Major Supreme Court Cases Under Judge John Marshall
State of Georgia.
“John Marshall was the fourth chief justice of the Ignited States, he was known as Great Chief Justice. He established the modern status of the Supreme Court. He served in the Revolutionary War, studied law, and was elected to the Virginia legislature in 1782. A staunch Federalist, Marshall supported acceptance of the Constitution. He declined ministerial posts but became one of the United States negotiators who resolved the EX. Affair. Elected to Congress in 1799, he was made secretary of state by President John Adams.
Major Supreme Court Cases Under Judge John Marshall Essay Example
In 1801 he became Chief Justice.Marshall labored to increase the hen-scant power and prestige of the Supreme Courts” (Harvey, 680). One of Chief Justice John Marshal’s first decisions was in the case Mammary v. Madison. “Near the end of President Adams first administration Congress authorized the President to appointments of the peace for the District of Columbia. This was the occasion of the midnight appointments and the failure of Dam’s Secretary of State to deliver commissions of appointment. A new administration took office and Secretary of State Madison, directed by President Jefferson, refused delivery.
Thereupon Mammary, one of the tonight appointees, went to the Supreme Court requesting a judicial order, writ of mandamus, to compel Madison to deliver his commission. Article Ill. Section 2, of the Constitution gives the Supreme Court original jurisdiction only in cases affecting the Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a state shall be a Party. Mortuary’s case did not fall in that category. Mammary went to the Supreme Court because in his view an act of Congress, Section 13 of the Judiciary Act of 1 789, authorized him to do so.The clash between Constitution and Act of Congress became a problem in the rout’s decision” (Mendelssohn, 5-6). “The court refused to rule on the appointment because Section 13 gave the Supreme Court powers not provided by the constitution.
The court declared Section 13 unconstitutional. This marked the first time the united States Supreme Court declared a federal law unconstitutional. It established the supremacy of the Constitution over laws passed by congress and the right of the court to review the Constitutionality Of legislation” (Cutler, 193). Marshall stated the powers Of the legislature are defined and limited is emphatically the province and the duty of the judicial department to say what the law is. The Constitution was thus established as a legal document subject to interpretation only by the courts” (U. S. Law, 883).
Another one of Marshal’s major decisions was in the case of McCullough v. Maryland, “James McCullough, cashier of the Baltimore branch of the Bank of the united States, refused to pay a Maryland State tax on the bank. The court first upheld the implied powers of Congress to create a bank, because Congress needed a bank to exercise its specified power.The tax was declared unconstitutional because it interfered with an instrument of the federal government. He ruled that Congress has implied powers in edition to those specified in the Constitution, and when federal and state powers conflict, federal powers prevail” (Cutler, 335). “Marshal’s opinion for the court in McCullough v. Maryland upheld the constitutionality of the Second Bank of the united States, which has been created by an Act of Congress in 181 6, on the basis of implied powers of Congress under the Constitution.
His opinion also invalidated Marshland’s efforts to impose an indirect tax on the Bank as a federal instrumentality” (The Supreme Court, 21). The decision in Dartmouth College v. Woodward was another major ruling by Chief Justice John Marshall. “In 1 769, King George Ill of Great Britain granted Dartmouth College a charter as a private school. Various states succeeded to the rights and obligations of such charters when they became independent. In 1816, New Hampshire tried to make Dartmouth the State University by canceling the charter. Former trustees of the college claimed that the royal charter was still valid.
They sued to recover the school seal and records from William H. Woodward, the college secretary. Daniel Webster, a graduate of Dartmouth, presented the trustees case before the Supreme Court in one of his greatest arguments. The court ruled for the trustees saying that the state had impaired the obligation of the charter in violation of Article l, Section 10, of the Constitution. Because of this case, legislatures today put time limitations on charters or include provisions allowing cancellation by the government under proper circumstances” (William, 38).Marshall also had a major decision in the case of Gibbons v. Ogden.
“New York granted Robert Fulton exclusive steamboat rights on the Hudson River in New York for a limited period of years” (Mendelssohn, 85). “Thomas Gibbons had a federal license to use the same waters” (Cutler, 185). Gibbons ran steamboats from New York to New Jersey violating Fulton patent. The case began as an action by Fulton interests to stop infringement. The court said it was repugnant to that clause in the Constitution, which authorizes Congress to regulate Congress.