Signs/ Symptoms Lesions,(occur on areas of the body with a cooler temperature) skin blemishes, scaly patches, light skin color, hair loss, numbness, eye damage (reduced blinking), dryness, sensation of touch, temperature, and pain are lost. Thickened peripheral nerves pain can exist, pins and needles sensation (paresthesia)severe pain on infected limbs hypopigmented macules (flat, pale areas of skin) 3. Name of Organism that causes disease: Mycobacterium leprae 4.
Pathology an acid fast, Gram+, rod-shaped obligate intracellular organism. Grown in armadillos. It cannot be grown in an agar medium. The earliest clinically detectable lesions of leprosy involve the skin and show histologic association with sebaceous glands and hair follicles. From the onset, small cutaneous nerve fibers are involved. With bacillary multiplication, contiguous skin areas, including autonomic nerve fibers, dermal appendages, and blood vessels, are invaded. 5.
Epidemiology The precise mechanism of transmission of Mycobacterium leprae is unknown. No highly effective vaccine has yet been developed, and extensive laboratory efforts have ot yet produced any practical tools for early diagnosis of clinically unapparent disease (http://cmr.
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asm. org/content/19/2/338. full ) Nasal fluid secretion or droplet Prolonged exposure to someone with leprosy Recent genetic studies have demonstrated that several genes (about seven) are associated with an increased susceptibility to leprosy; some researchers now conclude that susceptibility to leprosy may be partially inheritable.
The exact mechanism of transmission of leprosy is unknown: prolonged close contact and transmission by nasal droplet have both been proposed, and, while the latter fits the nown to contract leprosy is the armadillo. The bacterium can also be grown in the laboratory by injection into the footpads of mice. It is estimated that due to genetic factors, only 5% of the population is susceptible to leprosy. This is mostly because the body is naturally immune to the bacteria, and those persons who do become infected are experiencing a severe allergic reaction to the disease.
However, the role of genetic factors is not entirely clear in determining this clinical expression. In addition, malnutrition and prolonged exposure to infected persons may play a role in development of the overt disease. http://www. news-medical. net/health/what-is- Leprosy. aspx) 6. Treatments In the 1950s, dapsone (diaminodimethyl sulfone) was introduced as standard chemotherapy for leprosy and was used worldwide for treatment of both multibacillary and paucibacillary forms of the disease.
Long-term monotherapy with dapsone resulted in poor compliance in many areas, ultimately leading to the emergence of dapsone-resistant leprosy, resulting in treatment failures and resistance levels reported to be as high as 40% in some areas of the world (446, 365). To overcome the problem of drug-resistant M. leprae and to improve treatment fficacy, the World Health Organization recommended multidrug therapy for leprosy in 1981.