Liberty University Bible
On the other side there was an olive grove, and He and His disciples went into it. Now Judas, who betrayed Him, knew the place, because Jesus had often met there with His disciples. So Judas came to the grove, guiding a detachment of soldiers and some officials from the chief priests and Pharisees. They were carrying torches, lanterns and weapons. Jesus, knowing all that was going to happen to Him, went out and asked them, ‘Who is it you want? ’ ‘Jesus of Nazareth,’ they replied. ‘I am He,’ Jesus said. (And Judas the traitor was standing there with them. When Jesus said, ‘I am He,’ they drew back and fell to the ground. Again He asked them, ‘Who is it you want? ’ And they said, ‘Jesus of Nazareth. ’ ‘I told you that I am he,’ Jesus answered. ‘If you are looking for me, then let these men go. ’ This happened so that the words he had spoken would be fulfilled: ‘I have not lost one of those you gave me. ’ Then Simon Peter, who had a sword, drew it and struck the high priest’s servant, cutting off his right ear. (The servant’s name was Malchus. ) Jesus commanded Peter, ‘Put your sword away! Shall I not drink the cup the Father has given me? Then the detachment of soldiers with its commander and the Jewish officials arrested Jesus. They bound Him and brought Him first to Annas, who was the father-in-law of Caiaphas, the high priest that year. Caiaphas was the one who had advised the Jews that it would be good if one man died for the people. ” A. Gethsemane 1. A place where His disciples often met. 2. Godet is convinced Gethsemane was owned privately by friends of Jesus and were made available to Him as a retreat from the crowds of Jerusalem when Jesus was in the city. a retreat. 3.
The synoptics gospels portray Gethsemane as a place of Sorrow and agony. John does not mention these events. 4. The early church compared this garden with Eden. a) In the first garden the human race was plunged into the ____________________. In the second garden, the race was delivered. In the first garden the first man was bound in sin, in the second, garden the sin-bearer who liberates the slaves of sin was Himself bound. b) Garden – orchard B. Around midnight the chief priest would open the city gates and let the people poor into town.
It may be as the others were coming in Jesus was Going out C. The coming of Judas 1. Came with plenty of help. a) Ten speiran – band – normally referred to a military cohort and in context could refer to as many as 600 roman soldiers b) Also the temple police 2. Brought lanterns for fear Jesus would hide in the shadows of the olive trees or it may have been an extremely cloudy night. 3. weapons – thought there might be resistance. Normally weapons would not be carried on feast days. This was Passover and peace was emphasized.
D. Not mentioned in John but Jesus was betrayed with a kiss. Why? 1. Normal greeting. Perhaps Judas ran and kissed him as in a greeting, affection, and relationship. 2. Hypocritical love. I am with you. 3. Judas wanted to keep his anonymity – Judas did not want to be known as the traitor so when Jesus returned after performing a miracle to get away he could still be a disciple and no one would know differently. E. Jesus met the crowd. 1. Jesus knows all things. 2. They asked for Jesus of Nazareth – his address 3. Jesus answers with His familiar title ego eimi, I AM. 4.
He has identified Himself as Jehovah of the Old Testament 5. They fall back – perhaps Jesus just for an instinct Pulls back his veil. Driven backwards they fell into the ground. 6. Jesus demanded who they wanted. F. “Let these go” 1. Smite the shepherd and the sheep will flee. 2. John follows Jesus to the trial and the cross. Of all the disciples Matthew seems to be the oldest. It is the youngest—John—in his early 20’s that Stays to the end. 3. Peter follows to the fire G. The sword 1. When the name Simon is used, his old nature is being discussed. . It was normally contrary to carry a weapon on the Feast Day, but Peter had the sword, two swords. Luke 22:38. 3. Only John identifies it was malchus who was cut by Peter’s sword. This is Jesus’ 38th miracle. 4. The sword a) Probably 18 inches long b) Weighed about 5 pounds c) Thick blade and heavy, not necessarily sharp 5. Apekopsen – cut – literally means to tear or rip not slice Peter was not aiming for the ear! He was going to kill the man. H. Verse 10, Peter as usual, is doing the right things at the wrong time I.
Captain – Roman leader – over about 1000, a very important person. J. Jesus bound – illegally – it was unlawful to bind a prisoner before condemnation. They only bound dangerous criminals. K. People normally stumble at their strong point. The Romans strong point was law, yet they continually violated their law. L. First taken to Annas 1. Father in law to Caiaphas the high priest. 2. Was high priest from 15 b. c. to 6 a. d. 3. Deposed by Pilate’s predecessor, Valerius Gratus. 4. Vice-president of the Sanhedrin and the patriarch of a family which held the office of high priest until 62 a. . including 5 sons and son-in-law. 5. He was the real power behind the high priest and many Jews considered him the High Priest. M. The six trials of Jesus. The Jewish Trials Before Annas (18:12–14). Before Caiaphas (18: 19–27). Before the Sanhedrin (Mt. 27:1–2). The Roman Trials Before Pilate (18:28–38). Before Herod (Luke 23:6–11). Again before Pilate (18:39–19:6). N. From a legal standpoint, the trial of Jesus was a farce. There were as many as 43 specific illegalities in the proceedings. Below are a few: 1.
The binding of a prisoner before he was condemned was unlawful unless resistance was offered or expected. Jesus certainly offered no resistance, vs. 12, 24. 2. It was illegal for judges to participate in the arrest of the accused, v. 3. 3. No legal transactions including a trial could be conducted at night, v. 28. 4. The arrest was effected through the agency of an informer and traitor, v. 5 cf. Exodus 25:6–8. 5. While an acquittal could be pronounced the same day, any other verdict required a majority of two and had to come on a subsequent day, Matt. 6:65–66. 6. No prisoner could be convicted on his own evidence, Matt. 26:63–64. 7. It was the duty of a judge to see that the interest of the accused was fully protected, v. 14 8. Preliminary hearings before a magistrate were completely foreign to the Jewish legal system, v. 13. 9. It was illegal to carry weapons on the feast day, v. 3. 10. The use of violence during the trial was apparently unopposed by the judges, vs. 22–23. 11. The judges sought false witnesses against Jesus, Matt. 26:59; Mark 14:56. 12.
In a Jewish court the accused was to be assumed innocent until proved guilty by two or more witnesses, v. 53. 13. The Jews failed to find two witnesses agreeing against Jesus, v. 59. 14. When the witnesses first disagreed, the prisoner should have been released, Mark 14:15ff. 15. No witness was ever called for the defense. 16. The trial under Caiaphas took place in his home rather than the council chamber where it should have been held, v. 13. 17. This court lacked the civil authority to condemn a man to death, v. 31. 18. It was illegal to conduct a session of the court on the feast day, v. 8. 19. A guilty verdict was rendered without evidence, v. 30. 20. The balloting is illegal. It should have been by roll with the youngest voting first. Here the balloting is simultaneous, Matt. 26:66. 21. The sentence is finally passed in the palace of the high priest but the law demanded it be pronounced in the Temple, in the hall of hewn stone, v. 28. 22. The high priest rends his garments, Matt. 20:65 cf. Lev. 21:20. It was never permitted to tear his official robe. If he did not have on his priestly robe, he couldn’t put Christ under oath. III.
The Denial of Peter (18:15–27). “Simon Peter and another disciple were following Jesus. Because this disciple was known to the high priest, he went with Jesus into the high priest’s courtyard, but Peter had to wait outside at the door. The other disciple, who was known to the high priest, came back, spoke to the girl on duty there and brought Peter in. ‘You are not one of his disciples, are you? ’ the girl at the door asked Peter. He replied, ‘I am not. ’ It was cold, and the servants and officials stood around a fire they had made to keep warm. Peter also was standing with them, warming himself.
Meanwhile, the high priest questioned Jesus about his disciples and his teaching. ‘I have spoken openly to the world,’ Jesus replied. ‘I always taught in synagogues or at the temple, where all the Jews come together. I said nothing in secret. Why question me? Ask those who heard me. Surely they know what I said. ’ When Jesus said this, one of the officials nearby struck Him in the face. ‘Is this the way you answer the high priest? ’ he demanded. ‘If I said something wrong,’ Jesus replied, ‘testify as to what is wrong. But if I spoke the truth, why did you strike me? Then Annas sent him, still bound, to Caiaphas the high priest. As Simon Peter stood warming himself, he was asked, ‘You are not one of his disciples, are you? ’ He denied it, saying, ‘I am not. ’ One of the high priest’s servants, a relative of the man whose ear Peter had cut off, challenged him, ‘Didn’t I see you with him in the olive grove? ’ Again Peter denied it, and at that moment a rooster began to crow. ” A. Problems with Peter’s denials – “The denials of Peter represent a major problem in that all the gospels record three denials, but the context in which these denials occur are not the same.
One proposed solution to this problem involves a literal interpretation of Jesus’ prediction of the denial. According to Matthew, Luke, and John, Jesus said the cock would not crow until Peter had denied him three times. Mark adds that there would be three denials before the cock crowed twice. If Peter had, in fact, denied Christ more than three times, it would only be necessary that each writer record three of these denials. That each writer recorded some denials differing from the others suggest there may have been other unrecorded denials. ” B. The record of Peter’s denial of Christ 1.
When confronted by the maid at the door of the high priests court (v. 17). 2. When confronted by another maid near the fire in the court of the high priest (Matt. 26:70; Mark 14:68; Luke 22:57). 3. When asked by the group near the fire in the court of the high priest (v. 25). “And the cock crew” (Mark 14:68). 4. When confronted by the second maid a second time on the porch, (Mark 14:70). 5. When confronted by a third maid on the porch (Matt. 26:71). 6. When confronted by another unidentified person. (Luke 22:58). 7. When recognized by a kinsman of Malcus as being present in the Garden with Jesus (v. 7). 8. About an hour after #6 above when he is identified as a Galilean (Matt. 26:74; Luke 22:60). 9. When confronted by a group on account of his Galilean dialect (Mark 14:71). “And the second time the cock crew” (Mark 14:72). C. John was known by the high priest and was able to secure entrance to the home of the High Priest for peter and himself. D. First denial 1. Common to have a female door keeper (cf. Acts 12:13; II Sam. 4:6 LXX. ). 2. He paidiske te thuroro – the damsel that kept the door designates the servant with this particular responsibility. 3.
Her question anticipates a ____________________. Literal “You are not also one of this man’s disciples, are you? ” 4. Tou anthropou toutou – implied scorn and contempt. Her probable intent was to ridicule rather than expose. She probably knew that John was a disciple. 5. Big homes were built in a square with the center open as a courtyard. 6. It seems that John gained entrance, but not Peter at first, but later Peter entered. 7. It seems that the Romans left Jesus with the Jewish temple guards and officers.
E. Caiaphas 1. His real name was Joseph. 2. Held office according to Josephus and other Rabbinic writings. 3. Know for intrigue, bribery, and love of money. 4. He has already stated that Jesus should die for the nations. (11:49–50). F. Caiaphas and Jesus 1. Caiaphas begins by asking about Jesus’ disciples. Probably the first attempt to secure a statement by Jesus that could be called Blasphemous 2. Jesus responded with that He had taught in the synagogues and in the Temple where there would be many witnesses G. Jesus struck 1.
Rapisma – used only three times in the New Testament and may mean to strike with the hand or a rod. Related to the noun rapis meaning rod. 2. The use of violence in a trial was strictly forbidden under Jewish law and should have been rebuked immediately by the high priest. Instead ____________________. H. Peters second denial recorded by John occurred when a group of the servants and officers of the temple questioned him. They, the police, intimidated . The girl, mocked. I. Third denial came when a kinsman of the man Peter had attacked in the garden questioned him. J. Where is Nicodemus? . According to Jewish law, the quorum of the counsel was 23 and a man could only be condemned by a majority of at least two. It could have been only 13 men responsible for condemning Jesus, but it was probably a far greater number. 2. Those who were thought to have been sympathetic to Jesus were probably Notified of this meeting. IV. The Trial of Jesus Before Pilate (18:28–40). “Then the Jews led Jesus from Caiaphas to the palace of the Roman governor. By now it was early morning, and to avoid ceremonial uncleanness the Jews did not enter the palace; they wanted to be able to eat the Passover.
So Pilate came out to them and asked, ‘What charges are you bringing against this man? ’ ‘If he were not a criminal,’ they replied, ‘we would not have handed him over to you. ’ Pilate said, ‘Take him yourselves and judge him by your own law. ’ ‘But we have no right to execute anyone,’ the Jews objected. This happened so that the words Jesus had spoken indicating the kind of death he was going to die would be fulfilled. Pilate then went back inside the palace, summoned Jesus and asked him, ‘Are you the king of the Jews? ’ ‘Is that your own idea,’ Jesus asked, ‘or did others talk to you about me? ‘Am I a Jew? ’ Pilate replied. ‘It was your people and your chief priests who handed you over to me. What is it you have done? ’ Jesus said, ‘My kingdom is not of this world. If it were, my servants would fight to prevent my arrest by the Jews. But now my kingdom is from another place. ’ ‘You are a king, then! ’ said Pilate. Jesus answered, ‘You are right in saying I am a king. In fact, for this reason I was born, and for this I came into the world, to testify to the truth. Everyone on the side of truth listens to me. ’ ‘What is truth? ’ Pilate asked.
With this he went out again to the Jews and said, ‘I find no basis for a charge against Him. But it is your custom for me to release to you one prisoner at the time of the Passover. Do you want me to release ‘the king of the Jews’? ’ They shouted back, ‘No, not Him! Give us Barabbas! ’ Now Barabbas had taken part in a rebellion. ” A. John omits the Sanhedrin trial B. Jesus was led from Caiaphas to the hall of judgment. 1. Praitorion – used to describe the place it was derived from, the Latin praetorium which was the name of the official residence of a Roman governor 2.
Where a) Herod’s palace was in the western part of Jerusalem. b) Pilate lived in the fortress of Antonia just north of the Temple. 3. Time – fourth watch 3–6 a. m. C. Jews are careful not to go in. 1. Note the words in and out Pilate keeps running out to talk to them. The people won’t go into the courtroom so Pilate ran out. 2. They had eaten the Passover and they felt they would be defiled by entering a Gentile home. They would murder, lie, blatantly break Jewish law in the trial, but it was wrong to go into a gentile’s home or to put the blood money into the treasury.
D. Pontius Pilate 1. Procurator of Judea from a. d. 26 – a. d. 36 2. Deposed by Vitellius and set to Rome where he was probably Executed by Caligula. 3. Ruled in a reckless and arbitrary fashion a) Used temple funds to build an aqueduct. b) Protestors beaten by Roman soldiers. E. Normal Roman trial. 1. Opened with “what accusation bring you against this man? ” 2. Charge revealed blasphemy but Jesus will eventually be crucified for treason 3. Evidence on both sides given. 4. Verdict rendered. F. How did Pilate try to release Christ? 1.
You judge him (18:31). 2. He is innocent (18:38). 3. Send him Herod 4. Substitute barabbas (18:39). 5. Partial punishment (19:1). 6. Plays on pity (19:5). 7. Behold your King (19:14). G. “It is not lawful for us to put a man to death. ” 1. Some say they simply were saying they did not have the authority to put a man to death. But Pilate here gave them that authority and the Jews were ready to kill Him earlier by whatever means. Stephen would disagree. 2. Not able to kill Jesus because of the Passover season They did not want to be defiled by dead bodies and murder. . Ouk exestin – it is not lawful – occurs only twice in the gospels (5:10; 18:31). It is commonly used in other gospels but not a reference to civil authority but to the law of God H. The charge 1. Before the Sanhedrin was blasphemy (Mark 14:61–64). This was not a violation of Roman law however. 2. There were four other charges made against Jesus (Luke 23:2, 5). Pilate ignored three but not the fourth. 3. treason was the last charge. Tiberius was particularly sensitive and every suggestion that treason existed was carefully investigated. I.
Pilate’s vacillation. 1. OutHeard their non-indictment (18:28-32). 2. In“Are you a King? ” (18:33–37). 3. Out“I find no fault. ” (18:38–40). 4. In“Scourge Jesus” (19:1–3). 5. Out“Behold the Man” (19:4–8). 6. InPilate sought to release Him (19:9–12). 7. Out“Behold your King. ” (19:13–16). J. “You are a King, then? ” 1. Note how often king and kingdom are used. 2. “So then you are a King! ” 3. It assumes a ____________________. 4. Pilate recognized Him as a King, but not ____________________. K. Are you a king? – Pilate probably said this is a mad man with no credibility. He has a kingdom in another world?
This is religious and Pilate feels Jesus is absolutely no threat to Rome. L. “What is truth? ” – Pilate is tired of talk and philosophy. M. Initial verdict – not guilty – I find in him no fault at all. Jesus should have been immediately released. Everything that follows the verdict is clearly illegal. N. Between verses 38–39 Pilate sends Jesus to Herod. O. The release of Barabbas. 1. Outside the gospels the custom is completely unknown 2. Barabbas is Aramaic meaning “a son of a father. ” 3. Some suggest his release symbolically illustrates that Jesus died for every son of every father.
The son of a father goes free, the Son of the Father Is put to death 4. Robber – mugger and highway thief. He is not a sneak thief, but A violent man. a man with no compassion of his victims. I. Christ Before Pilate (19:1–15) A. Inside the praetorium (19:1–3). “Then Pilate took Jesus and had him flogged. The soldiers twisted together a crown of thorns and put it on his head. They clothed him in a purple robe and went up to him again and again, saying, ‘Hail, king of the Jews! ’ And they struck him in the face. ” 1. Scourging a) Reasons for scourging ) Sometimes to get the truth 2) Sometimes for punishment b) How it was carried out. 1) There was no cause for the scourging, it was done before sentencing. 2) Prisoner stripped and was bound to a low pillar or stake. 3) Normally done before crucifixion. 4) Short handle with leather thongs. 5) Some had metal stones or a lead ball, stone, glass etc. attached to the end. 6) Some were only leather with knotted ends. 7) The flesh was a mass of torn, bleeding tissue. 8) The Jews had a limit of 39 lashes, actually 40 times, but to be sure they did not break the law, 39. The Romans had no limit. ) The severity of the beating is evident in His inability To bear his cross. 2. “Crown of thorns” – Why thorns? a) To cause pain and suffering b) It was a sign of the curse. the symbol of the curse was thorns. 3. Mockery a) It seems that a crown of thorns may have been put on several times before and after sentencing (Matt. 27:27–30; Mark 15:16–19). b) Jesus was addressed in a way one would greet Caesar, chaire hail. c) Edidosan – they kept on giving him slaps with their hands. 4. The five insults heaped upon Jesus by the Romans (19:1–3). ) They scourged Him without cause. b) They crowned Him with thorns. c) They threw a royal robe on His bleeding back. d) They mocked Him saying, “Hail, King of the Jews. ” e) They slapped Him with their open hands. B. Outside the praetorium (19:4–7). “Once more Pilate came out and said to the Jews, ‘Look, I am bringing Him out to you to let you know that I find no basis for a charge against Him. ’ When Jesus came out wearing the crown of thorns and the purple robe, Pilate said to them, ‘Here is the man! ’ As soon as the chief priests and their officials saw Him, they shouted, ‘Crucify!
Crucify! ’ But Pilate answered, ‘You take Him and crucify him. As for me, I find no basis for a charge against him. ’ The Jews insisted, ‘We have a law, and according to that law He must die, because He claimed to be the Son of God. ’” 1. Came out a) Jews refused to enter and be defiled for the Passover. b) The charges should have been dismissed with no accusers. c) Pilate honored their wishes by going out. 2. “Here is the man” – perhaps Pilate thought that when they saw Jesus beaten, wearing a crown of thorns, and a purple robe, it would have Touched a cord of humanity in them . “Crucify” a) Started by the chief priest which would include Caiaphas and the temple police. b) Staurosen – aorist imperative with no stated object. c) It seems to have started like a chant at a football game. d) They did not have a charge, but answered if He were not deserving of death He would not be here. 4. First charge treason a) King of the Jews – Pilate did not take it seriously b) Jews threaten blackmail 5. God-man – to a Roman this was a real possibility that would require a careful investigation.
Roman and Greeks mythology is filled with accounts of the gods living among men. 6. Pilate’s three warnings. a) Dream of his wife b) Good witness by Christ c) Real motive of Sanhedrin revealed C. Inside the praetorium (19:8–11). “When Pilate heard this, he was even more afraid, and he went back inside the palace. ‘Where do you come from? ’ he asked Jesus, but Jesus gave him no answer. ‘Do you refuse to speak to me? ’ Pilate said. ‘Don’t you realize I have power either to free you or to crucify you? ’ Jesus answered, ‘You would have no power over me if it were not given to you from above.
Therefore the one who handed me over to you is guilty of a greater sin! ” 1. “Even more afraid” – he realized the true charge was blasphemy that was motivated by religious bickering, Pilate was caught in the middle of these fanatics 2. Fifth question – “Who are you and where did you come from? ” 3. Romans 13 – Pilate was there by the power of God. 4. Judas was the one with the greater sin. Who killed Jesus? a) National guilt – Jews killed him. b) Judas c) Pilate d) Roman soldiers e) Disciples f) Satan – Gen. 3:16 g) us D. Outside the praetorium (19:12–15). From then on, Pilate tried to set Jesus free, but the Jews kept shouting, ‘If you let this man go, you are no friend of Caesar. Anyone who claims to be a king opposes Caesar. ’ When Pilate heard this, he brought Jesus out and sat down on the judge’s seat at a place known as the Stone Pavement (which in Aramaic is Gabbatha). It was the day of Preparation of Passover Week, about the sixth hour. ‘Here is your king,’ Pilate said to the Jews. But they shouted, ‘Take him away! Take him away! Crucify him! ’ ‘Shall I crucify your king? ’ Pilate asked. ‘We have no king but Caesar,’ the chief priests answered. 1. Pilate tried every means to release Jesus, not because of justice, but self-interst. He understood it was a religious vendetta. If he kills an innocent man he could get into trouble, but if he lets a man guilty of treason go free, he is in even greater trouble. 2. “Caesar’s friend” – a formal title of honor used by the Romans, perhaps even one by which Pilate ha at times been addressed 3. “Day before Passover” – they were getting ready to kill the lambs. 4. “Here is your king” (v. 14 NIV) – probably for the first time Rome affirmed this. . “We have no king but Caesar” (v. 15). On any other occasion, it would have been unthinkable for the Jews to recognize ceasar as their king 6. Inaccuracy in the time of the crucifixion. a) Matthew and Mark use Jewish time which began counting the hours of the day at sunrise 6:00 a. m. b) John uses both. In a Hebrew setting he uses Hebrew time, and in a Roman setting, he uses Roman time. II. The Crucifixion of Christ (19:16–30). “Finally Pilate handed Him over to them to be crucified. So the soldiers took charge of Jesus.
Carrying His own cross, He went out to the place of the Skull (which in Aramaic is called Golgotha). Here they crucified Him, and with Him two others—one on each side and Jesus in the middle. Pilate had a notice prepared and fastened to the cross. It read: JESUS OF NAZARETH, THE KING OF THE JEWS. Many of the Jews read this sign, for the place where Jesus was crucified was near the city, and the sign was written in Aramaic, Latin and Greek. The chief priests of the Jews protested to Pilate, ‘Do not write ‘The King of the Jews,’ but that this man claimed to be king of the Jews. Pilate answered, ‘What I have written, I have written. ’ When the soldiers crucified Jesus, they took his clothes, dividing them into four shares, one for each of them, with the undergarment remaining. This garment was seamless, woven in one piece from top to bottom. ‘Let’s not tear it,’ they said to one another. ‘Let’s decide by lot who will get it. ’ This happened that the scripture might be fulfilled which said, ‘They divided my garments among them and cast lots for my clothing. ’ So this is what the soldiers did. Near the cross of Jesus stood his mother, his mother’s sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary Magdalene.
When Jesus saw his mother there, and the disciple whom he loved standing nearby, he said to his mother, ‘Dear woman, here is your son,’ and to the disciple, ‘Here is your mother. ’ From that time on, this disciple took her into his home. Later, knowing that all was now completed, and so that the Scripture would be fulfilled, Jesus said, ‘I am thirsty. ’ A jar of wine vinegar was there, so they soaked a sponge in it, put the sponge on a stalk of the hyssop plant, and lifted it to Jesus’ lips. When he had received the drink, Jesus said, ‘It is finished. ’ With that, he bowed his head and gave up his spirit. A. It appears there was no formal sentencing of Jesus. 1. Paradoken – delivered meaning to give over to the other side. 2. Same verb used of the Sanhedrin giving Jesus to Pilate (18:30). 3. Pilate never says ____________________! B. Who is the they and the them that took him? 1. Some say the soldiers 2. Others the soldiers plus the priests C. Each gospel records and account of the crucifixion and emphasizing particulars details not mentioned by other writers. These accounts are not contradictory but Complimentary when compared and studied together. D. What kind of death did Jesus die?
John 19:14, 18, 23, 25, 26, 36, 37 it was a death of: 1. Humiliation (v. 18) 2. Mourning (vs. 25–26) 3. Suffering (v. 28) 4. Completing the Passover (v. 14; Matt. 27:51) 5. Predicted (vs. 36–37) E. The events of Calvary 1. Carrying of His cross (John 19:17) 2. Simon substituted (Luke 23:26) 3. Offer of stupefying drink (Matt. 27:24) 4. Nailed between two thieves (John 19:18-24) 5. “Father forgive them” (Matt. 23:24*) 6. Jews mock Jesus (Matt, 27:39–44) 7. Thieves’ rail on Jesus (Luke 23:39–43) 8. “Today you shall be with me” (Luke 23:43*) 9. Woman behold your son! ” (John 19:26–27*) 10. Darkness (Matt. 27:45) 11. “My God . . . why have you forsaken me? ” (Matt. 27:46*) 12. “I thirst” (John 19:28*) 13. “It is finished” (John 19:30*) 14. “Father, into you hands I commend my Spirit. ” (Luke 23:46*) 15. Our Lord dismisses His Spirit (John 19:30) *The seven sayings of Jesus on the cross. F. The place where Jesus was crucified. 1. Hebrew – Golgotha 2. Latin – Calvary 3. The place of the Skull – Greek Cranium a) Because it looked like a skull a skull. b) It is where many died . 4.
It was just outside the city wall – it is identified by some as Gordon’s Calvary. G. Crucifixion 1. Nailed to a cross in such a way to suspend the body by the arms resulting in a slow suffocation. 2. Often had to tie them to the cross to get him still enough to nail Him to the cross. 3. Some died of loss of blood, exposure, etc. 4. Often nailed legs slowing death. 5. Some lived for nine days before dying. 6. To hasten death the legs would be broken making it impossible for the prisoner to support himself. H. Sign 1. This was in Pilate’s hand writing.
Only John records the details that this was actually written by pilate himself 2. Customary to publish a title consisting of the name of the accused and the crime for which He was being crucified. 3. Tition – Latin widely used for official publication such as a bill, notice of sale, or even the title page of a book. 4. Written in three languages – Hebrew: religious, language Latin, legal language, and Greek: international language. 5. Jesus is the center of religious life: Hebrew, intellectual: Greek, and legal: Latin. 6.
King of the Jews – treason to the Romans, messianic to the Jews. I. Christ suffered for us. 1. Suffering anticipated (Lev. 16:15) 2. Suffering predicted (Isa. 53:3–7) 3. Suffering known by Jesus (Matt. 16:21) 4. Suffering endured (John 19:28) 5. Suffering finished (John 19:30) J. Verse 21 “chief priests of the Jews” – no longer priest of God. K. There is a tradition that says that Pilate was later saved, no one knows. L. “Garments” – all He had left. M. Contrast 1. Four plundering soldiers with the Centurion. 2. Four ministering women with John. N. John’s view of Jesus on the cross. 1. Behold the Lamb of God (1:29, 36). . Behold the Man (19:5). 3. Behold your King (19:14 KJV). O. Mary to John – under the law, it was the responsibility of the firstborn to care for aging parents. Here Jesus removes the responsibility to His beloved disciple. Tradition says that when John moved to Ephesus, Mary move with him and Died in ephesis P. “I thirst” – fifth cry – Thirst was a common sensation in a crucified man. The fulfillment was not in the cry but the response of the crowd in giving vinegar (cf. Psa. 69:21). Q. The height of the cross – the longest reed would be no more than three or four feet. The cross was not as high as it is often portrayed.
Jesus’ feet were probably not over two or three feet off the ground. R. It is finished. 1. His physical suffering was over. 2. The last Old Testament Lamb was sacrificed. 3. The dispensation of law was terminated. 4. The sins of the world were propitiated. 5. He was dying physically 6. The plan of salvation was complete S. “Bowed His head and gave up the Ghost” – He died voluntarily, it was not the cross that killed Him – “No man taketh it from Me, but I lay it down Myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again” (10:18). Some think this is the first time He bowed His head on the cross.
III. The Burial of Jesus (19:31–42). “Now it was the day of Preparation, and the next day was to be a special Sabbath. Because the Jews did not want the bodies left on the crosses during the Sabbath, they asked Pilate to have the legs broken and the bodies taken down. The soldiers therefore came and broke the legs of the first man who had been crucified with Jesus, and then those of the other. But when they came to Jesus and found that he was already dead, they did not break His legs. Instead, one of the soldiers pierced Jesus’ side with a spear, bringing a sudden flow of blood and water.
The man who saw it has given testimony, and His testimony is true. He knows that He tells the truth, and He testifies so that you also may believe. These things happened so that the scripture would be fulfilled: “Not one of his bones will be broken,” and, as another scripture says, “They will look on the one they have pierced. ” Later, Joseph of Arimathea asked Pilate for the body of Jesus. Now Joseph was a disciple of Jesus, but secretly because he feared the Jews. With Pilate’s permission, he came and took the body away. He was accompanied by Nicodemus, the man who earlier had visited Jesus at night.
Nicodemus brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about seventy-five pounds. Taking Jesus’ body, the two of them wrapped it, with the spices, in strips of linen. This was in accordance with Jewish burial customs. At the place where Jesus was crucified, there was a garden, and in the garden a new tomb, in which no one had ever been laid. Because it was the Jewish day of Preparation and since the tomb was nearby, they laid Jesus there. ” A. Legs broken 1. Because it would hasten death 2. Broken from hips down. It is not one break but all the way down, splintering, the kneecaps, and ankles.
They used a wooden mallet from 3–5 pounds. 3. They were not concerned about the suffering men, but they did not want any bodies on the cross during passover B. “Blood and water” 1. Many writers argue from this account that the spear pierced the left side of Jesus near the heart. The description of blood and water separating suggests the physical cause of Jesus’ death was a ruptured or Broken heart C. What realities were involved in the piercing of Jesus’ side? 1. Reality of Christ’s humanity for there was a flow of blood. 2.
Reality of Christ’ deity , for there was something unexpected, unusual, noteworthy – “blood and water” something more than human. 3. Reality of Christ’s death 4. Reality of clear and unexpected fulfillment of two Messianic prophesies (vs. 36–37). D. Broken bones 1. To break His legs would have violated both scriptural requirements and prediction. 2. “It must be eaten inside one house; take none of the meat outside the house. Do not break any of the bones” (Ex. 12:46). 3. “He protects all His bones, not one of them will be broken” (Psalm 34:20). And I will pour out on the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem a spirit of grace and supplication. They will look on Me, the one they have pierced, and they will mourn for Him as one mourns for an only child, and grieve bitterly for Him as one grieves for a firstborn son” (Zech. 12:10). E. Joseph from Arimathea – from Ramah Gilliad four phrases describing Him. 1. Rich man – Matt. 27:57 2. Honorable man – Mark 15:43 3. Good and just man – Luke 23:50 4. A secret disciple – John F. Facts about the tomb where Jesus was buried. 1. Belonged to a rich man. 2. Near the crucifixion spot. 3. No one ever buried there. . Hewn out of a rock 5. Stone rolled over the door. G. The burial 1. Only John records that Nicodemus provided 100 pounds of spices to anoint the body of Jesus, i. e. , Roman weight about 75 pounds our weight. It would be a lotion. 2. Spices – aromaton – derived from the word for fumes. 3. Linen cloths – othoniois – also used by Greeks for sails on their ships. 4. They would wash the body and start wrapping the body like an Egyptian mummy pouring spices in between the layers of cloth. The “napkin” was a pillowcase about 5 thickness pulled over the head. H. Mark says that the women were there and watching.
I. How was the body of Jesus buried? (John 19:38–42) 1. By loving hands (John 19:38–39). 2. Wound in linen clothes (John 19:40). 3. Buried as a Jew (John 19:40). 4. Immediately (Luke 23:54). 5. Covered with 100 pounds of spices (John 19:39). 6. Observed by women (Mark 15:47). Christ – The Victorious One Outline I. Introduction to the Resurrection A. Fundamental to everything a Christian believer is the miracle of the Physical resurrection of Jesus from the dead. B. B. B. Warfield called it, “the cardinal doctrine of our system: on it all other doctrines stand. C. Every sermon in Acts includes the Resurrection. D. The Resurrection is the basis of eternal life that is promised to all that believe in Jesus Christ. E. The Resurrection is more than an idea, it is an event in history Thomas Arnold, “I know of no one fact in the history of mankind which is proved by better and fuller evidence of every sort, to the understanding of a fair inquirer, than the great sign which God hath given us that Christ died and rose again from the dead. ” II. The Proof of the Empty Tomb (20:1–10). A. Mary’s witness (20:1–2). Early on the first day of the week, while it was still dark, Mary Magdalene went to the tomb and saw that the stone had been removed from the entrance. So she came running to Simon Peter and the other disciple, the one Jesus loved, and said, ‘They have taken the Lord out of the tomb, and we don’t know where they have put him! ’” 1. Mary Magdalene a) First one to discover the empty tomb b) Jesus cast seven demons out of Mary (Luke 7:2; Mark 16:9). c) The tradition that she had been an immoral woman before following Jesus is without any biblical support. ) See – glance – the guards were gone and the stone rolled away. She assumed that someone had stolen the body. She did not retrace the steps to find the others but went back another way, running to tell the disciples Peter and John. e) Magdalene means from Magdala a town about five miles north of Tiberias. 2. The other gospels refer to three other women also, Mary, the mother of James; Salome; and Joanna. Mary Magdalene seems to be the leader of the group. It seems the others were a little afraid in the pre-dawn hours knowing there would be Roman guards there.
While they held back, Mary Magdalene went ahead. 3. “While dark” a) Jerusalem being built on the highest hill the sun Jumps up suddenly b) Mary left home before dawn but arrived after sunrise c) Skotia – used metaphorical – spiritual darkness 4. Some feel Mary went ahead saw the stone rolled away, thought the body had been stolen and returned by a different path B. The disciples’ witness (20:3–5). “So Peter and the other disciple started for the tomb. Both were running, but the other disciple outran Peter and reached the tomb first.
He bent over and looked in at the strips of linen lying there but did not go in. ” 1. John being younger, out ran Peter to the tomb, but like Mary, he did not enter. Peter went right in. John was in his early to mid 20s Peter early to mid 30s. 2. Three interpretations on John’s looking in. a) Quisnell – John represents the people who desire to look in. Peter represents the church who examines first. b) Loisy – Peter goes in first for he represents Hellenistic Christianity. c) John was first because he was faster had more stamina – larger and older Peter took longer.
Peter examined carefully 3. Hebrew burial a) No embalming, Jewish custom prohibits them from handling blood b) The spices make a gummy ointment and the body is anointed up to the head. c) John saw an empty shell, only the cocoon was left C. The disciples’ investigation (20:6–10). “Then Simon Peter, who was behind him, arrived and went into the tomb. He saw the strips of linen lying there, as well as the burial cloth that had been around Jesus’ head. The cloth was folded up by itself, separate from the linen. Finally the ther disciple, who had reached the tomb first, also went inside. He saw and believed. (They still did not understand from Scripture that Jesus had to rise from the dead. ) Then the disciples went back to their homes,” 1. “To see” a) Blepei – 20:5 a quick glance. John took a quick glance into the tomb. b) Theorei – a greater intensity. in the act of seeing, likely to be used of a spectator watching a sporting event or a child watching a parade. Peter theorei. c) Eiden – 20:8 not only the physical act of seeing but also the idea of understanding or insight.
John finally understood. 2. Face cloth a) Sometimes like a small hand towel b) Other times like a pillowcase pulled over the head. c) Entetuligmenon – wrapped or rolled up. Jesus or the angels took time to fold it up. 3. Wrappings like a cocoon. a) If stolen, the body would have either been unwrapped or all stolen. b) If Jesus swooned then he would have been bound into place with the 80 pounds of spices and even if he could have gotten out of the cocoon, it would have been unwrapped. ) As Jesus went through a closed door we went through the wrappings 4. Condition of the disciples a) Peter left wondering b) John had become the first to believe. Full of faith 5. Footnote – they knew about the resurrection in their heads but not in their hearts III. The Proof of the Appearance (20:11–23). A. Introduction 1. Some argue that every post-resurrection appearance of Jesus occurred on a Sunday so the day became “The Lord’s Day” 2.
John lists three post-resurrection appearances and in the Old Testament, it took only two or three witnesses to verify a fact. a) To Paul later in Jerusalem, (Acts 23:11). b) To Paul in another vision, (2 Cor. 12:1–4). c) To ____________________, (Revelation) B. Appearance to Mary (20:11–18). “But Mary stood outside the tomb crying. As she wept, she bent over to look into the tomb and saw two angels in white, seated where Jesus’ body had been, one at the head and the other at the foot. They asked her, ‘Woman, why are you crying? ‘They have taken my Lord away,’ she said, ‘and I don’t know where they have put him. ’ At this, she turned around and saw Jesus standing there, but she did not realize that it was Jesus. ‘Woman,’ he said, ‘why are you crying? Who is it you are looking for? ’ Thinking he was the gardener, she said, ‘Sir, if you have carried him away, tell me where you have put him, and I will get him. ’ Jesus said to her, ‘Mary. ’ She turned toward him and cried out in Aramaic, ‘Rabboni! ’ (which means Teacher). Jesus said, ‘Do not hold on to me, for I have not yet returned to the Father.
Go instead to my brothers and tell them, ‘I am returning to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God. ’’ Mary Magdalene went to the disciples with the news: ‘I have seen the Lord! ’ And she told them that He had said these things to her. ” 1. Mary could not keep up with Peter and John, she returned to the tomb After they left 2. Mary looked – parkupsen – literally glanced into the tomb. The angels appeared to the women but not the men. This is the only physical manifestation of angels mentions in John. Two angels, i. e. , the number of witness. 3.
Mary seems to be controlled by tears 4. Why did Mary not recognize Jesus in the Garden? a) She was crying b) She still thought Jesus was dead c) The man standing in the garden might have looked different from her last view of Jesus. It has been sown in dishonor and raised in glory (1 Cor. 15:43). d) She was spiritually blind 5. Gardeners normally worked the gardens in early morning. 6. Mary will bring Jesus back – Jesus 150 pounds to 200 pounds plus 80 pounds of spices and she will carry Him back – Love Knows no bounds (or pounds! ). 7. Rabboni – John translates this term master.
It is closely related to the term rabbi, but there is a significant difference. In older Jewish literature, it was never applied to man as a rabbi but rather reserved exclusively for God Rabboni then was Mary’s expression of faith, her way of declaring Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God. 8. KJV – Touch Me not – 20:17 a) Jesus had not yet ascended into heaven. He had to go cleanse the heavenly places with His blood. (Heb. 9:12, 23). Anabebada translated ascend is perfect indicative active suggesting Jesus was in the process of ascending when He appeared to Mary.
Those who hold this view argue Jesus ascended to the Father in some sense between His appearance to Mary and His later appearance to the other women. Don’t touch me I am ascending up to cleanse heaven. Jesus had pure blood, blood comes from the Father, and He had to take the actual literal blood to cleanse heaven b) There was only one ascention, not two. The cleansing was on the cross not in the Resurrection, or the Ascension. c) Jesus was in the process of going to heaven to be the First fruit d) Hapton, translated touch, primarily means to fasten or cling to.
It was not a prohibition against touching the body of Jesus, but rather a request to quit hanging on me e) Jesus is telling Mary she must move beyond the physical and enter into a spiritual relationship. “It is not the physical you must love; it is the real me, now that I am in my resurrection body, you must love me not as you remember me, but for what I am now. ” C. Appearance to the disciples (20:19–23). “On the evening of that first day of the week, when the disciples were together, with the doors locked for fear of the Jews, Jesus came and stood among them and said, ‘Peace be with you! After He said this, He showed them his hands and side. The disciples were overjoyed when they saw the Lord. Again Jesus said, ‘Peace be with you! As the Father has sent me, I am sending you. ’ And with that He breathed on them and said, ‘Receive the Holy Spirit. If you forgive anyone his sins, they are forgiven; if you do not forgive them, they are not forgiven. ’” 1. Orsias tei hemerai – evening of the day – this refers technically to the hours from evening of the day. 6-9pm. This proves the use of Roman time, the Jews always spoke of the evening preceding the day. (cf. Gen 1:5, 8, 13, 19, 23, 31). . Doors shut – thuron – suggests the entrance to the room was through a two-levered door. Dutch doors. rather than the room having several entrances. 3. How did Jesus get in? a) Calvin – doors were miraculously opened and Jesus passed through an unbarricaded doorway (cf. Acts 12:10). b) Jesus materialized within the rooms. c) More likely the resurrected glorified body is not subject to limitations of our limited bodies. He walked through the door. 4. It was a real body. a) It was crucified and risen b) He had the holes in his hands and side. 5.
Fear is a barrier to faith (Proverbs 29:25). John often speaks of the “the fear of the Jews” as a hindrance to faith 6. They saw – examined Jesus. 7. Verse 21 – John’s version is the first of the five commissions given of the Great Commission, apestalken – from which the word apostle is derived. It implies a commissioning with the authority similar to that of an embassy representing a foreign government. He does not say to whom or where to go. a) First commission (John 20:21), Great Commission b) Second commission is in Mark 16 a week later, Great Commission ) Third commission is Matt. 28. Great Commission d) Luke 24 preach Great Commission e) Acts 1:8 adds Great Commission 8. Jesus breathes on them. a) This was the earnest until pentecost b) In Genesis, He breathed into Adam. c) In the Old Testament the coming of the Holy Spirit is portrayed through the act of God breathing out upon the ones receiving the Spirit (Ezekiel 37:5). 1) The disciples were in an interim period 2) They needed guidance, protection, and guidance. ) From Resurrection to Pentecost they had the Old Testament Filling of the holy spirit 4) They no longer had Jesus with them all the time and the Holy Spirit had not yet fallen upon them with power. They needed spiritual help d) In 50 days they will be immersed and filled with the Holy Spirit. IV. The Proof of the Nail Prints (20:24–29) A. The unbelief of Thomas (20:24–25). “Now Thomas (called Didymus), one of the Twelve, was not with the disciples when Jesus came. So the other disciples told him, ‘We have seen the Lord! ’ But he said to them, ‘Unless I ee the nail marks in his hands and put my finger where the nails were, and put my hand into his side, I will not believe it. ’” 1. Eight days later Thomas meets Jesus from Pentecost. 2. In all fairness to Thomas, it seems only John believed in the Resurrection before seeing the resurrected Lord. 3. John has drawn attention to Thomas on three occasions. a) It was Thomas that led the disciples to follow Jesus knowing something of the consequences (11:16). b) It was Thomas who interrupted Jesus in the upper room asking the way to the Father (14:5). ) Thomas seems to be a man of extremes 4. “Put my finger into the print of the nails, and thrust my hand into his side. ” Balo – emphatic – throw into. 5. Thomas uses a double negative. Knox translates it “You will never make me believe. ” B. The convincing of Thomas (20:26–29). “A week later His disciples were in the house again, and Thomas was with them. Though the doors were locked, Jesus came and stood among them and said, ‘Peace be with you! ’ Then He said to Thomas, ‘Put your finger here; see my hands. Reach out your hand and put it into my side. Stop doubting and believe. Thomas said to Him, ‘My Lord and my God! ’ Then Jesus told him, ‘Because you have seen me, you have believed; blessed are those who have not seen and yet have believed. ’” 1. This is the second visit of Jesus and Thomas is present. 2. The major purpose of this visit is to bring Thomas from Doubt to faith 3. Do not be too hard on Thomas it was all of them. a) Mark 16:14, “Later Jesus appeared to the eleven as they were eating; he rebuked them for their lack of faith and their stubborn refusal to believe those who had seen him after he had risen. b) Thomas demonstrates the thesis of John unbelief to belief It does not appear that Thomas put his finger in the hands, feet and side of Jesus. 4. “Be not faithless but believing,” apistos – faithless and pistons – believing is similar to the English words unbelieving and believing. 5. Levels of faith – The Pathology of Faith. a) Non-saving faith 1) Vain faith – 1 Cor. 15:14–17. Faith in wrong doctrine. 2) Dead faith – James 2:19–20. Faith in orthodox doctrine without personal belief in Christ. ) Saving faith 1) Unbelief – Mark 16:11–14. Believers in Christ but will not accept His work. 2) Little faith – Mark 7:26. Faith and unbelief mixed. 3) Weak faith – Romans 14:1. Believers who have a legalistic expression of faith. 4) Strong faith – Romans 4:20. Faith in the promises of God. 6. Verse 28 – the apex of the gospel – “My Lord and my God” it gives the strongest or highest expression of Old Testament deity 2 Sam. 7:38; 1 Kings 18:39; Psalm 30:2; 35:24; 86:15; 88:1; Jer. 8:17; Hos. 2:23. 7. Thomas identified Jesus, as the I am – Jehovah. and the creator God – Eloheim. 8. Verse 29 – He did not examine the hands of the Lord. We are blessed because we have not seen they physical Jesus with the eyes, but ____________________. V. The Purpose of the Gospel (20:30–31). “Jesus did many other miraculous signs in the presence of His disciples, which are not recorded in this book. But these are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name. ” A.
The two major purposes of John. 1. That we may believe. The word believe is used 98 times. a) Hina pistenete b) Keep on beleiving – Jesus is the Christ. 2. Have life a) Life through His name b) Eschete c) Keep on having life by a continual adventure in faith. 3. Three individual examples of saving faith in John 20. a) John: intellectual. believed before seeing. b) Mary: emotional. “Rabboni” did not produce immediate faith – she thought He was a gardener. c) Thomas: volitional. “My Lord and my God” resulted in an immediate expression of faith.