilizes to the private market 11 Rate of subsidy on fertilizers and seeds ate of subsidy on fertilizers | |Frequency |Percent |Valid Percent |Cumulative Percent | |Valid |not availing subsidy|44 |26. 2 |33. 1 |33. 1 | | |upto 25% |88 |52. 4 |66. 2 |99. 2 | | |26-50% |1 |. 6 |. 8 |100. 0 | | |Total |133 |79. 2 |100. | | |Missing |System |35 |20. 8 | | | |Total |168 |100. 0 | | | [pic] rate of subsidy on seeds | |Frequency |Percent |Valid Percent |Cumulative Percent | |Valid |not availing subsidy|105 |62. 5 |84. 0 |84. 0 | | |upto 25% |20 |11. |16. 0 |100. 0 | | |Total |125 |74. 4 |100. 0 | | |Missing |System |43 |25. 6 | | | |Total |168 |100. 0 | | | [pic] Analysis :- Most of the farmers are not getting subsidies on fertilizer and the rate of subsidy is less than 25% and on seeds very few farmers are getting subsidies upto25%. his means that most of the farmers avail the benefit of getting subsidies on fertilizer only,as fertilizer is little easily available as compared to seeds and also most of the farmers depend on their previous stock of seeds 12 Buying of Seeds where buy the seeds | |Frequency |Percent |Valid Percent |Cumulative Percent | |Valid |govt, shops |18 |10. 7 |10. 7 |10. 7

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