Contingency theory added accessory complexity to leadership theory and continue to be applied effectively by managers.
Leaders moved dynamically along the continuum in response to each new situation. 2. Behavioral Theory As leadership theory developed, researchers moved away from studying what traits the leader had and placed emphasis on what he or she did. Researchers Lenin, White and Lippies isolated common leadership styles. Authoritarian leadership results in a well-defined group actions that are usually predictable, reducing frustrations in the work group and giving members a feeling of security.Democratic leadership, appropriate for groups ho work together for extended periods, promotes autonomy and growth in individual workers. Laissez-fairer style can be frustrating; group apathy and disinterest can OCCUr.
However , when all group members are highly motivated and self-directed, this leadership style can result in much creativity and productivity. 3. Motivational Theory Motivational theories typically fall into two categories. Content theories explain individual needs, while process theories explain the thought processes behind an individual’s behavior.According to content theories, needs drive humans to act in certain ways and adopt specific work behaviors. Process theories explain a person’s behavioral decision process. Abraham Harold Mason’s Hierarchy of Needs theory states that motivation stems from various sets of needs, including physiological, safety, social, esteem and self- actualization.
According to some interpretations of the theory, an individual will not seek to satisfy higher-level needs until he fulfills his lower-level needs. Frederick Irving Herbert developed a motivational theory for the workplace that consists of two separate categories.The first contains a list of hygiene factors that might create high levels of dissatisfaction if they are lacking or negative. Some of these factors include working conditions, pay, status or title, benefits, organizational culture and job stability. If these factors are positive or adequate, they create a state of neutrality. Herbage’s motivational factors include achievement, recognition, personal growth and personal investment. 4.
Expectancy Theory Expectancy theory says that individuals have different sets of goals and can be motivated if they have certain expectations.This theory is about choice. It explains about the processes that an individual undergoes to make choices. Expectancy theory first proposed by Victor Broom, it does not concentrate on deeds, but rather focuses on outcomes. Broom separates efforts, which arises from motivation, performance and outcomes. It is based upon three variables or beliefs that he calls Valence, Expectancy and Instrumentality. Broom says that the product of these variables is the motivation.
This force can be calculated by this formula. Motivation= Valence x Expectancy.This theory is not about self-interest in rewards but about the associations people make towards expected outcomes and the contribution they feel they can make towards those outcomes. 5. Trait Theory Trait theory or Great Man Theory, is from Aristotelian philosophy, asserts that mom people are born to lead whereas others are born to be led. It also suggests that great leaders will arise when the situation demands it. It assume that some people have certain characteristics or personality traits that make them better leaders than others.
Trait theories often identify particular personality or behavioral characteristics shared by leaders.The trait model of leadership is based on the characteristics of many leaders – both successful and unsuccessful – and is used to predict leadership effectiveness. The resulting lists of traits are then compared to those of attention leaders to assess their likelihood Of success or failure. The trait theory gives constructive information about leadership. It can be applied by people at all levels in all types of organizations. Managers can utilize the information from the theory to evaluate their position in the organization and to assess how their position can be made stronger in the organization.B.
Contemporary Theories 1. Inspirational Theory The best leaders promote a culture where their people value themselves, each other, the company and the customers. Everyone understands how their work makes a difference and this helps to build a commitment to higher tankards where everybody is always looking to do things better. As a leader, you must envision the future, passionately believe that you can make a difference, and inspire people to achieve more than they may ever have dreamed possible.You must see a changed world beyond the time horizon, create an ideal and unique image of what it could become, open your followers’ eyes and lift their spirits. You must believe that your dreams can become reality and, through your attitude, get people to see exciting opportunities and possibilities for the future. People change and unlock their inner power when they are emotionally engaged and committed.
. Provide an inspiring vision and strategic alignment , launch a crusade. Leadership is essentially about helping people to achieve a better life. An important measure of your own success as a leader is the success of your followers.Talented and empowered employees are the prime ingredient of organizational success and they need to be able to lead themselves. Provide strategic alignment and be a coach to your people to help each of your followers to develop into an effective self-leader. Establish an attitude of relentless growth to enable your organization and people to achieve their stretch goals.
2. Servant Theory Greengage developed the idea of servant leadership. The managers, which he termed servant leaders, put serving orders, including employees, customers and the community as the number one priority.Greengage argued that to be a great leader, one must be a servant first. Watson-Jones also suggests that servant leadership is about “leaders serving to needs of followers, and empowering them rather than the organization”. Servant leaders consider their followers’ needs first and then empower them to achieve organizational goals. Qualities of a servant leaders are the ability to listen on a deep level and to truly understand.
Ability to keep an open mind and hear without judgment. They always think before reacting. They see things as a whole and sensing relationships and connections. . Emotional Theory Emotional Intelligence suggests that cognitive intelligence is only half Of the equation necessary for success in the workplace. It is the capacity to get optimal results from relationships with others. The five components of emotional intelligence are Self-awareness, it is the ability to recognize and understand one’s moods, emotions and drives as well as their effects on others.
Self-regulation, it is the ability to control or redirect disruptive impulses or moods as well as the propensity to suspend judgment.Motivation, it is a passion to work for reasons that go beyond money or status. Empathy, it is the ability to understand and accept the emotional makeup of other people. Social Skills, it is the proficiency in handling relationships and building networks. 4. Transformational and Transactional Theory Transactional leader sets goals, gives direction and uses rewards to reinforce employee behaviors associated with meeting or exceeding established goals. The transactional leader them emphasize process in setting goals and giving erections and seek to control both situations and followers.
The manager who is committed, has a vision, and is able to empower others with his vision, is termed as a transformational leader. Transformational leaders are able to “motivate performance beyond expectations through their ability to influence attitudes. Transformational leaders have a view of the future that will excite and convert potential followers” . 5. Authentic/Congruent Theory Leadership is much more an art, a belief, a condition of the heart, than a set of things to do. The visible signs of artful leadership are expressed, ultimately, in its practice.The emerging authentic leadership theory holds promise for explaining the underlying processes by which authentic leaders and followers influence work outcomes and organizational performance.
Construct validity of authentic leadership has preliminary documentation and a few studies have shown positive relationships between authenticity and trust. Furthermore, the clarity of the authenticity construct and comprehensiveness of the overall theoretical framework provide a fruitful base for future research examining the relationship between authentic leadership and the creation of health ire work environments.A clear focus on the relational aspects of leadership, the foundational moral/ethical component, a potential linkage of positive psychological capital to work engagement and the emphasis on leader and follower development in the authentic leadership framework are closely aligned to current and future nursing leadership practice and research priorities for the creation of sustainable changes in nursing work environments. C. Management Theories 1 . Scientific Management Theory Scientific management, also called Tailors, was a theory of management that analyzed and synthesized workflow.Its main objective as improving economic efficiency, especially labor productivity.
It was one of the earliest attempts to apply science to the engineering of processes and to management. Its development began with Frederick Winslow Taylor in the sass and 1 adds within the manufacturing industries. Its peak of influence came in the sass; by the 1 sass, it was still influential but had begun an era of competition and synthetics with opposing or complementary ideas.Although scientific management as a distinct theory or school of thought was obsolete by the sass, most of its themes are still important parts fantastical engineering and management today. These include analysis; synthesis; logic; rationality; empiricism; work ethic; efficiency and elimination Of waste; standardization of best practices; disdain for tradition preserved merely for its own sake or merely to protect the social status of particular workers with particular skill sets; the transformation of craft production into mass production; and knowledge transfer between workers and from workers into tools, processes, and documentation.Scientific management’s application was contingent on a high level of managerial control over employee work practices. This necessitated a higher ratio of managerial workers to laborers than previous management methods.
The great difficulty in accurately differentiating any such intelligent, detail- oriented management from mere misguided management also caused interpersonal friction between workers and managers. 2. Bureaucracy Management Theory Bureaucratic management may be described as “a formal system of organization based on clearly defined hierarchical levels and roles in order to maintain efficiency and effectiveness. Max Weber embellished the scientific management theory with his bureaucratic management theory which is mainly focused on dividing organizations into hierarchy sees, establishing strong lines of authority and control. Weber suggested organizations develop comprehensive and detailed standard operating procedures for all routine tasks. Bureaucracy is the division of labor applied to administration. ‘Bureau’, is a French word meaning desk, or by extension, an office; thus, ‘Bureaucracy’ is rule through a desk or officer that is, a form of organization built on the preparation and dispatch of written documents.
In contrast to the commonly held view of bureaucracies, they do not ‘rule’ in their own right but re the means by which a monarchy, aristocracy, democracy, or other form of authority, rules. 3. Human Relations Management The human relations approach can also be seen as a response to a highly charged and polarize social climate in which labor and management were viewed as fundamentally opposed to one another, and communism was seen as a very real and immediate danger to the social order the notion of class extemporaneously by Marxist theorists was taken very seriously.By focusing on the extent to which workers and managers shared economic interests in the success of the organization, the human relations approach an be seen as an attempt to move beyond the class struggle idea. Of course, the human relations approach (which really emerged in the late 1 sass) was made possible by the fairly coercive suppression of the most radical organized labor movements. The sidebar describes one such movement, and is provided in order to indicate the social climate extant in the period immediately preceding the emergence of the human relations approach.The basic principles of the human relations approach are as follows: (1 ) Decentralization The strict notion of hierarchy employed by classical management theorists is replaced with the idea that individual workers and functional areas (i.
E. , departments) should be given greater autonomy and decision-making power. This requires greater emphasis on lateral communication so that coordination of efforts and resources can occur. This communication occurs via informal communication channels rather than the formal, hierarchical ones. 2) Participatory Decision-Making Decision-making is participatory in the sense that those making decisions on a day-to-day basis include line workers not normally considered to be “management. ” The rater autonomy afforded individual employees and the subsequent reduction in “height” and increase in span of control of the organizational structure requires that they have the knowledge and ability to make their own decisions and the communication skill to coordinate their efforts with others without a nearby supervisor. 3) Concern for Developing Self- Motivated Employees The emphasis on a system of decentralized and autonomous decision-making by members of the organization requires that those members be highly “self-motivated” (that is, able to set their own task- related goals and monitor their own performance in achieving them).
So one goal of managers in such an organization is to design and implement organizational structures that reward such self-motivation and autonomy.Another is to negotiate working relationships with subordinates that foster effective communication in both directions. 4. Administrative Management Payola believed that managerial practices were the key to predictability and efficiency in organizations. The Administrative theory views communication as a necessary ingredient to successful management and many of Payola’s practices are still alive in today’s workplace.