Lung Cancer Essay Research Paper Lung cancer
Lung Cancer Essay, Research Paper
Lung Cancer Essay Research Paper Lung cancer Essay Example
Lung malignant neoplastic disease is non merely one disease but instead a group of diseases. All signifiers of malignant neoplastic disease cause cells in the organic structure to alter and turn out of control. Most types of malignant neoplastic disease cells form a ball or mass called a tumour. Cells from the tumour can interrupt off and travel to other parts of the organic structure where they can go on to turn. This distributing procedure is called metastasis. When malignant neoplastic disease spreads, it is still named after the portion of the organic structure where it started. For illustration, if breast malignant neoplastic disease spreads to the lungs, it is still breast malignant neoplastic disease, non lung malignant neoplastic disease. Another word for cancerous is malignant, so a cancerous tumour is referred to as malignant. But non all tumours are malignant neoplastic disease. A tumour that is non malignant neoplastic disease is called benign. Benign tumours do non turn and distribute the manner malignant neoplastic disease does. They are normally non a menace to life. A few malignant neoplastic diseases, such as blood malignant neoplastic diseases ( leukaemia ) , do non organize a tumour. Most malignant neoplastic diseases are named after the portion of the organic structure where the malignant neoplastic disease foremost starts. Lung malignant neoplastic disease begins in the lungs. The lungs are two sponge-like variety meats in the thorax. The right lung has three subdivisions, called lobes. The left lung has two lobes. It is smaller because the bosom takes up more room on that side of the organic structure. The lungs bring air in and out of the organic structure, taking in O and acquiring rid of C dioxide gas, a waste merchandise. The run alonging around the lungs, called the pleura, helps to protect the lungs and allows them to travel during external respiration. The trachea ( windpipe ) brings air down into the lungs. It divides into tubings called bronchial tube, which divide into smaller subdivisions called bronchioles. At the terminal of these little subdivisions are bantam air sacs known as air sac. Most lung malignant neoplastic diseases start in the liner of the bronchial tubes but they can besides get down in other countries such as the windpipe, bronchioles, or air sac. Lung malignant neoplastic disease frequently takes many old ages to develop. Once the lung malignant neoplastic disease occurs, malignant neoplastic disease cells can interrupt off and spread to other parts of the organic structure. Lung malignant neoplastic disease is a life- threatening disease because it frequently spreads in this manner before it is found. Lung malignant neoplastic disease is the taking cause of malignant neoplastic disease decease for both work forces and adult females. During the twelvemonth 2000 there will be approximately 164,100 new instances of lung malignant neoplastic disease in this state. About 156,900 people will decease of lung malignant neoplastic disease: about 89,300 work forces and 67,600 adult females. More people dice of lung malignant neoplastic disease than of colon, chest, and prostate malignant neoplastic diseases combined. Lung malignant neoplastic disease is reasonably rare in people under the age of 40. The mean age of people found to hold lung malignant neoplastic disease is 60. If lung malignant neoplastic disease is found and treated by surgery early, before it has spread to lymph nodes or other variety meats, the five-year endurance rate is about 42 % . However, few lung malignant neoplastic diseases are found at this early phase. The five-year endurance rate for all phases of lung malignant neoplastic disease combined was 14 % in 1995, the last twelvemonth for which we have national informations. A hazard factor is something that increases a individual & # 8217 ; s opportunity of acquiring a disease. Some hazard factors, like smoke, can be controlled. Others, such as a individual & # 8217 ; s age, can & # 8217 ; t be changed. Smoke is by far the taking hazard factor for lung malignant neoplastic disease. More than 8 out of 10 lung malignant neoplastic diseases are thought to ensue from smoke. The longer a individual has been smoking, and the more battalions per twenty-four hours smoked, the greater the hazard. If a individual stops smoking before lung malignant neoplastic disease develops, the lung tissue easy returns to normal. Stoping smoking at any age lowers the hazard of lung malignant neoplastic disease. Cigar and pipe smoke are about as likely to do lung malignant neoplastic disease as coffin nail smoke. There is no grounds that smoking low pitch coffin nails reduces the hazard of lung malignant neoplastic disease. Nonsmokers who breathe the fume of others besides increase their hazard of lung malignant neoplastic disease. Non- smoke partners of tobacco users, for illustration, have a 30 % greater hazard of developing lung malignant neoplastic disease than do partners of nonsmokers. Workers exposed to tobacco fume in the workplace are besides more likely to acquire lung malignant neoplastic disease. There are other hazard factors for lung malignant neoplastic disease besides smoke. Peoples who work with asbestos have a higher hazard of acquiring lung malignant neoplastic disease. If they besides smoke, the hazard is greatly increased. The type of lung malignant neoplastic disease linked to asbestos, mesothelioma, frequently starts in the pleura. This type of malignant neoplastic disease is covered in a separate American Cancer Society papers. Although asbestos was used for many old ages, the authorities has now about stopped its usage in the workplace and in place merchandises. Besides smoke and asbestos, there are a few other hazard factors for lung malignant neoplastic disease. These include certain cancer-causing agents in the workplace, Rn gas, and lung scarring from some types of pneumonia. Besides, people who have had lung malignant neoplastic disease in the yesteryear have a higher opportunity of holding it once more and, as mentioned earlier, the hazard of lung malignant neoplastic disease increases with age. Some surveies have shown that the lung cells of adult females who smoke may develop malignant neoplastic disease more easy than those of work forces. Clearly, the best manner to forestall lung malignant neoplastic disease is non to smoke or be around those who do. Young people should non get down smoke, and those who already smoke should discontinue. Everyone, particularly babes and kids, should be protected from take a breathing in other people & # 8217 ; s fume. While some people believe that air pollution is a major cause of lung malignant neoplastic disease, the truth is that air pollution merely somewhat increases the hazard. Smoke is by far the more of import cause. Even so, some people who have ne’er smoked or worked with asbestos still acquire lung malignant neoplastic disease. Since we do non cognize why this happens, there is no certain manner to forestall it. Since most people with early lung malignant neoplastic disease do non hold any symptoms, merely approximately 15 % of lung malignant neoplastic diseases are found in the early phases. Although most lung malignant neoplastic diseases do non do symptoms until they have spread, you should describe any of the following symptoms to your physician right off. Often these jobs are caused by some other status, but if lung malignant neoplastic disease is found, prompt intervention could widen your life and relieve symptoms. A cough that does non travel off Chest hurting, frequently made worse by deep external respiration Hoarseness Weight loss and loss of appetite Bloody or rust-colored phlegm ( tongue or emotionlessness ) Shortness of breath Fever without a known ground Recuring infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia New oncoming of wheezing When lung malignant neoplastic disease spreads to distant variety meats, it may do: Bone hurting Weakness or numbness of the weaponries or legs, dizziness Yellow colouring of the tegument and eyes ( icterus ) Masses near the surface of the organic structure, caused by malignant neoplastic disease distributing to the tegument or to lymph nodes in the cervix or above the clavicle Less frequently, there are some other bunchs of symptoms ( called syndromes ) that can indicate to a possible lung malignant neoplastic disease. Recently, some new trials to happen lung malignant neoplastic disease early have been developed. These trials are still being studied and are non yet used on a regular footing. If there is a ground to surmise you may hold lung malignant neoplastic disease, the physician will utilize one or more methods to happen out if the disease is truly present. In add-on, a biopsy of the lung tissue will corroborate the diagnosing of malignant neoplastic disease and besides give valuable information that will assist in doing intervention determinations. If these trials find lung malignant neoplastic disease, more trials will be done to happen out how far the malignant neoplastic disease has spread. After taking your medical history and making a physical test the physician might desire to make some of the followers: Imaging trials: these trials use x- beams, magnetic Fieldss, sound moving ridges or radioactive substances to make images of the interior of the organic structure. Some of the imagination trials used to happen lung malignant neoplastic disease and to see where in the organic structure it may hold spread include X raies, CT scan ( computed imaging ) , MRI ( magnetic resonance imagination ) , PET ( positron emanation imaging ) scans, and bone scans. Sputum cytology: a sample of emotionlessness ( tongue ) is looked at under a microscope to see if malignant neoplastic disease cells are present. Needle biopsy: a acerate leaf is placed into the tumour to take a piece of tissue. The tissue is looked at in the lab to see if malignant neoplastic disease cells are present. Bronchoscopy: a lighted, flexible tubing is passed through the oral cavity into the bronchial tube. This trial can assist happen tumours or it can be used to take samples of tissue or fluids to see if malignant neoplastic disease cells are present. Mediastinoscopy: with the patient asleep, tissue samples are taken from the lymph nodes along the trachea through a little hole cut into the cervix. Again, looking at the tissue under a microscope can demo if malignant neoplastic disease cells are present. Bone marrow biopsy: a acerate leaf is used to take a little piece of bone, normally from the dorsum of the hip bone. The sample is checked for malignant neoplastic disease cells. Blood trials: certain blood trials are frequently done to assist see if the lung malignant neoplastic disease has spread to the liver or castanetss. There are two major types of lung malignant neoplastic disease. The first is little cell lung malignant neoplastic disease, or SCLC. The other is non- little cell lung malignant neoplastic disease, or NSCLC. If the malignant neoplastic disease has characteristics of both types, it is called assorted little cell/large cell malignant neoplastic disease. Small cell lung malignant neoplastic disease histories for approximately 20 % of all lung malignant neoplastic diseases. Although the malignant neoplastic disease cells are little, they can multiply rapidly and organize big tumours. The tumours can distribute to the lymph nodes and to other variety meats such as the encephalon, the liver, and the castanetss. Small cell lung malignant neoplastic disease is normally caused by smoking. Other names for little cell lung malignant neoplastic disease are oat cell malignant neoplastic disease and little cell uniform carcinoma. Non-small cell lung malignant neoplastic disease is the most common type of lung malignant neoplastic disease, accounting for about 80 % of lung malignant neoplastic diseases. There are three subtypes within this group. Some types grow m
ore quickly than others. Ask your doctor to explain which of these you have. There are a few other rare types of lung cancer not covered in this document. Staging is the process of finding out how far the cancer has spread. This is very important because your treatment and the outlook for your recovery depend on the stage of your cancer. There are different staging systems for small cell and non-small cell lung cancer. Small cell lung cancer staging For small cell lung cancer a two-stage system is most often used. These are limited stage and extensive stage. Limited stage usually means that the cancer is only in one lung and in lymph nodes on the same side of the chest. If the cancer has spread to the other lung, to lymph nodes on the other side of the chest, or to distant organs, it is called extensive. Small cell lung cancer is staged in this way because it helps to determine the best treatment for each group. Many people with small cell lung cancer will already have extensive disease when it is found. The staging system most often used for non-small cell lung cancer is the TNM system, also known as the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) system. T stands for tumor (its size and how far it has spread within the lung and to nearby organs) N stands for spread to lymph nodes M stands for metastasis (spread to distant organs) All of this information is combined and a stage is assigned. The stages are described using Roman numerals 0-IV (1-4). In general, the lower the number, the less the cancer has spread. A higher number, such as stage IV (4), means a more serious cancer. After looking at your test results, the doctor will tell you the stage of your cancer. Be sure to ask your doctor to explain your stage in a way you understand. This will help you both decide on the best treatment for you. There is a lot for you to think about when choosing the best way to treat or manage your cancer. There may be more than one treatment to choose from. You may feel that you need to make a decision quickly. But give yourself time to absorb the information you have learned. Talk to your doctor. Look at the list of questions at the end of this piece to get some ideas. Then add your own. You may want to get a second opinion. Your doctor should not mind your doing this. In fact, some insurance companies require you to get a second opinion. You may not need to have tests done again since the results can often be sent to the second doctor. If you are in an HMO (health maintenance organization), find out about their policy concerning second opinions. The treatment options for lung cancer are surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, either alone or in combination, depending on the stage of the tumor. Depending on the type and stage of the cancer, surgery may be used to remove the tumor and some of the lung tissue around it. If a lobe (section) of the lung is removed, the surgery is called a lobectomy. Removing only part of the lobe is called a wedge resection. If the entire lung is removed, the surgery is called a pnuemonectomy. These operations are done with the patient asleep. A hospital stay of one or two weeks is usually needed. There will be some pain after the surgery because the surgeon has to cut through the ribs to get to the lungs. People whose lungs are in good condition (other than the cancer) can often return to normal activities after a lobe or even an entire lung is removed. However, if they also have diseases such as emphysema or chronic bronchitis (common among heavy smokers), then they may have long-term shortness of breath. For people who can’t have the usual surgery because of lung disease or other medical problems, or because the cancer is widespread, other types of surgery (for example, laser surgery) can be done to relieve symptoms. Chemotherapy refers to the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. Usually the drugs are given into a vein or by mouth. Once the drugs enter the bloodstream, they spread throughout the body.Often several drugs are given at the same time. Depending on the type and stage of lung cancer, chemotherapy may be given as the main treatment or in addition to surgery. Chemotherapy can have some side effects. These side effects will depend on the type of drugs given, the amount taken, and how long treatment lasts. Common side effects could include nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, temporary hair loss, mouth sores, an increased risk of infections, and fatigue. Anyone who has problems with side effects should talk with their doctor or nurse as there are often ways to help. Radiation therapy is treatment with high energy rays (such as x-rays) to kill or shrink cancer cells. The radiation may come from outside the body (external radiation) or from radioactive materials placed directly in the tumor (internal or implant radiation). External radiation is the type most often used to treat lung cancer. Radiation is sometimes used as the main treatment of lung cancer, for example, for those people who may not be healthy enough to have surgery. For other patients, radiation might be used after surgery to kill small areas of cancer that can’t be seen and removed during surgery. Radiation can also be used to relieve symptoms such as pain, bleeding, and trouble swallowing. Side effects of radiation therapy could include mild skin problems, nausea, vomiting, and tiredness. Often these go away after a short while. Chest radiation may cause lung damage and difficulty breathing. Side effects of radiation therapy to the brain (to treat metastasis) usually become most serious one or two years after treatment, and include headaches and trouble with thinking. Be sure to talk with your doctor if you have any side effects. Studies of new treatments in patients are known as clinical trials. A clinical trial is only done when there is some reason to believe that the treatment being studied may be of value to the patient. The main questions the researchers want to answer are: Does this treatment work? Does it work better than the one we’re now using? What side effects does it cause? Do the benefits outweigh the risks? Which patients are most likely to find this treatment helpful? During your course of treatment, your doctor may suggest that you look into a clinical trial. This does not mean that you are being asked to be a human guinea pig. Nor does it mean that your case is hopeless. However, there are some risks. No one knows in advance if the treatment will work or exactly what side effects will occur. That’s what the study is designed to find out. Keep in mind that standard treatments, too, can have side effects. Clinical trials are carried out in steps called phases. Each phase is designed to answer certain questions. Ask your doctor if there is a clinical trial that might be right for you. Then learn all you can about that trial. Because you volunteer to take part in a clinical trial, you can leave the trial at any time. As you cope with cancer and cancer treatment, you need to have honest, open discussions with your doctor. You should feel free to ask any question that’s on your mind, no matter how small it might seem. Here are some questions you might want to ask. Be sure and add your own. Would you please write down the exact type of lung cancer I have? Has my cancer spread? What is the stage of my cancer and what does that mean in my case? What treatment choices do I have? What do you suggest and why? What is the goal of this treatment? What risks or side effects are there to the treatment you suggest? If I will lose my hair, what can I do about it? Based on what you’ve learned about my cancer, how long do you think I’ll survive? What are the chances of the cancer coming back after treatment? What should I do to get ready for treatment? Remember that your body is unique, and so are your emotional needs and your personal circumstances. In some ways, your cancer is like no one else’s. No one can predict how your cancer will respond to treatment. Statistics can paint an overall picture, but you may have special strengths such as a healthy immune system, a strong family support system, or a deep spiritual faith. All of these have an impact on how you cope with cancer. Cancer treatment can make you feel tired. Give some time to recover. Don’t feel the need to rush back to work or resume all of your normal activities right away. The doctor will let you know what follow-up tests need to be done and when. Chest x-rays and blood tests may be done to see if the cancer has come back or if a new tumor has formed. Be sure to report any new or recurring symptoms to the doctor right away. Even after lung cancer has developed, it is very important to quit smoking. Quitting helps improve appetite and overall health and can reduce the chance of a new cancer. Ask theyour doctor or nurse for ideas about how to quit smoking. Do as much as you can to stay healthy and active. Eat a balanced diet of healthy foods, including plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Once you get your strength back, try to exercise a few hours each week. Check with the doctor before you start an exercise program. The doctor can suggest the types of exercise that are right for you. The doctor or nurse can suggest other resources that might help you during your recovery from treatment. There are many support groups that provide emotional support, friendship, and understanding.