Louis XIV Essay Research Paper 16381715 king
Louis XIV Essay, Research Paper
1638? 1715, king of France ( 1643? 1715 ) , boy and replacement of King Louis XIII. ? ?
Early on Reign
After his male parent? s decease his female parent, Anne of Austria, was trustee for Louis, but the existent power was wielded by Anne? s advisor, Cardinal Mazarin. Louis did non take over the authorities until Mazarin? s decease ( 1661 ) . By so France was economically exhausted by the Thirty Years War, by the Fronde, and by financial maltreatments. But the centralising policies of Richelieu and Mazarin had prepared the land for Louis, under whom absolute monarchy, based on the theory of Godhead right, reached its height. ? ?
Louis? s reign can be characterized by the comment attributed to him, ? L? ? cheapness, c? est moi? [ I am the province ] . Louis continued the aristocracy? s freedom from revenue enhancements but forced its members into fiscal dependance on the Crown, therefore making a tribunal aristocracy occupied with ceremonial etiquette and junior-grade machinations.
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The provincial Lords besides lost political power. Louis used the middle class to construct his centralised bureaucratism. He curtailed local governments and created specialised ministries, filled by professionals responsible to him. Under his curate Jean Baptiste Colbert industry and commercialism expanded on mercantilist rules and a naval forces was developed. The war curate, the Marquis de Louvois, established the foundations of Gallic military greatness. ? ?
Religious Personal businesss
Louis progressively imposed spiritual uniformity. His persecution of the Huguenots in the 1680s culminated ( 1685 ) in the annulment of the Edict of Nantes. The attendant hegira of Protestants, many of whom were merchandisers and skilled craftsmans, intensified the land? s economic diminution and farther alienated the Protestant powers. Louis besides suppressed Jansenism. Despi
Te this concern with spiritual orthodoxy, he favored Gallicanism, and contention with the Catholic Popes approached split ( 1673? 93 ) before Louis abandoned this position. ? ?
Louis strove smartly for domination in foreign personal businesss. His matrimony ( 1660 ) to the Spanish princess Marie Th? R? se served as a stalking-horse for the War of Devolution ( 1667? 68 ) , which netted him portion of Flanders, although the Dutch so moved against him with the Triple Alliance of 1668. Relationss with the Dutch were exacerbated by commercial competition and in 1672 Louis, determined to oppress Holland, began the tierce of the Dutch Wars, which depleted his treasury.For the following 10 old ages the male monarch limited his policies to diplomatic negotiations. He set up? Chamberss of reunion? to unearth legal evidences for claims on a figure of metropoliss, which Louis quickly annexed. Fear of Louis? s edacity resulted in a European alliance, which confronted him when he attacked the Holy Roman Empire in 1688. This war ended with the Treaty of Ryswick ( 1697 ) , through which Louis lost minor districts. Louis? s last war, the War of the Spanish Succession ( 1701? 14 ) , left France in debt and greatly weakened militarily ; however, Louis? s grandson retained the Spanish throne. ? ?
Although he had a series of kept womans, Louis XIV eventually came under the influence of Mme de Maintenon, whom he married morganatically ( 1684 ) after the queen? s decease. A great protagonist of the humanistic disciplines, Louis patronized the foremost authors and creative persons of his clip, including Moli? rhenium, Jean Racine, Jean de La Fontaine, and Charles Le Brun. The designer Jules Mansart supervised the edifice of the munificent castle of Versailles. Because of the glare of his tribunal, Louis was called? Le Roi Soleil? [ the Sun King ] and? Le Grand Monarque. ? He was succeeded by his great-grandson, Louis XV.