Male reproductive system review questions

1 January 2018

Spermatogenesis is the development of spermatozoa. It happens inside the testicles, specifically, in a round shaped structure of the testicles called seminiferous tubules (Sherwood., 2012). Once the spermatozoids are produced, they are transported to the center point of the tubule with a specific end goal to be transported to the epididymis, where the spermatozoa progression process will go to its last stage (Sherwood., 2012). Spermatozoids are male gametes, male sex, reproductive cells (Sherwood., 2012). They are haploids meaning they contain half the DNA (Sherwood., 2012). When the spermatogenesis, takes place the 46 chromosome somatic cells are able to change into 23 chromosomes sexual cells (Sherwood., 2012).

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a) Name of the first stage: Proliferative phase
Notes on key processes:

Otherwise called the spermatogenic stage. Sort A spermatogonia are shaped from a germ mother cell that will divide mitotically to produce the sort B spermatogonia (Sherwood., 2012). When men get to puberty, these cells will divide several times to produce a spermatocyte cell (Sherwood., 2012). While the splits are underway some cell changes occur (Sherwood., 2012). This stage is known as proliferative stage due to the sheer amount of mitosis that takes place (Sherwood., 2012). The fundamental objective is to create however many spermatozoa precursor cells as possible, creating a high volume of spermatozoa (Sherwood., 2012).

a) Name of the second stage: Meiotic phase

Notes on key processes:
The meiotic phase is also known as spermatocytogenesis. Within this stage, an alternate cell division happens (Sherwood., 2012). Such division is the meiosis, which splits the genetic information into the half, creating haploid cells called spermatids. Meiosis can be split into two sub-stages (Sherwood., 2012). Meiosis I is where primary spermatocytes split into two secondary spermatocytes (Sherwood., 2012). Meiosis II is where every secondary spermatocyte splits into two spermatids, creating four spermatids (haploid) are getting from the first primary spermatocytes (diploid) (Sherwood., 2012). These cells are progressively starting to take after spermatozoa, they even have a little flagellum (Sherwood., 2012).

b) Name of the third stage: spermatogenesis (Oliveira and Alves, 2015).

Notes on key processes:
Spermatogenesis is the last phase of the spermatozoa development process. The maturation of spermatids happens at this stage (Sherwood., 2012). The flagellum increases in size, offering rise to the flagellum that will permit its progression (Sherwood., 2012).On the other hand, the head containing the nucleus of the spermatozoa decreases in size and paddle-shaped, a component that happens due to the cytoplasm reduction, the nucleus enlarging and the acrosome creation (Sherwood., 2012). When spermiogenesis completes, spermatids are completely formed into spermatozoa and are discharged into the seminiferous tubule (Sherwood., 2012).

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