Losing The Black Hills Essay Research Paper
Losing The Black Hills Essay, Research Paper
Losing the Black Hills
In the early 1860s the Oglala Sioux leader Chief Red Cloud fought to maintain the U. S. Army from opening the Bozeman Trail, which led to the Montana gold Fieldss through Sioux runing countries in the Dakota Territory. Between 1866 and 1868 Red Cloud and his Alliess besieged garrisons along the trail until in 1868 the U.S. authorities agreed to abandon it. Red Cloud signed the 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie Wyoming on April 29, 1869. The U. S. authorities agreed to shut the Bozeman Trail, and in the pact included a proviso that assured Sioux ownership of the Great Sioux Reservation-more than 60 million estates west of the Missouri River. During the summer of 1874, a military expedition under General George Armstrong Custer confirmed that the Black Hills contained gold. At that clip, the Black Hills were portion of the Great Sioux Reservation. Initially, the federal authorities attempted to maintain eager mineworkers from come ining the part, as it was oblige to make under the footings of the pact. By mid-summer 1875, 100s of mineworkers had evaded military patrols to prospect in the Black Hills. In September federal functionaries met humor
h Sioux leaders and attempted to buy mining rights, but the U.S. government considered the price to high, and the gold rush began after negotiations with the Sioux collapsed. In October, the federal government withdrew its military forces from the area, giving tacit permission for gold prospectors to enter, and they came by the thousands. The flood of miners into the Black Hills also provoked the Sioux and groups of Cheyenne to attack to prevent the loss of their land. Much of the fighting between the U. S. government and the Native Americans, led by Hunkpapa Sioux Sitting Bull and the Oglala Sioux Crazy Horse, took place outside the area of present-day South Dakota, including the Battle of the Little Bighorn in 1876, in which Sioux and Cheyenne killed Custer and about 260 U. S. soldiers near the Little Bighorn River in what is now Montana. Red Cloud did not support the radical leader Crazy Horse, but he was not willing to sacrifice the Black Hills. Because of superior resources and weapons, the U.S. Army defeated the Sioux and forced them onto the reservations. Red Cloud was removed as Oglala chief after a dispute with a government agent in 1881, and he spent his last years at Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota.