Liberty University Bibl 323 John Module 5 Notes
Jesus used this figure of speech, but they did not understand what he was telling them. ” Introduction A man’s wealth was determined by the size of his flock. Much of the economy throughout the biblical history of Israel was dependant largely on this industry. The Lord was identified as the shepherd of Israel. (Ps. 80:1; 23:1). Text Parables There are no parables in John, unlike the Synoptics. The word parable is not used here, but paroimian a Wayside saying or proverb. Sheep fold normally represented Israel. Often the fence was a ring made out of thorn branches. Thieves and robbers.
Rustling was always a problem in livestock. There were two kinds of rustlers. klepts – thief – those who steal by means of a plan, usually a sneak thief. We get kleptomaniac from this word. leistes – robber – use violence to accomplish their end, i. e. , a common mugger. Not door but gate – an opening way. The shepherds would gather their flocks into an enclosed area at night for their protection. The shepherd would sleep across the gate to protect his sheep. In the morning, the shepherds led their sheep out through the gate To pasture. At times, the sheep were left with an under-shepherd called a porter.
He would open the gate only for the shepherd. Who is the porter? Holy Spirit. he works in the heart to convict and bring people to Jesus Christ. He opens the heart for the shepherd Jesus Christ to come in. John the Baptist – he went before Jesus and opened the way for Jesus to come into Israel. There was a close relationship between sheep and shepherd. The sheep knew the shepherd’s voice. Even if they were mixed with an other flock, a sheep will separate at the Call of the shepherd. The shepherd could call the sheep by name. Putteth – pushes – the Lord will not let you stay in A secluded place.
You don’t drive sheep, they follow. How God leads us Through His word. – His will is communicated. Prayer. – as you pray He leads you. yielding – God leads those who yield to Him. Circumstances – 1 Cor. 16:9 – opportunities and closed doors. The counsel of friends faith Our spiritual gifts – God wants you to teach if you are a teacher, etc. Through your past experience. Jesus had proved himself as a good shepherd by healing His sheep and forgiving their sins. He protected and sheltered the woman in adultery. The Jews were thieves and robbers trying to destroy the flock. Man born blind – Jesus heals because He has ompassion. The Lesson of the Proverb (10:7–21) The door (10:7–10). “Therefore Jesus said again, ‘I tell you the truth, I am the gate for the sheep. All who ever came before me were thieves and robbers, but the sheep did not listen to them. I am the gate; whoever enters through me will be saved. He will come in and go out, and find pasture. The thief comes only to steal and kill and destroy; I have come that they may have life, and have it to the full. ’” He is emphasizing the purpose or funtion of a door as sheep enter into the sheep fold. Jesus is the door of salvation. Exclusiveness by using the article “the. He is not just another door but the only door. Di ‘emou is an emphatic position, only by Jesus. “One can call this a narrow view intolerant, if he will, but it is the narrowness of truth. If Jesus is the Son of God sent to earth for our salvation, he is the only way. ” –A. T. Robertson All who came before me – not a reference to prophets and kings but to the False christs. For 200 years, Israel had been plagued with false messiahs. Benefits of the door (John 10:9). He shall be saved – salvation. And shall go in and out – liberty. And shall find food – spiritual growth.
Saved, verse 9, sothesetai is a key word and includes the ideas of being both safe and sound. Those who tried to kill Jesus were the thieves and robbers. We have union, point action salvation, and communion continual action fellowship. To be saved – union – is to be in Christ and communion is to have Christ in you. The Shepherd (10:11–18). “I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep. The hired hand is not the shepherd who owns the sheep. So when he sees the wolf coming, he abandons the sheep and runs away. Then the wolf attacks the flock and scatters it.
The man runs away because he is a hired hand and cares nothing for the sheep. ‘I am the good shepherd; I know my sheep and my sheep know me—just as the Father knows me and I know the Father—and I lay down my life for the sheep. I have other sheep that are not of this sheep pen. I must bring them also. They too will listen to my voice, and there shall be one flock and one shepherd. The reason my Father loves me is that I lay down my life—only to take it up again. No one takes it from me, but I lay it down of my own accord. I have authority to lay it down and authority to take it up again.
This command I received from my Father. ” Identification Porter Who – John the Baptist. Aim – Open the door to Jesus Relationship to sheep – care taker. Shepherd Who – Christ. Aim Lead v. 3 Feed v. 9 Give life for sheep vs. 11, 15, 17 Relationship to sheep – owner. Thief and robber Who – Pharisees and “the Jews. ” Aim – Steal, kill v. 10 Relationship to sheep – rustlers. Wolf Who – satan Aim – destroy Relationship to sheep – enemy. Hireling Who – priests and/or Levites Aim – self-interest/indifference toward sheep v. 13. Relationship to sheep – legal guardian. Jesus twice identifies Himself as the Good Shepherd vs. 11, 14.
Kalos – good – in classical Greek, this word was used to describe that which was beautiful, useful, auspicious, noble, wholesome, competent and morally good. Moral goodness. It points the shepherd’s inherent goodness. Four times Jesus speaks of laying down His life for His sheep vs. 11, 15, 17, 18. Three pictures of Jesus. Good shepherd – John 10:11 – death. Psalm 22 Great Shepherd – Heb. 13:20 – resurrection. Psalm 23 Chief Shepherd – 1 Peter 5:4 – second coming. Psalm 24 Twice Jesus used the word huper, on behalf of, describing the substitutional nature of His sacrificial death vs. 11, 15. He was free from sin but became sin 2 Cor. :21 and A sacrifice for sin. It was a voluntary sacrifice. Jesus was in control. He had power – Authority to lay down his life. Other sheep – gentiles. Other – alos – other of the same kind. Old Testament and New Testament believers. The response (10:19–21) “At these words the Jews were again divided. Many of them said, ‘He is demon-possessed and raving mad. Why listen to him? ’ But others said, ‘These are not the sayings of a man possessed by a demon. Can a demon open the eyes of the blind? ’” Once again the response was a division. One group says He is either demon possessed man, the other group said He is from God.
The later was not a statement of belief but rationally. Any reasonable person would know that a healer is not from Satan. The Discourse a the Feast of the Dedication (10:22–39) “Then came the Feast of Dedication at Jerusalem. It was winter, and Jesus was in the temple area walking in Solomon’s Colonnade. The Jews gathered around him, saying, ‘How long will you keep us in suspense? If you are the Christ, tell us plainly. ’ Jesus answered, ‘I did tell you, but you do not believe. The miracles I do in my Father’s name speak for me, but you do not believe because you are not my sheep.
My sheep listen to my voice; I know them, and they follow me. I give them eternal life, and they shall never perish; no one can snatch them out of my hand. My Father, who has given them to me, is greater than all; no one can snatch them out of my Father’s hand. I and the Father are one. ’ Again the Jews picked up stones to stone him, but Jesus said to them, ‘I have shown you many great miracles from the Father. For which of these do you stone me? ’ ‘We are not stoning you for any of these,’ replied the Jews, ‘but for blasphemy, because you, a mere man, claim to be God. Jesus answered them, ‘Is it not written in your Law, ‘I have said you are gods’? If he called them ‘gods,’ to whom the word of God came—and the Scripture cannot be broken—what about the one whom the Father set apart as his very own and sent into the world? Why then do you accuse me of blasphemy because I said, ‘I am God’s Son? ’ Do not believe me unless I do what my Father does. But if I do it, even though you do not believe me, believe the miracles, that you may know and understand that the Father is in me, and I in the Father. ’ Again they tried to seize him, but he escaped their grasp. ” The Shepherd and His sheep (10:27–28) The problem of the sheep Lost, unable to help themselves. No sense of direction, unable to direct self. Unable to find food. Unable to defend itself. The work of the shepherd He seeks and calls the sheep. He leads the flock. He feeds the flock. He protects the flock. The privilege of the sheep Hear his voice. follows the shepherd. Receives eternal life Never perish – safe in the hand of the shepherd Time of Feast of Dedication About three months have passed. Feast of Tabernacles, October. Feast of dedication – December
It was winter – it gets cold in Jerusalem in the winter, and even snows. Interim Jesus had returned to the city of Jerusalem for the last time before His death. When Jesus returns to Jerusalem, He will pick up the shepherding theme. Feast of Dedication Instituted by Judas Maccabaeus in b. c. 165 to commemorate the dedication of the Temple after it had been cleansed following its desecration by Antiochus Epiphanes. It features an eight-day celebration and the lighting of lights in the temple and also in all the homes. It is celebrated by Jews today by its Hebrew name Hanukkah Key text on security vs. 8–29. He emphasized the safety of the sheep in two ways. He promised they would never perish. Double negative “ou me” is poor English but good Greek. It shows emphasis never ever. Believer was secure in His hand and the hand of His Father. Harpazo used twice in v. 29. Removed by force, none will be Snatched away. God gives eternal life – eternal life lasts forever. They shall never ever perish. You can’t jump out of his hand. Possessive – my sheep. Solomon’s porch Probably built on the foundation of a discovered part of Solomon’s temple They were sincerely looking of a political Messiah.
They are looking for another Maccabean revolt. Father and I are one – one in nature not in person. Defense of My Father. God inspired the psalmist to call Israel’s leaders gods which recognized the leaders authority to require obedience and execute justice. Therefore, Jesus was not guilty of blasphemy Broken – the same word to annul a marriage. Scripture cannot be broken or annulled. Annulled as if it never happened. Summary of the Perean Ministry (10:40–42) “Then Jesus went back across the Jordan to the place where John had been baptizing in the early days. Here he stayed and many people came to him.
They said, ‘Though John never performed a miraculous sign, all that John said about this man was true. ’ And in that place many believed in Jesus. ” Perea One of John the Baptist’s areas of ministry. Where the Christians escaped from the destruction of Jerusalem. Many believed “eis” into Him, salvation. Christ – The Resurrection Chapter 11 Introduction This miracle is recorded only in John. This is not the same Lazarus that was spoken of in Luke (16:19–31). He does not live in the same poverty. Lazarus is an abbreviated form of Eleazer meaning, “God has helped”.
Although it is only mentioned as the name of two people in the New Testament it seems to be a common name from Josephus and the rabbinical writings. Attitude of Disciples to Death – doubt (11:1–16) Fearful of dying (11:1–6), “Now a man named Lazarus was sick. He was from Bethany, the village of Mary and her sister Martha. This Mary, whose brother Lazarus now lay sick, was the same one who poured perfume on the Lord and wiped his feet with her hair. So the sisters sent word to Jesus, ‘Lord, the one you love is sick. ’ When he heard this, Jesus said, ‘This sickness will not end in death.
No, it is for God’s glory so that God’s Son may be glorified through it. ’ Jesus loved Martha and her sister and Lazarus. Yet when he heard that Lazarus was sick, he stayed where he was two more days. ” Asthenon, used in verse 1 for sick; it literally means without strength. Bethany. Actually a mile and three quarters from Jerusalem, located on the backside of the Mount of Olives. The disciples knew that to go back to the area of Jerusalem at this time could very well mean death. Verse 2 – Mary the one who anointed the feet of Jesus was one of the best known events in the life of Jesus in the early centuries.
Mark 14:9 Verse 3 – “Whom you love is sick” – love is plileis; means to love as a brother. It seems that the sisters knew that just telling Jesus of the problem would get Him to come. Verse 4 – “not unto death” – Lazarus was probably dead when the messenger arrived. It did not meant that Lazarus would not die only that death would not be the final end. God would be glorified. Glory is a key word. Bethany was only a one-day journey from Bethabara, about ____________________. Jesus remained in Bethabara for another two days. This was not out of unconcern. Jesus agape (v. 5) the familydelf-sacrificial love.
Why Jesus waited To increase their faith. To wait until he died. Jesus may have waited because of the mourning customs o the Jews. Burial invariably took place on the day of the death. The mourning began immediately and lasted a month but was divided into three periods. Days 1–3 – intense mourning and often involved the practice of hiring professional mourners. The family stayed in seclusion and wore special clothes. After three days, the mourning was less intense and friends could visit and give condolences. The sisters would be accepting visitors. After day seven, they could go back To their duties.
Fearful of stoning (11:7–12), “Then he said to his disciples, ‘Let us go back to Judea. ’ ‘But Rabbi,’ they said, ‘a short while ago the Jews tried to stone you, and yet you are going back there? ’ Jesus answered, ‘Are there not twelve hours of daylight? A man who walks by day will not stumble, for he sees by this world’s light. It is when he walks by night that he stumbles, for he has no light. ’ After he had said this, he went on to tell them, ‘Our friend Lazarus has fallen asleep; but I am going there to wake him up. ’ His disciples replied, ‘Lord, if he sleeps, he will get better. ’” Verse 8 – hupago – withdraw. Are we going to withdraw From this safe retreat? Twelve hours in a day – a reference to daylight A reference to spiritual illumination. John 1:7, “But if we walk in the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship with one another, and the blood of Jesus, his Son, purifies us from all sin. ” Sleep – a common biblical figure of death in both Old and New Testaments. It has no relationship to soul sleeping. It is called sleep for the body, not the soul. Sleep is rest It is relaxing It is good for the body Fearful of death (11:13–16), “Jesus had been speaking of his death, but his disciples thought he meant natural sleep.
So then he told them plainly, ‘Lazarus is dead, and for your sake I am glad I was not there, so that you may believe. But let us go to him. ’ Then Thomas (called Didymus) said to the rest of the disciples, ‘Let us also go, that we may die with him. ’” Jesus was glad he was not there – not glad that Lazarus died or for the sorrow that was caused by death, but the proof that it would give to His deity and the increase of faith. Plainly without a metaphor. Dead is aorist, point action in the past, Lazarus died. Some take the position that it was physically impossible for anyone to die in the presense of Jesus who was “the Prince of Life. Thomas was the first to declare his willingness to follow even if it meant death. Here he is doubting Jesus’ ability to keep them safe. Thomas, is Aramaic, and Didymus, is Greek, meaning twin, he probably had a twin brother or sister. From the Latin word ditto from which we get a copying machine. “Die with him. ” Who is him? Lazarus – we will die with Lazarus. Jesus – Jesus is going to be killed here and we will die with him. He was willing to die even though he had little faith. Attitude of Martha to Death – disappointment (11:17–27). “On his arrival, Jesus found that Lazarus had already been in the tomb for four days.
Bethany was less than two miles from Jerusalem, and many Jews had come to Martha and Mary to comfort them in the loss of their brother. When Martha heard that Jesus was coming, she went out to meet him, but Mary stayed at home. ‘Lord,’ Martha said to Jesus, ‘if you had been here, my brother would not have died. But I know that even now God will give you whatever you ask. ’ Jesus said to her; ‘Your brother will rise again. ’ Martha answered, ‘I know he will rise again in the resurrection at the last day. ’ Jesus said to her, ‘I am the resurrection and the life.
He who believes in me will live, even though he dies; and whoever lives and believes in me will never die. Do you believe this? ’ ‘Yes, Lord,’ she told him, ‘I believe that you are the Christ, the Son of God, who was to come into the world. ’” Martha The more pragmatic Seems to be the manager of the home Mary spent more time mourning, note how people handle tragedy in different ways. How many times had Mary and Martha said, “If only Jesus were here. ” For four days they have been saying the same thing. Where there is life there is hope but in Jesus where there is death there is life.
Funeral theology The worst man in the city turns into a saint when he is lying in the casket. Three erroneous views of Martha. Verse 22 – aiteo, i. e. , ask, – the usual word for men praying to God, this implies the inferior asking the superior for favors. Jesus never used this word but rather erotao, which is a request of an equal. She thought of the general resurrection consistent with Jewish theology while Jesus was speaking of NOW. Martha in verse 27, “I have believed,” fails to evidence faith as an internalization of truth. Almost like “I used to be a Christian”. Her Faith is shaken.
Jesus again uses ego eimi; this is the fifth time I AM is used in John. Jesus does not rebuke Martha for her erroneous beliefs but rather sought to help her grow in faith. Death – Spiritual death and physical death. When Adam ate the forbidden fruit, he instantly died spiritually and began the physical death that would happen 900 years later. Attitude of Mary to Death – discouragement (11:28–39). “And after she had said this, she went back and called her sister Mary aside. ‘The Teacher is here,’ she said, ‘and is asking for you. ’ When Mary heard this, she got up quickly and went to him.
Now Jesus had not yet entered the village, but was still at the place where Martha had met Him. When the Jews who had been with Mary in the house, comforting her, noticed how quickly she got up and went out, they followed her, supposing she was going to the tomb to mourn there. When Mary reached the place where Jesus was and saw Him, she fell at His feet and said, ‘Lord, if you had been here, my brother would not have died. ’ When Jesus saw her weeping, and the Jews who had come along with her also weeping, He was deeply moved in spirit and troubled. ‘Where have you laid him? ’ He asked. ‘Come and see, Lord,’ they replied.
Jesus wept. Then the Jews said, ‘See how He loved him! ’ But some of them said, ‘Could not He who opened the eyes of the blind man have kept this man from dying? ’ Jesus, once more deeply moved, came to the tomb. It was a cave with a stone laid across the entrance. ‘Take away the stone,’ He said. ‘But, Lord,’ said Martha, the sister of the dead man, ‘by this time there is a bad odor, for he has been there four days. ’ Weep in Verse 31 klausei means to weep loudly or wail and referred to the normal response of a Jew in mourning. If Jesus did call for Mary, it is not recorded. Why did Jesus not go into the house?
Maybe He did not want His presence known to the jews. Maybe He wanted to talk to the women alone He knew He wanted to raise Lazarus and wanted them to come To the tomb. Her countenance changed when Jesus came, it always happens Every time Mary is mentioned in the Gospels, she is at the feet of Jesus. Jesus used words with Martha but not with Mary. Sometimes words are not enough, it takes emotion. Verse 33, enebrimesato – groaning but literally means to snort with anger like a horse, violent displeasure. see LXX. Verse 35 – shortest verse in the English Bible. Edakrusen – meaning to shed a tear or weep silently.
What brought tears to the eyes of Jesus? The deep hurting and sorrow of mary (11:32–33). The callousness of the jews (11:33, 37). The ignorance of the disciples concerning His power (11:16, 40). The unbelief of the Jews present (11:45). The indecision of some to profess faith in Jesus (11:46). Cave – it could be a natural cave or a carved out cave. The rich had carved out caves and the poor had natural caves. Why Martha did not want the stone removed. Body is stinking and decaying She is thinking that Jesus is emotionally upset and she is not quite sure what He is doing. She was so attached to the body she didn’t want it disturbed.
I don’t want to go through the agony of burying him again She did not expect Jesus to raise him from the dead The world says “seeing is believing”, v. 40, but God says believing is seeing. Remove the stone Jews believed (tradition) the soul hovered around a body for three days after death but departed finally on the fourth day. From their theology, Lazarus was beyond even a resuscitation. To open the tomb would only give off a bad smell Attitude of Christ Toward Death – deliverance (11:40–46). “Then Jesus said, ‘Did I not tell you that if you believed, you would see the glory of God? ’ So they took away the stone.
Then Jesus looked up and said, ‘Father, I thank you that you have heard me. I knew that you always hear me, but I said this for the benefit of the people standing here, that they may believe that you sent me. ’ When he had said this, Jesus called in a loud voice, ‘Lazarus, come out! ’ The dead man came out, his hands and feet wrapped with strips of linen, and a cloth around his face. Jesus said to them, ‘Take off the grave clothes and let him go. ’ Therefore many of the Jews who had come to visit Mary, and had seen what Jesus did, put their faith in him. But some of them went to the Pharisees and told them what Jesus had done. Jesus’ prayer Starts with thanksgiving He was heard in the past. V. 41 implies that He had asked for this miracle before He is illustrating say-it-faith, which He had early taught His disciples. Mk. 11:23 Loud voice – not so Lazarus could hear, but because all the people around were probably still mourning and wailing Not come forth – but out here. Like a mother who says, “get out here right now! ” A command Lazarus was bound hand and foot and his face was covered. Bound – bed girth. Napkin – sweat cloth. The body probably was wrapped in a cream covered wrapping. They put a pillow case type on the head, i. e. , napkin.
The body came out, we do not know how. Technically, Lazarus was resuscitation, not resurrected. To be resurrected is to be given new life, not old life. Lazarus came back to the old life. He had to die again. In Resurrection, you will never die again. Lazarus is an illustration that a person can have a new life. Lazarus was raised to die again not like the final Resurrection. The result was faith by many Jews, verse 45. The Attitude of the Jews to Jesus – destruction (11:47–57). The problem (11:47–48), “Then the chief priests and the Pharisees called a meeting of the Sanhedrin. ‘What are we accomplishing? ’ they asked. Here is this man performing many miraculous signs. If we let him go on like this, everyone will believe in him, and then the Romans will come and take away both our place and our nation. ’” A miracle especially like this one should soften their hearts but Here it hardens. The Sanhedrin had a degree of liberty to enforce their rule over the people but were held responsible by Rome for any perceived rebellion against any Roman authorities. The Sanhedrin were worried how they would keep their power and privileges. Place Could be position they are going to lose, i. e. , Jobs, homes, money. Rome will destroy the temple
The prophecy (11:49–52), “Then one of them, named Caiaphas, who was high priest that year, spoke up, ‘You know nothing at all! You do not realize that it is better for you that one man die for the people than that the whole nation perish. ’ He did not say this on his own, but as high priest that year he prophesied that Jesus would die for the Jewish nation, and not only for that nation but also for the scattered children of God, to bring them together and make them one. ” Caiaphas thought it would be best for Jesus to be martyred instead of thousands of Jews being killed by Roman soldiers and the temple destroyed.
He has been a priest for 6 or 8 months. He uses a double negative, “You don’t know nothing at all. ” The High Priest was almost like the Pope speaking excathedra. Let Jesus die instead of the nation The plot (11:53–57), “So from that day on they plotted to take his life. Therefore Jesus no longer moved about publicly among the Jews. Instead he withdrew to a region near the desert, to a village called Ephraim, where he stayed with his disciples. When it was almost time for the Jewish Passover, many went up from the country to Jerusalem for their ceremonial cleansing before the Passover.
They kept looking for Jesus, and as they stood in the temple area they asked one another, ‘What do you think? Isn’t he coming to the Feast at all? ’ But the chief priests and Pharisees had given orders that if anyone found out where Jesus was, he should report it so that they might arrest him. ” Now it became their official policy to “put him to death. ” “Jesus left the area and traveled to Ephraim a village near the wilderness on the border between Galilee and Samaria,” v. 54. The Jews thought He might sneak back into town, so they began Searching for him.
This is the fourth passover season in John. (2:13, 5:1, 6:4) There was a standing arrest order The Jewish Attempts Against Jesus in John They challenge His authority at the cleansing of the Temple (2:18–20) They persecute Him for healing a man on the Sabbath (5:10) They sought to kill him for claiming equality with God (5:18) They sought Him as the Feast of Tabernacles began (7:11) They sent officers to arrest Him during the latter part of the Feast of Tabernacles (7:32, 44–45) Some of them were involved in the plot surrounding the woman caught in adultery (8:6)
They attempt to stone Him when He identifies with the Old Testament “I AM” (8:58–59) They attempt to stone Him at the Feast of Dedication for the statement “I and the Father are One” (10:30, 31) They determined to put Him to death (11:53) They sought Him among the pilgrims who arrived early for Passover (11:56) They issued requests for information leading to His arrest (11:57) They privately acknowledged their failure on Palm Sunday (12:19) They arranged with Judas Iscariot for a secret arrest (13:2, 21–30) They attempted to arrest Jesus in the garden but fell back in the presence of His self-revelation (18:6)
Jesus surrendered to the arresting party and was bound (18:8, 12) Introduction Chapter 12 is the transitional chapter. Marks the end of the public ministry of Jesus. The beginning of the last week of Jesus Within the week Jesus would complete His redemptive work on a cross outside the city walls. Apparently Jesus goes away from Bethany (11:54) and returns the week Before passover Chart of the last week. Friday – Jesus comes to Bethany from across the Jordan. Remember the Jewish day was from evening to morning. Friday spent walking, He gets there before sundown, the Sabbath.
Saturday – John 12:1 – the supper John 12:1–11. Sunday – John 12:12 – Palm Sunday – Triumphant entry. Monday – Mark 11:12 – cursing of the Fig tree. Tuesday – Mark 11:20 – Fig tree withered, Temple discourse, and discourse on the Mount of Olives. Wednesday – silent day – not mentioned in Scripture. Thursday-Mark 14:1-After two days – Last Supper Friday – Passover –Mark 15:1 – Events of the cross Saturday – Jesus in the tomb Sunday – Mark 16:1 – Resurrection day. On what day was Jesus crucified? Traditional view, Friday, Based on the chronology of Mark. Mk. 11:1–2, 20; 14:1, 30: 15:1, 25, 33; 16:1, 2.
Based on the Jewish custom of identifying any part of a day as the whole day, late Friday, Saturday, and early Sunday. Mouth is the whole person, heart is the whole person, etc. The third day – 17 times Jesus says that on the third day He will arise, not the third night. In the third day, not three whole days. The fast of the first fruits followed the day after Passover. Lev. 23:6–11. The Passover was on the Sabbath the next day was the Feast of First Fruits, i. e. , Sunday. The Passover lamb was killed the day before Passover and Jesus, the first fruits, was raised the day after Passover.
Early church history celebrated Friday as the day Jesus was crucified. Reconstructed view, wednesday Three days and nights must be interpreted literally as six twelve-hour periods. Matt. 12:40, “For as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the huge fish, so the Son of Man will be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth. ” Since Jesus was crucified on Wednesday, there were three nights. Assumes the Jews followed a revolving calendar and that the Passover came on a different day each year, not on the Sabbath day before the Feast of First Fruits.
Therefore, the Passover came on a Thursday the year Jesus was crucified. They also assume Jesus would not have violated the Sabbath law in making a journey from Jericho to Bethany. Difficulties The Jews followed a swing calendar, i. e. , same days not same dates. The Jews had a 360-day calendar. The Triumphant entry occurred on Sunday. He was put in the grave at about 5:00 p. m. on Friday but was raised early Sunday morning, therefore it precluded any exact 72 hours. If the reconstructed view is right, Jesus would have had to be buried and raised the same hour, three days apart.
The contrasting attitudes toward Christ at the Feast. Person Verse Attitude Martha Lazarus Mary Judas Iscariot Chief Priests Pharisees Greeks Crowd Some rulers v. 2 v. 2 v. 3 vs. 4, 6 vs. 10–11 v. 19 v. 20 v. 34 v. 42 tireless service speechless adoration sacrificial worship inbred selfishness calculated craft confounded frustration spiritual curiosity blinded questions secret belief The Banquet in Bethany (12:1–11) “Six days before the Passover, Jesus arrived at Bethany where Lazarus lived, whom Jesus had raised from the dead. Here a dinner was given in Jesus’ honor.
Martha served, while Lazarus was among those reclining at the table with him. Then Mary took about a pint of pure nard, an expensive perfume; she poured it on Jesus’ feet and wiped his feet with her hair. And the house was filled with the fragrance of the perfume. But one of his disciples, Judas Iscariot, who was later to betray him, objected, ‘Why wasn’t this perfume sold and the money given to the poor? It was worth a year’s wages. ’ He did not say this because he cared about the poor but because he was a thief; as keeper of the money bag, he used to help himself to what was put into it. ‘Leave her alone,’ Jesus replied. [It was intended] that she should save this perfume for the day of my burial. You will always have the poor among you, but you will not always have me. ’ Meanwhile a large crowd of Jews found out that Jesus was there and came, not only because of him but also to see Lazarus, whom he had raised from the dead. So the chief priests made plans to kill Lazarus as well, for on account of him many of the Jews were going over to Jesus and putting their faith in him. ’” The journey to Jerusalem Some say Jesus would not have traveled such a long journey from Jericho to Bethany on the Sabbath day, as it was a violation of the Sabbath laws.
It did not violate the Sabbath laws but the Pharisees interpretation of the Sabbath laws. He refused to keep their other traditions on the Sabbath. He could have traveled on Friday and arrived just before sundown, the beginning of the Sabbath and violated neither the letter nor the spirit of the Pharisees or the law. Chronology of this supper and the anointing. Lazarus is there but speaks nothing. The memory of his other existence was erased It is the night of His arrival. Some say this is the same banquet that was held in the home of Simon the leper in Matt. 26:6–13; Mark 14:2–9.
There are similarities in the accounts but John has it six days prior to Passover where as Matthew and Mark indicate the anointing appears to have occurred the following Tuesday. In John it is the feet of Jesus, which are anointed and in the synoptic Jesus has His head anointed. Harmony of these accounts. These are entirely different events There were a number of banquet before passover Normally when burying the dead, the Jews typically would wash and anoint the body of the dead, wrap it in grave clothes and then anoint the grave clothes a second time. Could this be symbolism of two anointing for his burial?
The ointment Murou – ointment – a generic term of liquid perfume Nardon – spikenard – derived form the Sanshrit term nalada referring to a particular fragrant plant grown primarily in India. Some lesser varieties grew in and around Syria. It is a very thick liquid Pistikes – ointment – meaning faithful, reliable or genuine suggests this ointment was the real thing probably imported from India. It was used as a perfume for bodies and wine. Weight – actually in our measurements 12 oz Cost – 300 denarii – at the 1985 price scale it is about $800 an oz The anointing Remember that people did not sit at tables to eat.
The table was about 9– 12 inches tall. Guest sat on pillows with their feet behind. 90 years later John still remembers the smell It would have been humiliating for a woman of Mary’s status and character to wipe the feet of Jesus with her hair, i. e. , devotion Judas Father named Simon. He had already done something to betray Jesus In charge of the money Stealing from the bag it was his habit Bag was a shepherd’s bag Kept it back She was going to use in on Lazarus but she held it back because she knew Jesus was going to die soon She kept it and had been saving it for use on Jesus
At his death “Poor always” Jesus is emphasizing the need to establish correct priorities Jesus was more important than all the poor Death – up until now the Jews have wanted to execute Jesus in a legal way. Here their aim is assasination Went away – not physically but from their former position. The Reception In Jerusalem (12:12–22) Received by the crowds (12:12–18). “The next day the great crowd that had come for the Feast heard that Jesus was on his way to Jerusalem. They took palm branches and went out to meet him, shouting, ‘Hosanna! ’ ‘Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord! ‘Blessed is the King of Israel! ’ Jesus found a young donkey and sat upon it, as it is written, ‘Do not be afraid, O Daughter of Zion; see, your king is coming, seated on a donkey’s colt. ’ At first his disciples did not understand all this. Only after Jesus was glorified did they realize that these things had been written about Him and that they had done these things to Him. Now the crowd that was with Him when He called Lazarus from the tomb and raised him from the dead continued to spread the word. Many people, because they had heard that He had given this miraculous sign, went out to meet him. Next day, Sunday before passover Two groups of people. One group accompanied Jesus as He rode into the city The second group came out of the city carrying palm branches and chanting part of the Great Halliel. Picture of the rapture Ho ochlus polus – much people – “the people much,” or in Large numbers. Josephus says that there were 256,500 lambs slain in Jerusalem during one Passover season. With a minimum of 10 people per lamb, that would put the estimated size of the people in Jerusalem at 2. 6 million. They were there for the week and wanted to see Jesus. Palms
Palm branches were a symbol of strength, beauty, joy, and salvation. Palm branches were cut and used for Simon Maccabee during an earlier era of Jewish history. To carry palms was the mark of a triumphant homage to a victor or king. Cry, “Hosanna” – “save now, I pray thee. ” Probably not from sins but from Rome Donkey’s colt If a king were to make war, he would ride His horse If he were coming in peace, he would ride On a donkey Jesus rode on a donkey on Palm Sunday; in Rev. 19:11–16. He is coming on a white horse. The singing Psalm 118:25–26 was part of the Great Halliel.
Psalm 115–118 sung at the feasts of Passover, Pentecost, Tabernacles, and Dedication. It is probably the last song Jesus and His disciples sung together At the last supper John makes no mention of the Passover preparation by The two disciples This is the first Passover Jesus is received after: They had seen or heard of Lazarus being raised from the dead They were thinking of Him as a political savior from the Bondage of Rome Rejected by the Pharisees (12:19). “So the Pharisees said to one another, ‘See, this is getting us nowhere. Look how the whole world has gone after him! ’” Requested by the Greeks (12:20–22). Now there were some Greeks among those who went up to worship at the Feast. They came to Philip, who was from Bethsaida in Galilee, with a request. ‘Sir,’ they said, ‘we would like to see Jesus. ’ Philip went to tell Andrew; Andrew, and Philip in turn told Jesus. ” Who were these Gentiles? Some think these are Hellenistic jews who spoke a Gentile language. Others think these are gentile proselytes to Judaism. Others think they were Gentiles who lived in Galilee Monotheistic Greeks who had some to worship the God of Israel without accepting the yoke of the law. They were known as God-fearers.
An embassy from a Gentile nation according to Eusebius, the King of Edessa in Syria saw the obstinacy of the Jews and invited Him to come to his home promising Him a royal welcome. Why Philip? He seems to be leader of the second group of disciples. Andrew always brings people to Jesus. He knew were Jesus was and Had access to him The Shadow of the Cross (12:23–36). “Jesus replied, ‘The hour has come for the Son of Man to be glorified. I tell you the truth, unless a kernel of wheat falls to the ground and dies, it remains only a single seed. But if it dies, it produces many seeds.
The man who loves his life will lose it, while the man who hates his life in this world will keep it for eternal life. Whoever serves me must follow me; and where I am, my servant also will be. My Father will honor the one who serves me. ‘Now my heart is troubled, and what shall I say? ‘Father, save me from this hour’? No, it was for this very reason I came to this hour. Father, glorify your name! ’ Then a voice came from heaven, ‘I have glorified it, and will glorify it again. ’ The crowd that was there and heard it said it had thundered; others said an angel had spoken to him. Jesus said, “This voice was for your benefit, not mine.
Now is the time for judgment on this world; now the prince of this world will be driven out. But I, when I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all men to myself. ” He said this to show the kind of death he was going to die. The crowd spoke up, ‘We have heard from the Law that the Christ will remain forever, so how can you say, ‘The Son of Man must be lifted up’? Who is this ‘Son of Man’? ’ Then Jesus told them, ‘You are going to have the light just a little while longer. Walk while you have the light, before darkness overtakes you. The man who walks in the dark does not know where he is going.
Put your trust in the light while you have it, so that you may become sons of light. ’ When He had finished speaking, Jesus left and hid himself from them. ” Some think this talk was given to the Greeks, others say Jesus did not talk to the Greeks. Jesus may have been teaching the Greeks cannot come thorough the Passover lamb but through Himself. This is the first time Jesus says His time had come. The Greeks wanted happiness and the good life without sacrifice Jesus likened His death to the planting of a seed Voice of God Times the Father spoke. baptism Mark 1:11 – beginning of Jesus’ ministry. ransfiguration Mark 9:7 – Beginning of the last trip of Jerusalem. At the temple John 12:28 – The beginning of the passion of Jesus. Two types of hearings – hear the noise and to understand the message. Those who had ears heard the message, others heard only a sound. Prince of this world –Satan. John 16:11 “and in regard to judgment, because the prince of this world now stands condemned. ” If Satan was cast out at the Cross why do we have problems now. Genesis 3:15, “And I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your offspring and hers; he will crush your head, and you will strike his heel. Satan was judged but he still has power. He is sentenced but the execution has not been carried out. Lifted up – used 20 times. Jesus is the center of attraction Jesus did not meet the expectations of the crowd and did not fit their interpretation of messianic prophecy. Jesus hid Himself v. 36. The unbeleif of the crowds. There was great danger The Response of the People (12:37–43) “Even after Jesus had done all these miraculous signs in their presence, they still would not believe in Him. This was to fulfill the word of Isaiah the prophet: ‘Lord, who has believed our message and to whom has the arm of the Lord been revealed? For this reason they could not believe, because, as Isaiah says elsewhere: ‘He has blinded their eyes and deadened their hearts, so they can neither see with their eyes, nor understand with their hearts, nor turn—and I would heal them. ’ Isaiah said this because he saw Jesus’ glory and spoke about Him. Yet at the same time many even among the leaders believed in him. But because of the Pharisees they would not confess their faith for fear they would be put out of the synagogue; for they loved praise from men more than praise from God. ” They did not believe as Isaiah had prophesied. Called the blinding of Israel Blindness
Physical blindness spiritual blindness – when you are saved God removes spiritual blindness. Judicial blindness – when the Jews are saved God removes both spiritual blindness and judicial blindness. Not universal Some did believe, even among the chief rulers. v. 42. Sooner or later the secret disciples must become open, or Lose their discipleship The Judgment of Christ (12:44–50) “Then Jesus cried out, ‘When a man believes in me, he does not believe in me only, but in the one who sent me. When he looks at me, he sees the one who sent me. I have come into the world as a light, so that no one who believes in me should stay in darkness. As for the person who hears my words but does not keep them, I do not judge him. For I did not come to judge the world, but to save it. There is a judge for the one who rejects me and does not accept my words; that very word which I spoke will condemn him at the last day. For I did not speak of my own accord, but the Father who sent me commanded me what to say and how to say it. I know that his command leads to eternal life. So whatever I say is just what the Father has told me to say. ’” All who do not pay the price of being a disciple of Jesus, even those with good intentions but put their decision off, are included in the ones ___________________. If you believe in Jesus you believe in God, if you believe in God you must believe in Jesus. If you reject Jesus, ____________________. Christ – The Servant Chapter 13 The Washing of the Disciples’ Feet and its Meaning (13:1–20) The setting (13:1–3). “It was just before the Passover Feast. Jesus knew that the time had come for him to leave this world and go to the Father. Having loved his own who were in the world, He now showed them the full extent of his love. The evening meal was being served, and the devil had already prompted Judas Iscariot, son of Simon, to betray Jesus.
Jesus knew that the Father had put all things under his power, and that He had come from God and was returning to God;” Introduction At no other place can we look into the heart of the savior This discourse served as a preparation for Jesus’ Sacrificial death He was not as concerned for Himself but for His disciples Future ministry What day is it? It cannot be a Friday evening for the Sabbath began at sundown. Difference in the feast and the festival The festival went on for 7 days (a week) plus 1 day (Sunday) the Feast of the First Fruits. The feast lasted one day This was on Thursday night.
What supper is this? It could not be the pascal supper because it was held on Thursday night. The pascal feast was held on a Friday night of a Sabbath. Some say it was one of the many banquets that went on that week. Others say it was the pascal feast, because a Jew could celebrate it on another night in extreme circumstances Passover – technically on the 14th day of Nisan. John uses the term pascha nine times and on the every occasion it refers not only to the feast of the 14th day, but also the festival of Unleavened Bread which followed. This supper happened on Thursday. What did Jesus know?
Oidia, innate knowledge. He knew His hour had come – expectation He knew His glory was near He knew all things were in His hand – the master of his fate He knew He had come from God He knew it was time to depart and go to God He knew He was both master and Lord He knew He was about to be betrayed and denied In spite of what He knew about Himself and others, He egapesen loved them Eis telos to the end or to the uttermost in time, and with All his being Ginemenou present participle not aorist as the KJV translates it during supper, not after Depart – the same word as Passover.
Jesus knew the Passover was near and that He must pass over Supper being over – KJV– it looks as if they are about to leave but that is not the way it was. Ended means served. It is not over but it was being served Judas has already betrayed Jesus, the deal had been made Father had – past tense. The example (13:4–5). “So He got up from the meal, took off His outer clothing, and wrapped a towel around His waist. After that, He poured water into a basin and began to wash His disciples’ feet, drying them with the towel that was wrapped around Him. ”
Luke records a dispute over who is the greatest Luke 22:24–27. Remember the table was only a foot high and they all ate with one hand, the other propped under them. Foot washing Probably followed the argument During the Passover Supper, the head of the group would take the first of four cups, the cup of thanksgiving, and pass it around the room. After this, there was a ceremonial washing of the hands, Edersheim believes it was at this point Jesus rose not to wash his hands but The disciples feet Removed garment Himatia His outer garment. He would still be wearing His chiton His tunic, the
Normal clothes Symbol of what He did in leaving heaven – left heaven, put aside His outer robe, the glories of heaven, and became A servant in flesh Towel around His waist – not for modesty but that both hands would be free to carry the bowl to wash. He still had on the inner robe. He washed and wiped Foot washing in the Near East was an important but Undesirable task Because of sandals the feet got very dusty Most hosts would have a servant to wash the feet of visitors The students of a rabbi would do almost anything for them, but Jesus washed His disciple’s feet. The resistance (13: 6–11). He came to Simon Peter, who said to him, ‘Lord, are you going to wash my feet? ’ Jesus replied, ‘You do not realize now what I am doing, but later you will understand. ’ ‘No,’ said Peter, ‘you shall never wash my feet. ’ Jesus answered, ‘Unless I wash you, you have no part with me. ’ ‘Then, Lord,’ Simon Peter replied, ‘not just my feet but my hands and my head as well! ’ Jesus answered, ‘A person who has had a bath needs only to wash his feet; his whole body is clean. And you are clean, though not every one of you. ’ For he knew who was going to betray him, and that was why he said not every one was clean. The order of the washing – who was washed first? The Bible does not say Chrysostom argued Judas first Most commentators agree Judas was seated on the left the place of honor. John was on the right and Peter seems to be across the way. Tradition maintained by the Eastern Church. Maintained in the passion play Judas pushed to be first Augustine says Peter was first. Augustine – Peter was the first “If Peter was not first it, is doubtful he would have kept quiet until it came his turn. ” When Peter’s old nature comes out, the Bible normally calls Him Simon or Simon Peter Peter’s resistance
You – emphatic in the Greek. Never – double negative never ever, no never. “No part” – normally referred to the involvement of a subordinate in the riches and glory of the leader. Now or in the future Wash Leloumenos – the practice of bathing the entire body. Acts 9:37; 2 Peter 2:22. Nipasthai – the practice of cleaning a particular soiled area of the body i. e. , one’s hands before eating. Katharos – normally refers to external cleanliness. The person is pictured returning from the public bath to his home. His feet get dusty in the trip, few paved streets, and need washing, but not his whole body again.
The underlying principle is that those who have received the first bath, regeneration, do not need to be bathed again (saved) although they may need to wash cleansing. The first washing deals with Relationship. The second with fellowship. The first washing is once for all, the second is for daily confession and cleansing. Union and communion. There was one in the apostolic group who had never been cleansed at all, (13:11). The time was coming when his identity would be revealed. The first mention of the betrayal tonight. One is not clean. Judas should know what this meant.
The explanation (13:12–20). “When He had finished washing their feet, He put on His clothes and returned to His place. ‘Do you understand what I have done for you? ’ He asked them. ‘You call me ‘Teacher’ and ‘Lord,’ and rightly so, for that is what I am. Now that I, your Lord and Teacher, have washed your feet, you also should wash one another’s feet. I have set you an example that you should do as I have done for you. I tell you the truth, no servant is greater than his master, nor is a messenger greater than the one who sent him. Now that you know these things, you will be blessed if you do them.
I am not referring to all of you; I know those I have chosen. But this is to fulfill the scripture: ‘He who shares my bread has lifted up his heel against me. ’ ‘I am telling you now before it happens, so that when it does happen you will believe that I am He. I tell you the truth, whoever accepts anyone I send, accepts me; and whoever accepts me, accepts the one who sent me. ’” The two titles Didaskale – master – refers to the authoritative Teaching of Jesus Kurie – Lord – the disciples were recognizing His authority over their entire lives I AM – Jehovah – don’t you understand who I am?
Foot washing Some accept this as a church ordinance, the same as baptism or the Lord’s Supper. Roman Catholics – the pope annually washes the feet of selected poor on the Thursday prior to Good Friday. Free Will Baptists Moravians Reasons for rejecting foot washing today. As – Jesus used the term kathos – emphasizes His act “as” an example not an ordinance. If it had been an ordinance He probably used the word ho, that which. No repeat of the command to the churches, no record in the epistle that God ever commanded foot washing as an ordinance. Baptism was repeated Communion was repeated
No illistrations – there is no example of the early church practicing foot washing. This was a social custom symbolism – what is the symbol behind the act? Baptism – the symbol of His death, burial, and resurrection. Communion – symbol of His broken body and His spilled blood. The symbol of foot washing is humility but does not compare to the symbol of substitutionary blood atonement. Why did Jesus wash the disciples’ feet? As an example of humility (13:14). As a rebuke of pride (Luke 22:24–27). “Also a dispute arose among them as to which of them was considered to be greatest.
Jesus said to them, ‘The kings of the Gentiles lord it over them; and those who exercise authority over them call themselves Benefactors. But you are not to be like that. Instead, the greatest among you should be like the youngest, and the one who rules like the one who serves. For who is greater, the one who is at the table or the one who serves? Is it not the one who is at the table? But I am among you as one who serves. ’” As a picture of our daily cleansing (13:10–11). As a warning to judas (13:18). As a picture of His humiliation (Phil. 2:5–11). Your attitude should be the same as that of Christ Jesus: Who, being in very nature God, did not consider equality with God something to be grasped, but made Himself nothing, taking the very nature of a servant, being made in human likeness. And being found in appearance as a man, He humbled Himself and became obedient to death—even death on a cross! Therefore God exalted him to the highest place and gave him the name that is above every name, that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father. As a reminder of His union and comunion with the believer (13:8). Of the seven double verilies spoken in the upper room, two are used here at foot washing. Servant is not greater than his master. Receiving the servant, as receiving the master. The second warning to Judas – Psalm 41:9, “Yea, mine own familiar friend, in whom I trusted, which did eat of my bread, hath lifted up his heel against me. ” In context David was lamenting his betrayal by Ahithophel. The difference between them was in the omission of the phrase, “in whom I trust” because of the omniscience of Jesus.
Jesus had never trusted Judas and had warned the disciples of his actions a year earlier. (6:70–71). Lifted up his heal – is based on the metaphor of a sudden kick of a mule or a horse. The Sending Out of Judas Iscariot (13:21–30) “After he had said this, Jesus was troubled in spirit and testified, ‘I tell you the truth, one of you is going to betray me. ’ His disciples stared at one another, at a loss to know which of them He meant. One of them, the disciple whom Jesus loved, was reclining next to Him. Simon Peter motioned to this disciple and said, ‘Ask him which one he means. Leaning back against Jesus, he asked him, ‘Lord, who is it? ’ Jesus answered, ‘It is the one to whom I will give this piece of bread when I have dipped it in the dish. ’ Then, dipping the piece of bread, He gave it to Judas Iscariot, son of Simon. As soon as Judas took the bread, Satan entered into him. ‘What you are about to do, do quickly,’ Jesus told him, but no one at the meal understood why Jesus said this to him. Since Judas had charge of the money, some thought Jesus was telling him to buy what was needed for the Feast, or to give something to the poor.
As soon as Judas had taken the bread, he went out. And it was night. ” “Troubled in spirit” – etarachthe – stirring up, disturbing, troubling or throwing into confusion. Christ’s appeals (warnings) to Judas – third warning – there is a traitor among us and I know who it is – what a warning and what would the others think. The insight of Matthew 26:22, “They were very sad and began to say to Him one after the other, ‘Surely not I, Lord? ’ Then Judas, the one who would betray him, said, ‘Surely not I, Rabbi? ’ Jesus answered, ‘Yes, it is you. Note the 11 called Jesus Lord – Judas called Him a teacher. Announcement of His betrayer a year earlier (6:70, 71), “Then Jesus replied, ‘Have I not chosen you, the twelve? Yet one of you is a devil! ’ (He meant Judas, the son of Simon Iscariot, who, though one of the twelve, was later to betray him). ” Seating arrangement as the table – Judas in the place of honor Jesus washed judas’ feet Announcement that one of the disciples was unclean (13:10–11). “Jesus answered, ‘A person who has had a bath needs only to wash his feet; his whole body is clean. And you are clean, though not every one of you. For He knew who was going to betray Him, and that was why He said not every one was clean. ” Appeal to scriptures (13:19; Ps. 41:9), “I am telling you now before it happens, so that when it does happen you will believe that I am He. ” Psa. 41:9 “Even my close friend, whom I trusted, he who shared my bread, has lifted up his heel against me. ” Double verily concerning the betrayer (13:21), “After he had said this, Jesus was troubled in spirit and testified, ‘I tell you the truth, one of you is going to betray me. ’” Identification of Judas in the disciples presence. (Matt. 26:25).
Handling of the sop to Judas – an act of honor (13:26), “Jesus answered, ‘It is the one to whom I will give this piece of bread when I have dipped it in the dish. ’ Then, dipping the piece of bread, he gave it to Judas Iscariot, son of Simon. ” Sending Judas out to accomplish his task – forcing his hand (13:27), “As soon as Judas took the bread, Satan entered into him. ‘What you are about to do, do quickly,’ Jesus told him,” Addressing him as a friend in the arden (Matt. 26:50), “Jesus replied, ‘Friend, do what you came for. ’ Then the men stepped forward, seized Jesus and arrested him. ’’ Who is Judas?
He is the all-american boy – best looking – he looked and acted like the example of very disciple – so trusted that he was elected to be the treasurer. He seems to be well respected even after all the warnings, no one suspects him. Like a deacon stealing from the offering plate thinking no one will know. He will betray Jesus, get the money, thinking Jesus will be arrested and He will work one of His miracles to get free. Then all would be as it was and no one the wiser. Some think they can steal or commit adultery and keep on preaching, because they look like a good Christian. He is a devil – Jesus had said it – some think he was
Satan in the flesh Sinister, with an evil look. Scriptures about Judas. Matthew 27:3–10. “When Judas, who had betrayed him, saw that Jesus was condemned, he was seized with remorse and returned the thirty silver coins to the chief priests and the elders. ‘I have sinned,’ he said, ‘for I have betrayed innocent blood. ’ ‘What is that to us? ’ they replied. ‘That’s your responsibility. ’ So Judas threw the money into the temple and left. Then he went away and hanged himself. The chief priests picked up the coins and said, ‘It is against the law to put this into the treasury, since it is blood money. So they decided to use the money to buy the potter’s field as a burial place for foreigners. That is why it has been called the Field of Blood to this day. Then what was spoken by Jeremiah the prophet was fulfilled: ‘They took the thirty silver coins, the price set on him by the people of Israel, and they used them to buy the potter’s field, as the Lord commanded me. ” (Judas seems to repent, outwardly. Here Potters filed is a city lot. ) Acts 1:18–20, With the reward he got for his wickedness, Judas bought a field; there he fell headlong, his body burst open and all his intestines spilled out. (Field here is estate or ranch. Judas was stealing from Jesus and the disciples to invest in real estate. He was a thief, a sneak thief. ) Everyone in Jerusalem heard about this, so they called that field in their language Akeldama, that is, field of blood. ) “For,’ said Peter, ‘it is written in the book of Psalms, May this place be deserted; let there be no one to dwell in it,” and, “May anothers take his place of leadership. ” (Judas rushed out after throwing the money down. He bought a potters field with this money. Judas went to the ranch he had bought, climbed to a high lace and jumped off the cliff to hang himself. ) Seating arrangement John was “leaning on Jesus’ bosom,” he must have been reclining to the right of Jesus, which was the place of affection Judas seems to have been sitting to the left of Jesus, which would have been reserved for the honored guest. Judas leans over and asks who is the betrayer. Only Judas heard the answer. Rejection of the Lord opens oneself to the devil It was night. Physical darkness outside. The condition of judas’ heart The Beginning of the Upper Room Discourse (13:31–38).
Introduction – “When he was gone, Jesus said, ‘Now is the Son of Man glorified and God is glorified in Him. If God is glorified in him, God will glorify the Son in himself, and will glorify Him at once. ‘My children, I will be with you only a little longer. You will look for me, and just as I told the Jews, so I tell you now: Where I am going, you cannot come. ’” This is almost a cry of relief With Judas gone the atmosphere changes Edoxasthe –glorified – is an aorist passive verb pointing to the departure of Judas as the moment for the beginning of glory
Teknia – little children – it means children under 12 years old, a new spirit of intimacy between Jesus and the disciples begins with this term of affection. This is the only use of this word in John, but it is a catchword in 1 John. Pidea – is the other word and it means helpless babies. The new commandment (13:34–35). “A new command I give you: Love one another. As I have loved you, so you must love one another. By this all men will know that you are my disciples, if you love one another. ” Royal Law vs. New Commandment Love neighbor Love one another, fellow believers Love as you love self Love as Jesus loved you
Love because of the covenant relationship of Israel and God. Love because of the family relationship Love as an expression of human effort in keeping the law. Love as an expression of Jesus Loving others through us. Love is a mark by which a believer can be identified. Lucian mocked the Christians of his day observing, “their master has made them believer that they are all brethren. ” Tertullian correctly observing, “the working of such love puts a brand upon us; for ‘see’, say the heathen, ‘how they lover one another. ’” The characteristics of a disciple – the three conditions for discipleship.
He continues in Christs words (8:31), “To the Jews who had believed Him, Jesus said, ‘If you hold to my teaching, you are really my disciples. ’” He expresses love toward other believers (13:34–35). He produces spiritual fruit (15:7–8). “If you remain in me and my words remain in you, ask whatever you wish, and it will be given you. This is to my Father’s glory, that you bear much fruit, showing yourselves to be my disciples. ” The question is not are we worthy but are we willing Peter’s denial predicted (13:36–38). “Simon Peter asked him, ‘Lord, where are you going? Jesus replied, ‘Where I am going, you cannot follow now, but you will follow later. ’ Peter asked, ‘Lord, why can’t I follow you now? I will lay down my life for you. ’ Then Jesus answered, ‘Will you really lay down your life for me? I tell you the truth, before the rooster crows, you will disown me three times! ’” “Where are you going? ” becomes the basis for the next lesson. I am going to die, you cannot follow now I am going to heaven, you cannot follow me now One man – Peter has a sword – a large one. Deny – utterly deny three times Mark adds that Peter argued. “Although all shall be offended, yet will not I” (Mark 14:29).