Lampunaya Leaf Extract as an Acid Base Indicator

1 January 2017

Chapter I Background of the Study Chemical compounds can be classified as acidic, basic, or neutral substances based on several conditions. One factor considered is the color reaction which can be observed through the use of indicators. An indicator is a substance that changes color, depending on whether it is placed in an acidic solution or basic solution. One indicator that almost everyone associates with acids and bases is the litmus paper, which has the ability to change the color in response to an acid or a base.

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Phenolphthalein is another common indicator use by beginners in chemistry because its color change is very obvious, making it easy to use. There are many other indicators that change color at different pH levels, and so are useful for different purposes. Many pigments found in nature can be quite effectively used as acid-base indicators. The purple eggplant peel, the dyes in the blueberries and the purple camote peel contain anthocyanins. These plant pigments produce definite colors in solutions of different acidity or basicity.

Anthocyanins are also water soluble and have colors that are dependent upon the pH of the reacting solution. In our study, the researchers used a lampunaya leaf that also contains anthocyanins With the knowledge of this, we decided to come up with a study about lampunaya leaf extract as an acid-base indicator. There are three reasons why we conducted this study: first, we want to discover new things. We would like o know if the lampunaya leaf extract would be an effective acid-base indicator and as far as we have known there are only a few researches about this topic.

Second, we would like to add further knowledge about the topic because our study may be useful to the future generation and it may help them to add more information to what we have gathered from our research. Lastly, to save money because if the school runs out of money, they can use the lampunaya leaf extract as an acid-base indicator and there’s no need for them to buy for new materials like the pH meter which is very expensive. The project mainly focused on lampunaya leaf extract as an acid-base indicator. Statement of the Problem The investigators seek to answer the question:

What are the factors that affect on how fast the results will appear from a lampunaya leaf extract as an acid-base indicator? Hypotheses In view of the preceding question, the following hypotheses are advanced: 1. The more the amount of lampunaya leaf extract drop to the substance the faster the results will appear. 2. The lesser the amount of lampunaya leaf extract drop to the substance the faster the results will appear. 3. The drier the leaf used in the lampunaya leaf extract drop to the substance the slower the results will appear.

Significance of the Study The investigators believed that the result of the study will be beneficial to the following: Students. This study helps the students by adding some information about their knowledge on acids and bases. These will help them know that even without the use of the pH meter, we could still identify whether a substance is an acid or a base by using some plants. Teachers. This study helps the teachers by using our project to be an activity in their class to let their students know and explore more about the topic acids and bases.

The students will surely enjoy the experimenting stuff and basically will not be bored because using lampunaya leaf extract as an acid-base indicator is easy and fun. The students will not only enjoy from this activity but will also learn more in the process. Family. This study helps the family because they can use our experiment as an educational stuff to their children. They can perform the experiment at their house and while performing it, the parents can discuss the effects of too much acid in our body and through the experiment they performed, they would know how acidic a soft drink is. Our study would help parents and hildren bond and together will learn from it. Future investigators. This study could serve as a basis for them to do more research and add more information to the things that we have done. This could also be a form of help to them as a source of information on how to start the research. Scope and Delimitations of the Study The study covered the topic lampunaya leaf extract as an acid-base indicator. The investigators must only focus on the said topic. The measurement of the alum powder and water must be exact and the investigators must always follow the procedure so that the experiment would not fail.

The amount of the indicator drop to the substance must be the exact amount to what the direction is saying. Other irrelevant topic like the temperature of the indicator used should not be included in the study because it’s not really that important. Definition of Terms 1. Lampunaya leaf- This is an erect, branched, fleshy, annual herb 1 m or less in height. Its stems are four-angled and purplish. The leaves vary in color, usually more or less hairy, ovate, and coarsely toothed at the margins. Flowers are terminal, purplish and numerous. (http://www. oocities. com/herbalpage/Subpage/mayana. tm) In this study, lampunaya leaf is one of the indicators used to determine acids and bases that contain anthocyanins. 2. Extract- an extract is a substance made by extracting a part of a raw material, often by using a solvent such as ethanol or water. (www. wikipedia. com) In this study, extract is a substance that will draw out from the lampunaya leaf after the process called extracting. 3. Acid- any of a class compounds that in aqueous solution turns blue litmus red and reacts with bases and with certain metals to form salts. (Webster Comprehensive Dictionary, p. 12)

In this study, acids are substances that have a sour taste and change its original color to red when the indicator is drop on it. 4. Base- a compound which is capable of so uniting with an acid as to neutralize its acidic properties and form a salt as sodium hydroxide, NaOH. (Webster Comprehensive Dictionary, p. 117) In this study, bases are substances that are slippery and soapy that has a bitter taste and changes its original color to blue when the indicator is drop on it. 5. Neutral- lacking decided acid or alkaline qualities. (Webster Comprehensive Dictionary, p. 853)

In this study, neutral is a substance in which its color doesn’t change when the indicator is drop on it. Chapter II Review of Related Literature This portion of the study presents the conceptual literature and related studies about the acid indicating capabilities of the Lampunaya leaf. These reviews are intended to facilitate further understanding of the investigation. A study conducted by the students of University of Davis said, acids are major wine constituents and contribute greatly to its taste. In fact, acids impart the sourness or tartness that is a fundamental feature in wine taste.

Wines lacking in acid are “flat. ” Chemically, the acids which affects taste and pH which affects color, stability to oxidation, and consequently the overall lifespan o a wine. The most abundant of these acids arise in the grapes themselves and carry over into the wine. However, there are also some acids that arise as a result of the fermentation process from either yeast and/or bacteria. And they quipped yet again that wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast. Yeast consumes the sugars found in the grapes and converts them into alcohol.

Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts are used depending on the type of wine being produced. According to an internet site called, Wikipedia, wine is an alcoholic beverage, typically made of fermented grape juice. The natural chemical balance of grapes is such that they can ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, or other nutrients. From the study of Doug Nierman, wines produced from cool climate grapes are high in acidity and thus taste sour. These high-acid wines can be treated to reduce the acidity, either by neutralizing agents, or by malo-lactic fermentation.

Warm climate grapes can be low in acid, more or less depending on variety. In these areas tartaric acid, recycled from winemaking, is added to increase acidity and prevent wines from being flat. Currently winemakers in California are pushing wines to high pH levels, as high as 4. 0, while 20 years ago pH’s level above 3. 6 is unusual. This makes wines taste softer, popular with wine writers today. Newworldencycolopedia. org said, a base in chemistry is an aqueous substance that can accept hydronium ions. Bases are also the oxides or hydroxides of metals.

A soluble base is also often referred to as an alkali if hydroxide ions (OH-) are involved. This refers to the Bronsted-Lowry theory of acids and bases. Alternative definitions of bases include electron pair donors, and as sources of hydroxide anions. In addition to this, bases can commonly be thought of as any chemical that, when dissolved in water, gives a solution with a hydrogen ion activity lower than that of pure water, i. e. a pH higher than 7. 0 at standard conditions. Examples of common bases are sodium hydroxide and ammonia.

Type of solution that has a surplus of OH- ions. Bases can be thought of as the chemical opposite of acids. A reaction between an acid and base is called neutralization. Bases and acids are seen as opposites because the effect of an acid is to increase the hydronium ion (H3O+) concentration in water, whereas bases reduce this concentration. Bases react with acids to produce water and salts. A website named, MedicNet. com, an online Medicine dictionary said that pH meter is a simple and speedy device to measure the acidity and alkalinity of a fluid.

A pH meter acts as a volt meter that measures the electrical potential difference between a pH electrode and a reference electrode and displays the result in terms of the pH value of the solution in which they are immersed. The Encyclopedia of questions and answers adds that the pH meter was invented in 1934 by the American chemist Arnold O. Beckman. According to him, it is used to measure the sourness of lemons. Beckman’s original device was housed in a walnut box 12 inches wide, 8 inches deep and 9 inches high. It measured electrical current flowing into a glass electrode immersed in a solution.

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