Major Functional Styles of English
Functional style as “having social relevance, functionally determined, displaying inner coherence combination of ways of usage, choice and combination of means of speech communication In the domain off certain national language, correlated with other ways of expression of the same type, which attain other alms and fulfill other functions In the social communicative experience of the Functional style as the arrangement of language means in speech ( in the text), built up as the result of the working principles of language means choice and combination in a certain sphere of immunization in accordance with the tasks and conditions of communication M. N.
Oozing.The extra-linguistic basis of a functional style, I. E. The tasks and aims of communication in a certain social sphere, determined by the purpose of the correlated form of public thinking, a type of mentality, current in the sphere, typical patterns of contents. Systematic character of a functional style in speech ( functional stylistic correlation of the units on the basis of common communicative purport). Functional Styles as speech systems. Functional styles as styles of language and speech.
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The notion of ‘register’ ( similar to that of the notion of style) , as series of situational factors, which determine the use of specific language means General classification of functional styles.Linguistic and extra-linguistic factors in the classification of functional styles. The role of extra-linguistic factors in style studies ( the Prague Linguistic Circle). Style – forming factors of a functional style. Universal, normative-stylistic character of the style-forming factor of a functional style (motiveless, evaluation, rationality, imagery, logic, exactness) and their difference in accordance with the purport of communication. Functional analysis of the style- forming factors of a functional style V. Schneider.
. Problems of the Functional Styles Classification. Reasons for recognizing the style of fiction the belles-letters style : pros and cons.Cons: the language affliction Is multi-stylistic, not closed, It integrates other functional styles of the language, has no specific language markers; the aesthetic function the language affliction which Is expressed in special use of language means with the division of styles into artistic and non;artistic or the treatment of the belles-letters style outside the system of functional styles; in Russian it is not included in the domain of literary language due to a specific character of the literary language and the formation of the latter a under the influence of the language of fiction ( V. D. Bondage, L. Y.
Massive, N. A. Mesmerism, A. K. Pangolin, D. N. Schemers.
Pros: the language of fiction cannot be beyond the existing system of functional styles as in spite of its multi-stylistic properties it uses only part of the inventory of the elements and units of the other styles but doesn’t express its speech systemic character and their use In the aesthetic function Is very pacific; It has the unity of a stylistic speech system, In spite of the author’s individuality ]V. V. Flavored, I. V. Arnold, R. A. Budding,l.
R. Gapless, B. N. Glove, A. K. Dolan E. G.
Riles. So If functional styles should be treated as norms of speech composition there are no objections to treating the belles-letter style as one of the different stylistic meanings.If we suppose that a functional style is identified on the basis of the sphere of communication and its main function, its complexity and heterogeneity shouldn’t present an obstacle” A. K. Doodling. Reasons for singling out he newspaper style in the system of functional styles Newspaper style as a subsystem of publicist style M. N.
Oozing. Newspaper and publicist sub-styles of the so-called “informational style” Functional style as a historical category. The style of poetry in the English language in the epoch of classicism (17th -18th centuries) with special norms of poetic language – the choice of vocabulary, morphological forms and syntactic construction.The priority of abstract, bookish, high-flown words ( arduous, glories abundance of stylistic devices, archaic grammatical forms (thee, thy, doth, etc. , perfect regularity of rhyming, rhythmic, meter, syntactic, compositional and other formal patterns dependence on the canon. Aesthetics, priority of exquisite taste, sensible and noble ideals – proclaimed in the poem “Poetic Art” by Niccole Bubal. The spread of French classical traditions in Great Britain.
The Belles-letters Style. Aesthetic function as the main function of the belles-letters style. Aesthetics as one the most important elements of human culture. Aesthetic activity as creative activity in accordance with the “laws of beauty’.Social determination of aesthetic vision of the world (social interpretation of the of esthetics). The objective grounds for of aesthetics discovered in the existence of the world of reality ( symmetry, rhythm, harmony, integrity, regularity, expediency, optimization). Artistic creation as a special form of cognition and exploration of reality: synthetics of cognitive, evaluative, communicative, practical activities.
Art as the objective basis of artistic activity. Works of art as integration of creative activity and perception. Art as self-reflection and “code” of culture. Other functions: educational, informational, hedonistic (entertaining), evaluative.Stylistic peculiarities f the belles-letters style: imagery, unity and indivisibility of artistic form and contents, completeness and integrity (hierarchy and systematic interaction of different levels of the belles-letters text artistic imagery produced by speech concreteness, stylistic integrity and multi-stylistic variation, (introduction of elements of other styles, e. G. Of the colloquial style in the aesthetic function into the belles- letters style), emotionality and evaluation, emphasis, and uniqueness.
Sub-styles of the belles-letters style: poetry, prose, drama. Poetic genres: ballad, ode, pastoral, Monet, elegy, limerick, epigram, etc. Genres in prose: a story, a short story, a novel, etc.Genres in drama: comedy, tragedy, drama, dramatic monologue, dramatic dialogue. Stylistic difference of texts belonging to various sub-styles and genres, literary trends, artistic methods, (romanticism, realism, sentimentalism, etc. ), displaying different types of presentation ( narration, description), points of view of the speaker, ( “I-speaking”, fairy-tale speaking), topics, ideas, compositional arrangements, systems of imagery, the authors’ desolates, presence or absence of stabilization. Desolates.
Language means of the belles-letters style: ; phonetic means – sound reiteration, onomatopoeia (sound imitation), alliteration, euphony, consonance, dissonance.Rhyme, rhythm and meter in poetry, the notion of rhythm in ; vocabulary- priority of concrete words as ‘artistic speech concentration ‘, prose; unlimited choice of vocabulary (including non-literary means, Jargon and slang developed polymers, no limits in the use of words, which belong to different functional stylistic groups of vocabulary, stylistic resources of ‘combinatory semantics” of language units, normative and irregular combinatory patterns, creative and other functions of phraseology, decomposition of phraseology, rich, genuine imagery, the use of figures of speech or lexical stylistic devices, as a unique textual system; ; grammatical means of the language: in morphology a variety and wealth of stylistic effects of morphological forms and categories ‘ for expressing ‘artistic speech concentration ‘ (decides, specific use of aspect and temporal meanings of the verb, Verbal speech and plot development’ ( increase in the role and currency of the verb, special use of morphological categories of number, case, egress of comparison for emphatic and emotive purposes; in syntax a variety and wealth of syntactical constructions, colloquial speech stabilization.Means of expressive syntax: inversion, parallelism, antithesis, percolation, gradation, detachment, different models of author and character speech presentation, different models of homogeneous secondary parts of the sentence arrangement with the priority of double and triple patterns; ; compositional textual devices ( three-part compositional canon – introduction, the main part and the ending with a more complex model of prologue and epilogue), deviations from the canon and their titlists importance, the plot development the exposition, gradation, the climax and the outcome ( the denouement), compositional peculiarities of a poetic text- rigidly fixed dimensions of textual arrangement ( the fixed number of feet, lines, regular accentual models of the foot and line arrangement, the length and arrangement of a stanza, peculiar models of stanza and text arrangement, patterned rhyme, meter and syntax constructions), extensive use of foregrounding (coupling, antithesis, convergence, the effect of deceived expectancy’s effect of replenished expectancy, realism, irony, hyperbole as compositional devices; ; the system of stylistic devices: systemic use of imagery – textual, developed and simple non-developed metaphors, metonymy’s, epithets, similes, hyperbole, litotes, puns, oxymoron’s, zeugma’s, different in form contact and distant repetitions (ordinary, anaphora, peripheral, framing, Indianapolis, chain, refrain) Intensification of the total aesthetic impact of the language means of the text. Scientific Style. The main function of the scientific style: rational cognition and linguistic presentation of the dynamics of thinking. Other communicative tasks. Inner differentiation and the formation of the sub-styles and genres of the scientific style used in different fields of science, characterized by different manners of scientific presentation.
Sub-styles and genres: scientific style proper thesis, abstract of thesis, monograph, article, report, abstract off report… Popular scientific an article, annotations, review, etc. ). “Sub-languages” of scientific styles: law, political, medical, economic, technical, computer, linguistic, etc. Types of presentation: description and argumentation ( deduction, induction).
Different degree of polemics. Popularization of the scientific text. The addressee factor. Peculiarities of scientific communication: planned, prepared delayed in time communication (except for lectures and reports). Style-forming features: great role of tradition in the use of language means, objective and non-categorical presentation, specific means of expression, a certain extent of emphasis, restrictions imagery.Language means of the scientific style: ; lexical means – highly specialized scientific terminology, terminological groups, revealing the conceptual systems of the scientific style, the peculiarities of the use of terms in scientific speech, the use of nouns and verbs in abstract meanings, special reference words, scientific phraseology – clicks, stereotyped and hackneyed word combinations and idioms, priority of neutral vocabulary, limitations in the use of emotional- evaluative and expressive vocabulary and phraseology, absence of non-literary vocabulary and phraseology ( slang words, vulgarisms, obscene words) , peculiarities in word- building (standard suffixes and prefixes, mainly of Greek and Latin origin – tell-, morph, Phil- -ism, etc. , peculiarities in the scarce use of imagery (usually trite and hackneyed, the priority of the functions of intensification and decoration, non- hysteretic, narrow contextual character, absence of rich associations, schematic and generalized character); ; grammatical means: nominal character ( the predominance of nouns over verbs) in the use of parts of speech, the use of prepositional “of-phrases” to substitute the genitive case, transposition of the classes of nouns, wide use of the Passive Voice, Indefinite Tenses, specialization of pronouns in demonstrative and intensification functions, numerous conjunctions revealing the logical order of the text as well as double conjunctions ( not merely.
.. But also, whether or both… And, as..
. ), adverbs of logical connection ; syntactical means: priority of full, logically correct, regular syntactical models, the syntax of simple sentence in the scientific speech – extensive use of extended two- member sentence, priority in the use of compound sentences, extensive use of secondary predicative constructions ( Complex Object, Participial and Gerundial Constructions), wide use of conjunctions and denominative prepositions, concise expression of syntactical connection in word combinations, sentences, groups of sentences, absolute priority of declarative sentences in the use of communicative types of sentences; composition of scientific text as an explication of the stages of cognition and productive thinking, the usual model is presented by the following scheme- a problem situation, idea, hypothesis, proof, conclusion, compositional speech forms of discussion, argumentation and description, conclusion, types of narration, wide-spread co-referential repetition as a specific method of text development.Functional restrictions: strong objections to the use of non-literary vocabulary, scarce use of emotional and intensification units of vocabulary and phraseology, and stylistic devices (metaphors, metonymy’s, etc. , absence of the second person form and corresponding personal pronouns, scarce use of “l- speaking”, limited use of incomplete and non-declarative, and one-member sentences. Publicist Style (Journalese). The major functions of the publicist style: social influence and public opinion manipulation; informative function. Additional functions: propaganda, popularization, education, organization, analysis and criticism, hedonism (entertainment).
Stylistic features of the publicist style: interchange of standard and expressiveness, explicit evaluation, affective, impressive harasser, stylistic effects of “novelty”, advertising, mass, group social orientation, pictographs (documentary precision, abundance of statistics, topics and proper names, factual data), neutral or formal manner of presentation, generalization, the styles. Publicist style as a sphere of intersection with the style of fiction / essay, sketch, lampoon, satirical article/ and scientific style ‘commentary, review’. Elements of conversational and official styles. Subtitles and genres: publicist style proper / lampoons, articles, essays, sketches, travelogues, memoirs’, political propaganda / lagans, leaflets, proclamations’, Journalese l, newspapers style – editorial (leader) article, brief news, or news columns, report, interview, reportage… /, oratory / speeches, parliamentary debates, TV discussions.
.. ‘ TV and radio Journalese, publicist cinematography (documentary, news-reel, etc. ).New publicist genres: talk-show, reality-show, role-play show, game-show, debates, TV poll, TV commentary, new types of information programs. Inner differentiation of the publicist style and correlation of functional relevance of its different variations and genres. Newspaper Style.
Problems of classification. Newspaper genres: editorial (leading article), newsreel, brief news report, reportage, interview, essay, title, topical satire, advertisement. Graphic Means of the newspaper style: wide use of graphic means – change of prints, word-arts, italics, various graphic symbols (asterisks, etc. ) used for the sake of text limitation as well as elements of compositional arrangement such as columns, titles, subtitles, parts and paragraphs.Language Means of publicist style: vocabulary: priority of neutral and bookish vocabulary, wide use of language means to actuality Carrolton (proper and geographical names, abundance of statistics, phonemic and proper names, facts and data), means of evaluation, neologisms, social political terminology, a great number of loan-words and international words, use words and word-combinations of other styles ( especially, conversational), against the general background of the bookish style vocabulary, including terminology as well as means of imagery to increase expressiveness / trite metaphors, metonymy’s, personification, metaphorical paraphrases, metaphorical use of terminology’, newspaper terms: newspaper vocabulary and cliches Roundels and bookish), decomposition of phraseologies units. Word-building: loan suffixes and prefixes as well as combination of words; ; grammatical means: in morphology the use of the singular number of nouns in their collective meaning, plural number for the definition of generalization, wide use of the superlative degree of adjectives in order to reveal expressiveness as well as the use of adjectives-collaborative, substantiation and evaluation of the use of numerals, adjectives and participles. Average sentence length (9-11 words) and average degree of complexity in the sentence structure.
Wide use of declarative sentences.The use of questions, exclamatory sentences for the sake of expressiveness. Means of expressive syntax: inversions, parallelism, antithesis, percolation, gradation, isolation, different types of the author’s words presentation and conversational constructions, different patterns in the use of homogeneous parts of the sentence – double, three-element and multi- element; ; compositional and textual means: cannonaded three-part structure of publicist texts, the principle of “pyramid” and its effects in the composition of modern newspaper text, the use of compositional ( foregrounding) devices. Official Style. / The Style of Official Documents l. Regulative function as the main one, I. E.
He establishment of norms and rules in the sphere of public relations (e. G. The relations of individuals, group – individual relations, the relations of social groups and acts, codes, instructions, orders… /, the style official documents / applications, references, protocols, questionnaires, profiles, autobiographies, agreements, contracts..
. /, the style of diplomatic documents / agreements, pacts, communiques, note, memoranda, declarations… /. Considerable inner differentiation, I. E.
Inconsiderable genre-stylistic distinctions depending on the functional purpose of the text, themes, sphere of use, character of the institution issuing a publication.Stylistic features: standard, imperative and prescriptive nature, ascertaining as leading method of presentation, precision which does not admit misinterpretation, non- personal character. Specific features of the official style characteristic of all its varieties and genres: temple ( pattern) text composition, speech standard and stereotyped ways of expression and arrangement of the language means (cliches, standard vocabulary). Use of the language means belonging to the style of official documents as negative development in speech culture, especially within the norms of publicist style. Language means of the style of official documents: ; graphic means: wide use of graphic means – change of the print, italics, the use of graphic delimitation means – various graphic symbols (asterisks, lines, patterns, etc. Which clearly demonstrate text limitation ( columns, division into parts, sections, elements, paragraphs), means of graphic design which reveal the representational form of the temple; ; lexical means: bureaucratic cliches ( words or word- ambitions), the use of special terminology to express precision, repetitions, the use of constructions with archaic elements, wide spread of vocabulary units, expressing obligation, absence of subjective emotional appraisal; ; grammatical means: nominal character / predominance of nouns, a great number of nominal prepositions and conjunctions’, wide use of the genitive case, different forms of expressing imperative / verbs with the meaning of obligation, verbs of instruction, prescription, future tense forms, the imperative mood, infinitive and infinitive constructions’, absence of the first and second person presentation and correlated rounds, the use of collective nouns for the expression of impersonality, different patterns of statement and ascertaining, specific use of aspect and tense forms ( future in conditional sentences, wide use of conditional sentences in connection with the necessity of detailed exposition and proviso, rare use of complex sentences, especially with subordinate sentences of cause because of the absence of the necessity to explicate logical operations of analysis and reasoning; ; compositional devices: the patterned structure of texts of all the genres and subtitles, declarative, ascertaining nature, neglect of narration and discussion. Colloquial (Conversational) Style.
The main function is communication, realization of practical activity of a person. It is used in everyday life. Extra-linguistic features: informality, spontaneous character of speech, interpersonal contact and direct involvement in the process of communication, attraction of paralinguistic means of communication (gestures, expression of the face, movements).Stylistic features: familiarity, ellipsis, concrete character of speech, interruption and logical inconsistency of the speech, motiveless, efficacy. Secondary stylistic features: idiomatic and pattern character, personal” type of speech presentation. Oral and written (epistolary) varieties. Two forms of speech: dialogue (simple dialogue and polygene) and monologue.
Inner mood, aims, relations between the speakers, situation and theme of the conversation. Subtitles and genres: literary conversational style / talks, conversations, interviews l, familiar-conversational style / communication between family members, friends, intimate communication, children’s talk l, low colloquial / quarrels, abuse, scandal, squabble, insult l.Language peculiarities: high activity of non-bookish means of the engage ( with stylistic conversational and familiarity coloring, the use of non- bookish low colloquial elements on all language levels, incomplete constructions ( at phonetic, syntactical and partially morphological levels), the use of language units of concrete meaning at all the levels, non-characteristic use of means with abstract and generalized meaning, weak syntactic connections between the parts of a syntactic structure, active use of means of verbal imagery, means of expressing subjective appraisal, emotional and expressive means at all the levels, patterned speech, specific phraseology , personal forms, nonce-words. Language means the colloquial style. graphic means: graphic signs as the reflection of phonetic processes of sound modification in fluent speech, graphic signals of the change of communicative roles; ; phonetic means: intensive modification of sounds in fluent speech, positional phonemic interchange(combinatorial – accommodation, assimilation, dissimulation and positional changes, connected with the position of a sound in a word – at the beginning, in the middle or at the end of the word, stressed or unstressed position, etc. ). Positional changes: reduction (weakening) of vowels in unstressed syllables) and arterial devoicing of consonants at the end of the word before a pause.
Complete reduction: Pokka (the drop of the final consonant or final part of the word), syncope ( the drop of a vowel or several sounds in other positions). Partial reduction as a qualitative change of vowels.Partial and complete devoicing of consonants at the end of a word. Stylistic and communicative effects of modification. Wealth and variety of intonation patterns ( rhythm, tempo, timbre, melody peculiarities); ; vocabulary: conversational (everyday life) vocabulary, priority of neutral widely-used words with incorrect, denotative, referential meanings, wide use of non-literary vocabulary, expressive-emotional vocabulary, means of verbal imagery, well-developed synonymy and polymers, the use of stylistic devices, including pun, decomposition of phraseologies units; in word-formation: emotive suffixes and prefixes, wide use of word-formation, expressive tautology.