Love and O. Henry

7 July 2016

Della is willing to sell her precious hair to buy Jim a platinum chain. Jim iswilling to sell his precious watch to buy Della a tortoiseshell comb. Living in a very poor condition can not prevent Jim and Della from giving their sweetheart aChristmas gift-a gift that they hope it can make their lover happy. A gift is importantand valuable only when it derives from the compassion, from the heart. The gifts inthe story turn out to be useless in the purpose of using, but it is priceless in the purpose of bringing happiness. With this meaning, Jim and Della are not only theMagi for each other, but also the Magi for all the readers.

That is one of the reasonswhy the title “The gift of the Magi” is matched. O. Henry gives all his heart for the characters: Jim and Della. At the end of thestory, his love for the characters is expressed clearly through his words “The Magi,as you know, were wise men…And here I have lamely related to you the chronicleof two foolish children in a flat who most unwisely sacrificed for each other thegreatest treasures of their house”. O. Henry admires the characters for their bravery,their sacrifice and foolishness in love. With his caring for the characters, O. Henry portrays Jim and Della like the Magi who brings gift and happiness for others.

Love and O. Henry Essay Example

Happiness is the value which people never stop trying to find in their life. It isdepicted in an emotional way in the story: love can create magic and happiness. Readers can feel Jim and Della’s love spreading, shining in the story. It makes thereaders also “fall in love” with Jim and Della. Without love and sympathy for thecharacters, O. Henry could not have portrayed such a successful and emotional lovestory. That is one of the reasons why he calls his story “The gift of the Magi Cau 2: How was love between Jim and Della portraged in story? O. Henry never goes into elaborate, flowery, romatic details on their emotions for one another.

There is nothing super cheesy or dramatic. There are statements, simply put, here and there, that relay the depth of their emotions, but they are never overdone. For example, O. Henry writes of Della’s affections for Jim, that “Many a happy hour she had spent planning for something nice for him. ” So, the time that she spent planning on getting him something, was a happy time; she loved him so much that her sacrifice for him was happiness. Henry goes on, stating that Della wants to get “something… worthy of the honor of being owned by Jim. ” She feels Jim a very wonderful person, and to be owned by him is an honor.

So, those statements relay her depth of emotion. For the most part however, O. Henry lets the actions of the characters portray the depth of their love for one another, rather than words. Della is willing, with barely any hesitation, to sacrifice her most prized possession-her hair-to get something nice for Jim. And Jim, is likewise willing to sacrifice his precious watch for her. It is not that they want to show off how wealthy they are, but that they want to give a token of the depth of their love. So, O. Henry shows the depth of their emotion through the great sacrifice that the two characters make.

They show their love in action and selflessness. 2. True love is unselfish, rather self-sacrificing. Jim & Della are a couple who truly love each other, though they didn’t have resources enough to make a show of their mutual love. Nevertheless, Della sold the best of her personal possessions, her beautifully cascading hair, to buy a gift–a platinum chain for Jim’s watch; Jim too sold his most treasured possession, his gold watch, to buy a set of combs for Della. When they met, Jim was surprised to find that Della’s long hair was gone; Della too came to know that Jim parted with his watch.

None of them could make use of the other’s gift, but both of them discovered how deep their love was. Both Della & Jim were forgetful of their personal losses, and this self-forgetfulness is the essence of true love. Cau 3: What stylistic devices were used in the Gift of the Magi? Analy their effect Style used in The Gift of the Magi: IRONY Irony is a kind of device which is used in literature to increase the value of the work. Irony consists of saying one thing while you mean another. There are several kinds of Irony in the literature. But this story deals with the situational Irony.

When their gifts become useless for themselves, it creates the situational Irony. Because gifts are presented by the wisest these gifts are useful and beneficial for the receivers. “I could not have lived through Christmas without giving you a present” “Being wise, their gifts no doubt wise ones… two foolish children in a flat who most unwisely sacrificed for each other” HUMOR In writing or speaking ‘HUMOUR’ can mean ‘MOOD’ or ‘CHARACTER’ but the word also denotes ‘that which causes laughter. ’ In the very beginning of this story, the way how THE DILLINGHAMS were spending their lives was pathetic and humorous as well.

“There was clearly nothing to do but flop down on the shabby little couch and howl. So Della did it…” SYMBOLISM/IMAGERY A symbol is something which represents something else (often an idea or quality) analogy or association. The Dillingham were so poor that they were living in miserable condition. Their misery is symbolized through this sentence. “… and looked out dully at a grey cat walking a grey fence in a grey backyard” Color imagery also exists in this short story. “She turned white for just a moment. ” COMPARISON O’ Henry uses a colorful comparison in a mastery way to attract his readers.

He describes the beauty of his heroine in a splendid comparison. Comparison is a device which shoes the value of something than other on the basis of quality. “Her eyes were shining brilliantly, but her face had lost its color within twenty seconds” “Being wise, their gifts no doubt wise ones… two foolish children in a flat who most unwisely sacrificed for each other” SIMILE A figure of speech usually used in prose and verse. Similes always contain the words ‘like’ or ‘as’. Here the writer uses simile of cascade for the beauty of Della’s hair. “Della’s beautiful hair fell like a cascade of brown water.

” After cutting her hair off Della was looking like a schoolboy. “That made her looks like a truant schoolboy. ” ALLUSION Allusion is a historical or Biblical reference. The main motive of the usage of allusion is to relate the present events and characters with the previous incidents and persons and to enhance the attraction knowledge of the readers. “Had the question of Sheba lived in the flat across the Airshaft? ” “Had King Solomon been the Janitor? ” “The Magi – who brought gifts to the Babe in the manger. ” REITERATION It means the repetition of phrases and clauses again and again.

It shows character’s physical or psychological condition in the story. “One dollar and eighty seven cents. ” “Like a Cascade of brown waters. ” THIRD PERSON OMNISCIENT O’ Henry often uses third person to evaluate or narrate this story. Omniscient means a story-teller with total, God like knowledge of the characters and their actions. “She was ransacking the stores for Jim’s present. ” “He looked thin and very serious. ” Themes in The Gift of The Magi: Theme means the central idea of some work which may explicit or not. A single work may have several themes. LOVE

Love means the attraction between two persons or entities there are two kinds of Love in this universe, mortal and immortal Love or worldly or spiritual Love. Love is an abstract noun but it can be materialized through the presentation of gifts. The presentation of gifts in friendship increases he passion of Love. This is the story of two Lovers, husband & wife. They have to celebrate their Christmas ceremony through giving and receiving the gifts to each other. Della sells her beautiful hair to present a gift to Jim. As Jim also buy a wondrous gift for Della. “Maybe the hairs of my head were number of.

” “But nobody could ever count My Love for You. ” “I sold the watch to get the money to buy your combs. SACRIFICE Sacrifice is one of the major themes of “the gift of the Magi” Both gift and sacrifice are the expression of Love. Gifts are presented in the shape of objects and things as well as the devotion of the physical efforts. However, the devotion of physical efforts through the depth of heart shows the purity of Love. Della and James sacrifice for each other. Della says, “I had my hair cut off and sold because I could not have lived through Christmas with out giving you a presents.

” “I sold the watch to get the money to buy your combs. ” POVERTY Poverty is also discussed in this short story. ‘The Dillingham’ were so poor and leading a miserable life. Della was very contended and faithful wife. She used to save money on daily basis. The writer also tells us their expenses were high than their income. ”Expenses had been greater than she had calculated” That’s why they sold their possessions to presents the gifts to each other. CONCLUSION After the whole discussion, we can say that ‘The Gift of the Magi’ is O’ Henry’s masterpiece.

‘The Gift of the Magi’ held so much popularity that many writers wrote OPERAS and many singers sang that OPERAS. These short stories are derived from the life of the ordinary people in New York City. O’ Henry uses twist plot in his stories, which turn on ironic or coincidental circumstance. Although some critics are not so enthusiastic about his work yet the public loves it. The Gift of The Magi Study Guide By M Zaman Ali. Cau 4: Analyze the main character of the My Oedipus complex Analysis O’Connor’s ‘My Oedipus Complex’ Using Psychoanalysis Discourse” A literary work is just like a dream.

It is the representation of one’s reality experience. It is full of fiction, figurative, and mystery, but sometimes filled by the hidden truth. In order to reveal the truth that lies in it, we should interpret and analyze it before the truth could be understood. And one of the means to analyze it is by using the psychoanalysis discourse. When we talk about psychology and literature, we may mean the psychological study of writer, as type and as individual, or the study of creative process, the study of psychological types and laws present within works of creature, or finally, the effects of literature upon its reader.

(Wellek, Rene and Austin Warren, 1949:81) from those four kind relationships of literature and psychology, I’ll take a study in the first relationship. It is because the literary work will never be freed from the psychology of the writers. As the writers are like the daydreamer who creates the dream as the result of their activity, so do the writers. The writers create the literary work as the result of their thought whether it is real or not. And in creating this work, the writer will never be apart from their background of life, whether it is the experience of their personal, social, or spiritual life.

In the using psychoanalysis discourse as the means to analyze and interpret the literary works, besides we have to know more the background of life of the writer, we also have to study further inside it that is about the structure of its work. From any kind genre of literary works, I’ll take a study on prose or short story. Short story is one of any kind of literary work genre which has the clear plot which always describes a certain case to us. In the short story, we could analyze the intention and emotion that the writers want to reveal through the sentences that their used.

In this case, I’m really interested in one of short story that created by Frank O’Connor entitled “My Oedipus Complex”. Therefore, I propose some discussion questions for helping me in analyzing that story, such as: 1. Why does O’Connor tell this story from a first person narrator point of view? 2. How does O’Connor manage the shift of mood of Larry toward his mother and father? 3. How does O’Connor’s story fits into Psychoanalysis theory of Oedipus complex (Sigmund Freud theory)? 4. How this short story does finally become the reflection of O’Connor’s life?

For answering those questions, first of all we have to know more about the structure of this story, which in this case is point of view. Point of view itself can be defined as how the story is perceived by the author and viewed by the readers. In this case, O’Connor use first person narrator as his point of view. In a first-person narrative the story is relayed by a narratorwho is also a character within the story, so that the narrator reveals the plot by referring to this viewpoint character as “I”.

First-person narrative brings the reader into the main character’s mind, heart and experiences on a personal level. It also limits how much storytelling or description is allowed, since everything has to be described as it is seen or experienced by that one character. The writer cannot tell us what other characters are thinking or what other characters experience, except as observations by the main character. Therefore, the first person point of view is not always allowing the audience to be able to comprehend some of the other character’s thoughts, feelings, or understandings as much as this one character.

In this case, the narrator gives and withholds information based on his/her own viewing of events. (Rachel Mork, “Points of View in Literature”). From the above explanation, we can see that in “My Oedipus Complex”, Connor use technique first person narrative such in the sentences below: “One morning, I got into the big bed, and there, sure enough, was Father in his usual Santa Claus manner, but later, instead of uniform, he put on his best blue suit, and Mother was as pleased as anything.

I saw nothing to be pleased about, because, out of uniform, Father was altogether less interesting, but she only beamed, and explained that our prayers had been answered, and off we went to Mass to thank God for having brought Father safely home. “ O’Connor told this story through Larry, the child, who became the first person narrator. We can see from the beginning till the end, how the “I” controlled this whole story. It is as if he only wanted to show his feeling about his mother and father with limiting explanations about the other character’s thinking or feeling.

Larry seems always make any judgments and opinions through his authority as the first person narrator. Even so by using the first person, Connor wants to bring the reader come closer to Larry. Connor wanted the reader feel the same feeling as Larry’s. Connor also manages the shifts of mood of Larry as well as he manages his point of view. The shift of mood of Larry toward the other characters is related to the characterization that used by Connor. The characterization itself is the process of conveying information about characters in narrative.

Characters may be presented by means of description, through their actions, speech, or thoughts. In this story, Larry who has double role as the narrator and the main character was characterized dramatically. (Wikipedia, Characterization) Dramatic means here Connor lets the character flow through his behaviors and his dialogues. Through this dramatic technique used by Connor we could see the shift of mood of Larry toward his father. For instance, in the beginning of the story, Larry show the sign of excitement of his father coming by using the phrase “Santa Claus” and “I rather liked his visit”.

“These were Father’s entrances and exits. Like Santa Claus he came and went mysteriously. In fact, I rather liked his visits, though it was an uncomfortable squeeze between Mother and him when I got into the big bed in the early morning. ” But then as Larry knew that his father didn’t become the army again, it showed by putting off his shirt, Larry felt threatened. Larry was afraid of losing his mother attention that he used to get before his father had arrived. Through his behavior and thought, we could see how Larry’s mood changed toward his father.

He always tried to interrupt in each time his mother and father was chatting. We could also see how Larry cared about his mother appearance. A behavior which rarely to be found in ordinary boy, which he so cared about his mother appearance because of his father bad trait toward his mother. It showed through the below sentences: “One morning, I got into the big bed, and there, sure enough, was Father in his usual Santa Claus manner, but later, instead of uniform, he put on his best blue suit, and Mother was as pleased as anything.

I saw nothing to be pleased about, because, out of uniform, Father was altogether less interesting, but she only beamed, and explained that our prayers had been answered, and off we went to Mass to thank God for having brought Father safely home. The irony of it! That very day when he came in to dinner he took off his boots and put on his slippers, donned the dirty old cap he wore about the house to save him from colds, crossed his legs, and began to talk gravely to Mother, who looked anxious. Naturally, I disliked her looking anxious, because it destroyed her good looks, so I interrupted him.

” All of this discussion about point of view and characterization of Larry as the main character in this story culminate in one point that Larry got the psychology disorder namely “Oedipus Complex”. O’Connor is intentionally giving the title just like that in order to allude toward the Greek Mythology, Oedipus the King who unknowingly killed his father and married his mother. Later then, based on this mythology, Sigmund Freud (Austrian psychiatrist) made the psychoanalysis discourse. Freud claimed that all human beings are born with certain instincts, i.

e. with a natural tendency to satisfy their biologically determined needs for food, shelter and warmth. The satisfaction of these needs is both practical and a source of pleasure which Freud refers to as “sexual”. Thus, when the infant, sucking at its mother’s breast discovers the pleasure inherent in this activity, the first glimmers of sexuality are awakened. The child discovers an erotogenic zone which may be reactivated later in life through thumb sucking or kissing. During the early stages of childhood development, other erotogenic zones emerge.

The oral stage, associated with the drive to “incorporate” objects through the mouth, is followed by the anal stage during which the anus becomes an erotogenic zone as the child takes pleasure in defecation. The next stage the child enters is the phallic stage when the sexual drive is focused on the genitals. (Freud refers to this stage as “phallic” rather than “genital” because, he claims, only the male organ is recognized as significant. ) The child in this state is described by Freud as “anarchic, sadistic, aggressive, self involved and remorselessly pleasure-seeking”.

In the phallic stage, a boy’s decisive psychosexual experience is the Oedipus complex — his son–father competition for possession of mother. It is in this third stage of psychosexual development (ages 3–6) that the child’s genitalia are his or her primary erogenous zone; thus, when children become aware of their bodies, the bodies of other children, and the bodies of their parents, they gratify physical curiosity by undressing and exploring themselves, each other, and their genitals, so learning the anatomic differences between “male” and “female” and the gender differences between “boy” and “girl”.

According to Freud, a boy’s close relation to his mother, as the primary love-object, leads to a desire for complete union with her. The boy will eventually abandon his incestuous desire for his mother out of fear of being castrated by his father. (This fear arises when the boy comes to realize that females are “castrated” and imagines that this may be his fate if he does not subordinate his desire for the mother. ) Thus, the boy represses his incestuous desire, adjusts to the reality principle, and waits for the day when he will be the patriarch.

In this way the boy identifies with his father and the symbolic role of manhood. (Psychoanalysis introduction, 1-3) Based on above Freud’s theory, we could say that Larry as the main character of O’Connor’s story got the symptoms of Oedipus complex which Larry felt anxious and threatened by the coming of his father in his life. Larry always spends almost all his time with just his mother while his father is in war. He had made the tight relation between him and his mother.

Till he came to age of five, (the phallic stage of Freud’s theory), when his father came from war, he began to feel that his father is the enemy in getting his mother attention. All of these characteristics had pointed out that Larry was entering the phase of Oedipus complex. Then the final question had its turn whether is this story the reflection of O’Connor or not. And for answering this question, we should know more about the background of life of O’Connor.

We use the term of psychobiography designates an account of the life of an author that focuses on the subject’s psychological development, relying for evidence both on external sources and on the author’s own writings. It stresses the role of unconscious and disguised motives in forming the author’s personality, and is usually written in accordance with a version, or a revision. (Abrams, 1999:248) O’Connor himself was an Irish author of over 150 works, who was best known for his short stories and books of memoirs.

Frank O’Connor was raised in an extremely chaotic environment in which his only refuge was his mother, Minnie. While his father was an addicted drunkard who could not refrain from exceeding all credit limits, O’Connor’s mother took full responsibility of the household and supported the family single-handedly. In addition, O’Connor’s father berated him with derogatory comments toward his masculinity. His father found it outlandish that instead of wrestling, Frank preferred to read. As a result, O’Connor’s writing is scarred with the stains of his tumultuous childhood.

He has recounted the early years of his life in one of his best books, An Only Child, a memoir not published until 1961, but which had the immediacy of a precocious diary. In fact, writing and books were his safe haven from the terrifying family life he was forced to endure. In the process, O’Connor successfully taught himself French and German, which reaped great rewards for him as he would go on to write over 150 short stories. (Wikipedia) As I mentioned before that just same as a dream which come from the reality of a daydreamer, so do the literary works

which come from the chains of thought, emotional, and feelings of the writer. The writer or artist (says Freud) is originally a man who turns from reality because he cannot come to terms with the demand for the renunciation of instinctual satisfaction as it is first made, and who then in phantasy-life allows full play to his erotic and ambitious wishes. But he finds a way of return from this world of phantasy back to reality; with his special gifts, he moulds his phantasies into a new kind of reality, and men concede them a justification as valuable reflections of actual life.

Thus by a certain path he actually becomes the hero, king, creator, favourite he desired to be, without the circuitous path of creating real alterations in the outer world. (Wellek, Rene and Austin Warren, 1949:82) Looking the biography of Connor and comparing it with Freud’s theory, we could take a note that My Oedipus Complex is one of his short stories that is in compliance with his background of life, especially his childhood. As we knew that childhood is really the most important time in the development time of a child, so whatever it takes and does in childhood, it will affect the adolescence of someone.

So do childhood of Connor. He had experienced many bad things in his childhood. He caught up the bad image of father and the hero image of mother. And all of those memories he kept in his minds and feelings. Then he tried to run away from the reality, so that he builds up his own world with just his minds and feelings inside of it. It proved through his works, his short story. He represented Larry as himself in the childhood, who felt threatened, full of fear, and anxious toward his father who always had the bad images in the eyes of him.

He was afraid of losing his mother’s love that he considered as the hero for him. But then there is little difference between what happened with Larry in the story and the real life of Connor. As we knew that in the story, Larry finally could accept his father’s presence because he has passed the identification phase of his father manhood. Larry began to respect and loved him as well as a child that should do. “At Christmas he went out of his way to buy me a really nice model railway.

” (O’Connor, Oedipus complex) On the contrary, the life of Connor wasn’t as happy as Larry was. Connor indeed should experience live with the single-parents without the figure of his father beside him. It is because that what happened to Larry are the hopes, wishes, and dreams of Connor who always want live with the happy family. As he failed to experience it in the real life, so he created his dreams and hopes about happy family through the character of his story. Finally, we reach in the part of conclusion.

It is we could conclude that Literature and the other arts, like dreams and neurotic symptoms, consist of the imagined, or fantasized, fulfillment of wishes that are either denied by reality or are prohibited by the social standards of morality and propriety. (Abrams, 1999:248) We can never be freed the literary works from the psychology of writer, because literary work, whether it is short story, drama, or poetry, is what it comes from writer minds, and feeling will always relate to their background of they made that works whether it is background of personal experience, spiritual experience, or whatever.

And so do O’Connor. He had described what the psychological disorder that happens to children very well than Freud do with his complex theory. Connor showed how the reader could feel what the children feel with his technique of point of view and characterize. Connor succeeds to reflect his background of life which full of fear, anxious, and threaten through the happy ending story which also reflect the dreams and hopes of him. Cau 5: What educational messages do you get from my OEDIPUS complex 1.

My psychiatrist told me at our last session that my Oedipal Complex (or Negative Oedipal Complex, or Electra Complex – I’m a woman, so I know the right term isn’t “Oedipal Complex”) was “pristine”. What do you think he meant by that? What happened was he used the word “seductive” to describe my mother (she had come to a family session) and I told him that that had disturbed me. It’s bad enough that my father finds her seductive, I said to him. He said that he didn’t mean it in a sexual way, then he asked me, “Did that make you feel that I love your mother more than I love you?

” I knew what he was getting at – that I need my father to love me more than he loves my mother, so I said, “Maybe”. Still, it creeped me out a little. I love my psychiatrist but I know that he doesn’t love me (and hecertainly doesn’t love my mother. ) He said, “Your father loves you in a different way than he loves your mother”. I said, “I understand that (and I do), but I still need him (my father) to love me more. ” I said, “Is that very abnormal? ” That’s when he brought up Freud and the Oedipal Complex, which he said was very normal.

However (and here’s the kicker), he said that he had never seen an example of the Oedipal Complex (mine) so “pristine” before. My psych does have a beautiful way with words, so maybe he was just flourishing. So – does pristine equal hopeless? What do you think? Cau 6: Analyze the development of Jane’s feeling in the extract. How was deep love between Jane and Rochester portrayed in the story. Question: Analyze the development of Jane’s feelings in the extract of Jane’scoming back to Thornfield Jane Eyre is the main character as well as the title of the most successful novel byCharlotte Bronte.

In the extract describing Jane’s coming back to Thornfield Hall toask for information of her beloved master, the development of Jane’s feeling isdepicted through three stages: before returning to Thornfield, on the way toThornfield and when reaching Thornfield. Before returning to Thornfield, Jane recalled the strange voice that she has heardwhich bent her dicision. It is the voice that she heard gives her a strong will to come back to Thornfield.

“The wonderous shock of feeling had come like an earthquake which shook the foundations of Paul and Silas’ prison, it had opened the doorsof the soul’s cell and loosed its bands-it had wakened it out of its sleep,whence it sprang trembling, listening aghast, the vibrated thrice a cry onmy startled ear and in my quaking heart and through my spirit, whichneither feared nor shock, but exulted as if in joy over the success of oneeffort it had been privileged to make independent of the cumbrous body ”For Jane, it’s not a superstition, but a hidden nature of her soul.

This is the insidevoice, not the voice from outside, external world. It exists in Jane but it hasn’twakened up yet until this crucial moment-a turning point in her life comes. This voice pulls her out of the fog, brings joy to her and leads her to the place where her heartreally belongs to. At this time, Jane is clear and certain about her decision. She has just overcome herself and decided to come back to Thornfield. On the way to Thornfield, Jane recalled the day one year before when she ranaway from Thornfield.

At that time, “how desolate, and hopeless, and objectless” shewas! Now, in constrast, once more on the road to Thornfield, she “felt like themessenger-pigeon flying home. ” How happy, excited and eager she is! She is flyingwith rosy wings and Thornfield becomes the wind beneath her wings. This landscape“met her eyes like the lineaments of a once familiar face. ” She is coming back to her most meaningful place in this world- a place she feels like home. When she reached Thornfield, her feeling became complex.

It is mixed of excitement, worrying and fear. Her heart “leapt up” when she reached Thornfieldfinally. However, “it fell again, the thought struck it. ” Now, her mind takes over her Question: What do you think about the love between Jane and Rochester asdepicted in the extract of Jane’s coming back to Thornfield? “Anyone can be passionate, but it takes real lovers to be silly” (Rose Franken). It isreally true to describe the love between Jane and Rochester as depicted in the extractof Jane’s coming back to Thornfield in Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bronte.

Jane’s decision to return to Thornfield is so silly when she has no informationabout Thornfield and her beloved master. It is the voice that she heard inside herself gives her the bravery to come back to Thornfield. People just feel happy to reach their promising land if they know something bright is waiting for them there. Nevertheless,in this situation, Jane is even unsure if there is a place for her at Thornfield or not. Although the unreal voice is the only sign calling her back to Thornfield, Jane stilldecided to return.

How nonsense it is to base on such an ambiguous voice to make upher mind. Even she asked herself: “was it a mere nervous impression-a delusion”? However, the voice is still a nature that she anchors to follow her heart. If that werenot her true love for Rochester, she would not make such a silly and risky decision tocome back to Thornfield. Jane wants to rush to Rochester immediately when she knows he is still alive butcripple. She said to the inn host “I’ll pay both you and him twice the hire you u

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