Lin Article Critique
In the article Effects of forgiveness therapy on anger, mood, and vulnerability to substance use among inpatient substance-dependent clients (Lin, Mack, Enright, Krahn, & Basking, 2004), anger is the greatest deterrent for relapse in individuals who are trying to overcome substance-abuse addictions. A new approach to anger, forgiveness therapy, “posits that resentment and its accompanying anger are often justifiable responses to severe wrongs” (Lin et al. 2004, p. 1115). Forgiveness when iven and received, allows for hope to be restored in human kindness. Jesus tells to forgive as He has forgiven, from the heart, “Repent, then, and turn to God so that your sins may be wiped out, that times of refreshing may come from the Lord” (Acts 3:19, NIV), the times of refreshing for an addict are so precious, this is why forgiveness is crucial to their recovery. Participants from a residential treatment facility were chosen and randomly assigned to one of two groups: forgiveness therapy or alcohol/drug counseling.
The study consisted of twelve individual therapy sessions for each group and administered by the same therapist (Lin et al. 2004). The aim of the study was to test the two groups and determine if anger, depression, anxiety and vulnerability would decrease as a result of the individual therapies. Participants, six for forgiveness therapy and four for alcohol/drug counseling, attended a four-month follow-up to which there was a significant difference in the two groups. The forgiveness therapy group showed a substantial decrease in alcohol/drug vulnerabilities, where as alcohol/drug counseling remained about the same.
Lin Article Critique Essay Example
The reason, researchers suggest is that torgiveness therapy did not tocus on drug vulnerabilities, but “centered on the lient’s thoughts, behaviors and feelings about someone other than themselves” (Lin 1119). Title critique The title helps identify if the article is relevant to the persons’ research topic or of one that will prove to spark their interest. Several questions can be used in evaluating a title in determining whether the content is one of pursuing (Pyrczak, 1. Is the title sufficiently specific? Yes. Scale rating of 4. 2008).
The title clearly states the objects in this study, which are the effects of forgiveness therapy among substance-dependent clients. 2. Is the title reasonably concise? Somewhat. Scale rating of 2. According to Pyrczak (2008), the title should be about fifteen words or less, this title contains seventeen words. The words “mood” and “substance-dependent clients” could have been eliminated because they are somewhat redundant. The title could have instead read, Effects of forgiveness therapy for addictive clients focusing on anger and vulnerability to substance use. . Does the title identify the types of individuals who participated? Yes. Scale rating of 5. The title refers to substance-dependent clients who did participate in the study. 4. If a study is strongly tied to a theory, is the name of the specific theory mentioned n the title? Yes. Scale rating of 5. The forgiveness therapy was used for this study is also listed in the title. 5. Has the author avoided describing results in the title? Yes. Scale rating of 5. None of the results are described in the title.
Pyrczak (2008) states that the results of the study are often scrutinized for more than one explanation of the research findings. 6. Has the author avoided using a “yes-rd’ question in the title? Yes. Rating Scale of 5. No question appears in the title of this article. 7. If the title implies causality, does the method of research Justify it? Yes. Rating Scale of 4. The title implies that anger and mood could be related to vulnerability of substance abuse and the research looks at forgiveness therapy and the effects this type of therapy has on substance-dependent clients.
Abstract Critique The abstract of a research article is the summary paragraph used to summarize they key findings and explorations used for a particular article. Abstracts helps to identify if the article is relevant in terms of interest to the reader. Some Journals require a maximum word count where 100 to 250 words are common (Pyrczak, 2008). 1. Is the purpose of the study referred to or at least clearly implied? Yes. Rating Scale of 5. The first sentence in the abstract states, “Anger and related emotions have been identified as triggers in substance abuse” (Lin et al. 2004). The next sentence mentions forgiveness therapy and the participants related to this study. 2. Does the abstract mention highlights of the research methodology? Yes. Rating Scale of 4. Pyrczak (2008) states that, “small samples are important methodology characteristics that might set this study apart from others on the same topic” (p. 24). This abstract does give the sample size and a description of the methods that were used. . If the study is strongly tied to a theory, is the theory mentioned in the abstract? Yes.
Rating Scale ot 5 The abstract clearly states that forgiveness therapy was used in this study and offer slight insight to the results of this particular theory. 4. Overall is the abstract effective and appropriate? Yes. Rating Scale of 4. The abstract does mention the purpose, method and results of this study. Literature Review Critique A literature review is the process of examining published studies for topics that are relevant to the area of intended study Oackson, 2012). Critiquing literature eviews involves examining the introduction for the literature cited for the actual study.
There are five purposes for literature review: “(a) to introduce the problem area, (b) establish its importance, (c) provide an overview of relevant literature, (d) show how the current stud will advance knowledge in the area and (e) describe the researcher’s specific research questions, purpose, or hypotheses” (Pyrczak, 2008, p. 1. Does the researcher begin by identifying a specific problem area? Yes. 33). The first sentence of the introduction speaks of anger and the use of alcohol and other substances. 2. Does the researcher establish the importance of the problem area?
Yes, Rating Scale of 5. The introduction offers information from previous studies involving anger and alcohol/substance dependence as well as statistics related to relapses that were caused by anger. 3. Does the introduction move from topic to topic instead of from citation to citation? Somewhat. Rating Scale 3. The main theme of the introduction is mainly on anger and forgiveness therapy. It lists anger in relationship to resentment, frustration, anxiety, violence, and basic emotions, which are a result of anger.
The approach of the introduction could have ocused on anger, to substance abuse caused by anger and the different techniques that are describe within the body of the paper. 4. Has the researcher cited sources for “factual” statements? Yes. Rating Scale 4. The researcher did cite factual statements in the introduction using several inventories and manuals such as: State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, The Project Match 12 Step Manual, Cognitive-behavioral Coping Skills Manual, Twelve Step Facilitation Therapy Manual, and Relapse Research and the Reasons for Drinking Questionnaire (Lin et al. 2004). 5. Has the researcher avoided citing a large umber of resources for a single point? No. Rating Scale of 1. The introduction of this article gives approximately nine citations of research related to anger, approximately thirteen citations for forgiveness therapy and approximately five citations for substance abuse. Pyrczak (2008) does state that more than 6 citations for a single point are often found inappropriate. 6. Is current research cited? Yes and No. Rating Scale of 2.
The current research listed in the introduction of this article is roughly nine citations between the years of 2000 – 2004, where as the other citations range from 1985 – 1999 and are of the majority. . Has the researcher noted any gaps in the literature? Yes. Rating Scale of 4. The research does note that the cognitive-behavioral therapy literature offers recommendations to alcoholics regarding their anger, delaying responses and to learn assertive skills over aggressive behavior states, “there are few data documenting the efficacy ot this approach” (Lin et al. 2 8. Has the researcher avoided the overuse of direct quotations from the literature? Yes. Rating The introduction uses only three quotations from the approximate count of twenty-seven citations used in the introduction section of this article. Research Questions Critique The last paragraph of the introduction usually contains the research questions and/or hypotheses for the purpose of writing the article. 1. What is the research wondering about? The research is questioning if substance-dependent patients would benefit from forgiveness therapy.
Would they show less anger, depression, anxiety and vulnerability to substance abuse? 2. Is the research hypotheses clearly stated? The hypotheses for this study are individuals in residential treatment for alcohol and drug dependence, after receiving treatment augmented by forgiveness therapy r alcohol/drug counseling would demonstrate less anger. 3. Do these flow clearly from the literature review? Yes, the hypothesis does flow from the information in literature review.
The literature review looks at anger in association with substance abuse participants. 4. Is the design appropriate to investigate the hypotheses? To test the design, researchers used randomly assigned participants who were clients that resided at a treatment facility that were assigned to either forgiveness therapy or alcohol/drug counseling as an augmentation of the routine residential treatment.