First Semantics – which focuses on the relationship between sign and signified; Second Pragmatics – is a discipline that focuses on the relationship between the sign and the reader; Third Syntax, syntax – is a discipline that focuses on the relationship between signs, eg. : Texts as signs books as characters. Semiotics makes several typologies and distinguishes several types of sign systems: First PRIRODOJAZICHNI SYSTEMS – define them as first-and include natural languages, ie national languages ?? (English, French, etc. ).. These are the languages ?? that are characterized by a specific practice use.
In these systems each character is in relation to an object (reference) from the reality. Not all characters are specified, does not always mean only objects that exist, which are in reality, but there are also abstract, metaphysical signs that signify something that is not tangible, but still exists in our consciousness. Second Artificial sign systems – Artificial signs we have in mathematics, science and so on. These signs are called artificial, because they agreed. These include road signs, sign language of the deaf, blind etc.. => Structure is a way of organizing systems.
System and structure are inseparable. Third Secondary, secondary sign systems – usually build on existing linguistic systems and does not always refer to things that exist in nature. Literature uses natural language to translate literary, coding, etc. All secondary languages ?? have pre-need of natural language and together constitute some already performed sign systems, such as. Literature. Secondary sign system eg. Myth – iconic, pictorial system. 4th Mixed HIBRIDIZIRANI SIGNS – eg. Essay which combines prirodojazichen system and a secondary sign system and pictorial system. th METAJAZICI – Metajazichni systems, metalanguage thoughts when one language describes another kind of language that is already built, eg. Theory of literature has described the literary language. There are meta-meta languages, such as literary criticism, literary methodology etc.. Semiotics distinguished: linguistic and nejazichni signs, verbal and non-verbal. Semiotics distinguishes several types of signs: First -Symbols – symbols are all coded signs and they denotativni. These signs have a high degree of codification and konvencionalnost. In these signs the relationship between the sign and the signified is kodiviciran.
Second Sign-image – in these signs the relationship between sign and signified is vividly. Iconic signs konotivni signs. The model has features of artistic creation. Third Sign-INDEX – among them the relationship between sign and signified is causal. These signs are generally semiotic. Example: Where there is smoke there is fire. Among them there is a logical connection that occurs as a result of long-term perception. Eg. before an earthquake occurs, animals are disturbed, I felt mean. Also, prior to such disasters, we get information, warnings from other planets. All this belongs to indeksnoto information.
Semiotics differs constant and variable signs. The sign indicates the object replaces the subject. Therefore, the sign is viewed by the subject marks. To sign appears must e apostoi need an item to be replaced, to signify. Roman Jakobson describes knizhenosta literary self-referential aesthetic message. Piece of literature at the same time can be referential (aesthetic) and referential. Znakovnosta literature does not exhaust WMO interest signified. The sign is a complex composition (signifier + signified). With signs serving entities, transferring to other entities, which means that there must be an agreement.
In literature, there is a higher level of esthetics, but this does not exclude pragmatism. While eg. in journalism, a higher degree of pragmatism, but it does not necessarily mean that there is no aesthetic. There is intertextuality. For example, the parody – there parodiziranje literary work that already exists, we mythema, whose basic text comes from another, previously written text hipotekst. Even in the literature have metajazichnost yet dominate vtorostepenosta. It should be noted and the consideration that relates to the fact that there is a difference between literary and linguistic systems.
Some systems faster change, others more slowly. Systems include konvencionalizirani relations imply a certain constancy legality. Speech is practice the kind of language use. Linguistic system is slowly changing. A change in the system of language comes when occurring changes in the conventional system. The change in the lexicon is not a real change in the language, but the change in syntax is a real change, because the syntax is a mirror of the language, it is the soul, the essence of language. In the 20th century resulting rapid and radical changes in literary systems, and in language systems can not change for centuries.
Literary system as a secondary Literary Semiotics Systems vary in degree modelativnata power. Systems have a high degree of first instance modelativna power and appeal have lower degree modelativna power. Literature is not that important (secondary) sign system. In the literature, the language system is reorganized in a different way, because prirodojazichniot system is already encoded, he once again coded in the literature, which means that the literary system is doubly coded. = CODE = Code means is prohibited and what is not. The term “code” is not a purely literary term, but comes from egzaknite sciences (mathematics, computer science).
Code shows us the optimal boundary between the forbidden and permitted. Modelativnata power is the ability to present a subject in the form of linguistic or literary figure. The model is a picture of the items indicating displays a single character. Model of the object is displayed in a text can be closer to the world that displays, but can be distant. Therefore, some characters are considered to be relatively more realistic poreferencijalni, open to predmetmetot and others are considered less referential, hermetic and more confined to the subject.
Structure prirodojazichniot sign implies a direct connection between the sign and the referent. A literary system that relationship between the sign and the object is indirect, and even invisible. When reading the signs, the whole array of interpretenti that are sorted from other sign with any reader pbuduva whole range of different images, each reader think differently. For example, the term “Company” each poimuva different: one has a no house, stone house, ruined house, a beautiful house, a house-snail, small house, white house etc.. Models, the image of the subject in the literature represents what must exist, what can be absent.
Ordinary language signs poreferencijalni, because the connection between the sign and the matter may be provieri, and in literature it has not. Some literary characters completely reject referentiality and identify as nereferencijalni or auto-referential. They completely distracted by the relationship between the sign and object, life, the world, etc.. But after Mallarme annulling all those links, they are invisible, and even signs can not signify anything other than themselves. These marks signify themselves and thus resolve the question of the definition of the sign that always means something that exists outside of them.
These characters have their origin and their long-lasting tradition. Repealed logical connections between them, or at least invisible at first glance. There are literary characters to a greater extent referential and such that auto-referential, that encourage thinking the sign, except the exact information they want to offer something more to the subject, ie the world who represent; those signs tend to have a broader, more universal information how organized life and the world. In the literary system is activated principle sozvuchnost musicality, that activates the eneral signification semiotichnost, which plays a major role in the formation of literary texts that it does not matter what you say, but how you say. There are two completely identical words. Ordinary linguistic signs are distinguished by a high degree of symmetry between the object and the sign by which that object is marked. These signs are harder legible because they distort the image of a world that is marked with this sign; while doing so because of the asymmetry between the sign and the object, ie the world; not think of anything specifically. Literary system is: First secondary, secondary;
Second double coded; Third iconic, picturesque, with a high degree modelativnost; 4th relationship between the object and the sign is asymmetric; 5th shows interest in the character and high degree of auto-and at the same time and communication and information. It is believed that all these properties of the literary system, its structure shows in a nutshell – the tropics. It is believed that ordinary language tends to conventionalize be used automatically, but literary-art information tends to be something more than mere information. In this sense, ordinary expressions have low informativnost.
The purpose of literature is constantly questioned images umrtvile forgotten language, and it achieves when they express will deliver another new context and text and no more primates using automated. What’s old, already seen, automated, predictable, does not carry much information. But when you make a transformation, modification context, the degree of unpredictability gives it clear that there is some degree of artistic expression. What is stereotypically can perform literary function only when you are questioned and it will say something new, unknown, unpredictable.
In literary communication is very important reader that fits into his measure expectation is already known, conventional, and what exceeds this measure is shocking and purely literary. To develop the system, it should be constantly introduce changes that will have a radical character. It is believed that the literary system is a complex system, because it is simultaneously modelativen iconic communicative, informative etc.. STRUCTURE AND LITERARY-artistic structure The term structure is taken from disciplines that have the exact character. This term means the constitution, construction, structure, composition.
Can speak of a connection between the structure and the system (composition pragma). Pragma-linguistic semantic __ decorative what is encountered in all literary genres. Literary form is prezentativen. There is a prejudice that oako speaks of structure, must be taken only strucuturalist method. Strucuturalist method of studying literature immanent – within, regardless of external factors. Structure – nestatichna. This term has its prehistory and predstrukturalistichkiot method. Promotes the emergence of Saussure, then in Prague structuralists in 30 years (Roman Jakobson).
The structure is a way of organizing a race, when you are thinking of something dynamic, live outdoors. But it always is a minimum order, which can be viewed transhistoric outside of literature. It shows anthropology and linguistics. Distinguished two levels of understanding society. Archetypal structures – which manifests Oedipus, infanticide, Phaedra, and it asa eglavno negative occurrence. They are constantly renewing, changing WMO their name, the essence is the same. When speaking of the structure, not thinking assemblies, but the relationship between these parts that are different relations.
The structure is latent given, you need to be activated to express a given relationship. It is not a material category, but a correlation between at least two parts, as part of one great whole. There must be a ratio of that unit which is higher than those who own parts. The label may not mean anything. Even the sign is a higher instance. It establishes relations between the sign and the signified. The context shows us how the text structures and includes the subject, as well as the channel through which they passed.
The structure is separable elements that make up the parts that build a third instance. It is not equal to the sum of those parts. The idea of ?? structure has its own continuum from Plato onwards. When speaking of a literary work of art can not change the way the author laid the parts. Work itself has a rigid structure, there is coherence. Any literary work of art has a minimum structure, within a text is completed. Structure does not exhaust in terms of the text itself, but continues in the relations between texts that are external.
The internal structure is latent, but in proportion with the reader that changes its character. Structure becomes external, opens to a text read in a social context of a given epoch. It opens towards the category of value, ie toward non-literary categories participating in the reader and the author. The text-reader-author is different in the written and oral tradition. In oral literature there is a collective, multidisciplinary artist, oral text is intended for a different kind of reception kolektiviet (holidays protakularni religious rites). The novel is an individual kind.
It introduces a new relation to the adoption of the text (information and understanding). In everyday communication relationships are different speakers-reader known. In the literary work of art speaks of aesthetic structure – art. That does not mean that it is polisemantichka multifunctional (educational, ethnic, linguistic, fun, social). Linguistic literary system implies certain conventions. The literary structure is composed of text and context (genre code metajazichnosta all types of channels, psychological, biographical, biological factors).
Literary structure implies something conditionally given (text). Contextual factors – open. The text is the primary datum in the literature. He builds with just reading and valued. Ultimately, it ends in a new value. Text Literary and artistic text Textus Lat. textus = texture, fabric, specific kind of tissue taken from the material environment and ported in the literature. Text – a literary work of art and represents graphic zvukoven part of the work. It is unchangeable part, material, literary and artistic work that is more complex, consisting of immaterial part style.
Literary-may be in oral and written (literary) form. Text changes its status through history is part of the moral language conventions. The text is also linked to the development of human civilization. Associated with civilization signs. Each text is articulated and systematized, it is to communicate with him. The author (individual or collective) and the sign, by linking the text for a long time, and the reader was switched off. Today is considered that the reader can influence those literary conventions. Differences between the literary work of art and literary and artistic text.
The text is considered an open category, sign, while the work is closed category, the whole classic with reduced significance. It is a theory of Roland Barthes and structuralists in France. Variability of the text seen in the oral tradition. Textuality is as fixed as a material part of the work. Each text serves not only to inform, but also to communicate. Text as a cultural and artistic means authorship readers act vrednvuanje denial and others. Cultural and artistic text linking at least two dimensions – historical and artistic ontological. There are literary and non-literary texts.