Holland surrendered to Nazi Germany and the Royal Family of Holland fled and went Into exile in London. Holland’s original plans were to stay neutral throughout the war In Europe, which Holland declared when the war first broke out. Nazi Germany, Canada, France, England, America were involved In one of the most Important tasks during the war, Liberating Holland from the control of the Nazi’s.

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German Invasion of Holland In Holland, in the morning of May 10, 1940 was a sorrowful and confusing day due to the fact of the invading Nazi Germany which didn’t care that they didn’t have an fficial declaration of war and that Holland declared that they as a country would stay neutral throughout the war in Europe. Citizens in Holland first realized that Germany was invading when the German forces were moving swift across Belgium and Luxembourg.

Germanys first plan was to trick the Allied forces away from Ardennes and lead them farther into Belgium and try to influence the British to make a possible invasion In North Holland. One of the most important reasons why Nazi Germany invaded the neutral Holland was to capture the Dutch Airfields so the Luftwaffe (Alr- Force) could make more bombardments on England. Holland relied on the army that they had, but Holland had a, out-dated, a small army, and they couldn’t protect themselves from the NazlS.

Germany moved rapidly across Holland but came across resistance along the way. On the first day of invasion, there were Airborne Assaults (Parachute) which was planned to take the Dutch government, The Hague’. The Dutch had success at destroying transport Aircraft that the Nazi’s relied on for the invasion of Britain. Germany was successful in taking Holland and moved rapidly by taking west and east Holland but Holland knew that he British and French would not be coming to their aid anytime soon because of the rapid movement of the Germans going into Belgium.

Bombing of Rotterdam Fighting In Rotterdam was happening since the first day that the campaign started in Holland. It started when Nazi Germany had seaplanes landed on the

Page 2 Liberation of Holland Essay

Maas River and captured several bridges, and the Germans were uneasy about sending a tank attack on the city and risking causalities. In the end, the German commander sent a letter to the Dutch commander demanding a full surrender from the city and if the Dutch didn’t, he would bomb the city. The letter was un-signed by the Nazi ommander.

The Luftwaffe was told to stay put until further notice, but the Luftwaffe didn’t. The Luftwaffe reached the city during the so called, “Rotterdam Blitz”, 800-900 civilian’s of Rotterdam were killed and 25,000 homes were destroyed during the raid. The Luftwaffe (Bombers) targeted residential areas instead of defended areas. The Dutch commander was getting pressure from officials in the town from the raid, so in the end, the Dutch commander surrendered to the Nazi commander and surrendered the town and 10,000 strong men.

Royal Family The high command of the Dutch army was surprised about the Rotterdam blitz ttack the Nazi’s unfolded, The Dutch high command knew that there men were low on resources like, ammo, clothes, and other Important materials that the army needed to be somewhat successful against the Nazi’s. After receiving news that the clty 0T utrecnt naa Deen Domoea Dy tne Nazl’s, slmllar to wnat nappenea to Rotterdam, Winkelman held a meeting with other Dutch generals who decided that resistance was necessary. In the afternoon of May 14, Winkelman issued a proclamation to his army, ordering them to surrender.

Queen Wilhelmina was a very traditional monarch, said that she would never flee he country in case of war, but that she would rather choose to die with her last standing forces. When war broke out that 10th of May, the Royal Family immediately evacuated the palace and took shelter in a secret bunker. The family was warned to leave the country for England. They were eventually evacuated via the port of Ijmuiden. On board of the British destroyer HMS Hereward Queen Wilhelmina left from Hoek van Holland for England.

Her leaving would impact many civilians and soldiers as an act of betrayal to the people and the country in those days. She later fled to Canada (Ottawa) . Labour Forced labour was imposed on the Netherlands when the Germans captured Holland. This meant every man between 18 and 45 to work in German factories, which were bombed regularly by the western Allies. Those who refused were shot. As food and many other goods were taken out of the Netherlands, rationing increased (with ration cards). The resistance would raid distribution centres to get ration cards to be distributed to the people in hiding.

Market Garden After the Allied landing in Normandy in June 1944, General Montgomery believed he had an operation that would shorten the war into only 6 months. Canada and America quickly moved in the direction of the Dutch border. On Tuesday, September 5 is known as “Dolle dinsdag” (“mad Tuesday”) the Dutch began celebrating of America’s and Canada’s arrival, believing they were close to being liberated. In September, the Allies launched Operation Market Garden, an attempt to move the Dutch-Belgian border across the Rivers Meuse, Waal and Rhine into the northern part of the Netherlands and even Germany.

The Allied forces did not reach this objective because they could not take the Rhine Bridge from the Nazi’s at the Battle of Arnhem. During Operation Market Garden, the regions to the south, including Nijmegen, Eindhoven and much of North Brabant, were liberated from the Nazi’s. Most of the northern part of the Netherlands remained in German hands until the Rhine Crossings in March 1945. Parts of the southern Netherlands were not liberated the way they planned to be liberated by Operation Market Garden, which had made a narrow wedge between Eindhoven and Nijmegen.

Netherlands remained in German hands until the Rhine Crossings in March 1945. Parts of the southern Netherlands were not liberated the way they planned to be liberated by Operation Market Garden, which had made a narrow wedge between Eindhoven and Nijmegen. Battle of the Scheldt The allied forces needed a rout to get supplies into their deep location in Holland. The allied forces believe one of the simplest ways to get supplies to the troops was to capture the Scheldt and then lead into Walcheren. The whole mission was developed to get a port for supply for the allies.

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