Legislative Process Essay Research Paper
Legislative Process Essay, Research Paper
& # 8220 ; All Legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall dwell of a Senate and House of Representatives. & # 8221 ; ( Article I, Section 1, of the United States Constitution )
The main map of Congress is the devising of Torahs. Any Member in the House of Representatives may present a measure at any clip while the House is in session by merely puting it in the & # 8220 ; hopper & # 8221 ; provided for the intent at the side of the Clerk & # 8217 ; s desk in the House Chamber. The patron & # 8217 ; s signature must look on the measure. A public measure may hold an limitless figure of co-sponsoring Members. The measure is assigned its legislative figure by the Clerk and referred to the appropriate commission by the Speaker, with the aid of the Parliamentarian. The measure is so printed in its introduced signifier. An of import stage of the legislative procedure is the action taken by commissions.
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It is during commission action that the most intense consideration is given to the proposed steps ; this is besides the clip when the people are given their chance to be heard. Each piece of statute law is referred to the commission that has legal power over the country affected by the step. Normally the first measure in this procedure is a public hearing, where the commission members hear informants stand foring assorted point of views on the step. Each commission makes public the day of the month, topographic point and topic of any hearing it conducts. A transcript of the testimony taken at a hearing is made available for review in the commission office, and often the complete transcript is printed and distributed by the commission. After hearings are completed, the measure is considered in a session that is popularly known as the & # 8220 ; mark-up & # 8221 ; session. Members of the commission study the point of views presented in item. Amendments may be offered to the measure, and the commission members vote to accept or reject these alterations. t the decision of deliberation, a ballot of commission or subcommittee Members is taken to find what action to take on the step. It can be reported, with or without amendment, or tabled, which means no farther action on it will happen. If the commission has approved extended amendments, they may make up one’s mind to describe a new measure integrating all the amendments. This procedure can take topographic point at either the subcommittee degree or the full commission degree, or at both. t the decision of deliberation, a ballot of commission or subcommittee Members is taken to find what action to take on the step. It can be reported, with or without amendment, or tabled, which means no farther action on it will happen. If the commission has approved extended amendments,
they may decide to report a new bill incorporating all the amendments. This report describes the purpose and scope of the measure and the reasons for recommended approval. Consideration of a measure by the full House can be a simple or very complex operation. In general a measure is ready for consideration by the full House after it has been reported by a committee. Under certain circumstances, it may be brought to the Floor directly. The consideration of a measure may be governed by a “rule.” A rule is itself a simple resolution, which must be passed by the House, that sets out the particulars of debate for a specific bill how much time will allowed for debate, whether amendments can be offered, and other matters. Debate time for a measure is normally divided between proponents and opponents. Each side yields time to those Members who wish to speak on the bill. When amendments are offered, these are also debated and voted upon After all debate is concluded and amendments decided upon, the House is ready to vote on final passage. In some cases, a vote to “recommit” the bill to committee is requested. This is usually an effort by opponents to change some portion or table the measure. If the attempt to recommit fails, a vote on final passage is ordered. After a measure passes in the House, it goes to the Senate for consideration. A bill must pass both bodies in the same form before it can be presented to the President for signature into law. If the Senate changes the language of the measure, it must return to the House for concurrence or additional changes. This back-and-forth negotiation may occur on the House floor, with the House accepting or rejecting Senate amendments or complete Senate text. Often a conference committee will be appointed with both House and Senate members. This group will resolve the differences in committee and report the identical measure back to both bodies for a vote. Conference committees also issue reports outlining the final version of the bill. Votes on final passage, as well as all other votes in the House, may be taken by the electronic voting system which registers each individual Member’s response. These votes are referred to as Yea/Nay votes or recorded votes, and are available in House Votes by Bill number, roll call vote number or words describing the reason for the vote. Votes in the House may also be by voice vote, and no record of individual responses is available. After a measure has been passed in identical form by both the House and Senate, it is considered “enrolled.” It is sent to the President who may sign the measure into law, veto it and return it to Congress, let it become law without signature, or at the end of a session, pocket-veto it.