Malinowski was born in Poland on Apri17, 1884. His father,a professor of Slavic philology at Jagellonian University. His mother was from culturel landowning family. Malinowski who is Polish-British antropologist,educated in Kracow,Leipzig and at the London School of Economics. From 1924 he was assistant professor in the University of London. He became a professor in 1927. He taught at Yale University from 1939 until his death.. The most important-and four-year-long investigation, made on the natives of New Guinea Islands.
After the end of the war, the history of nthropology,which is probably the most revolutionary work wrote Argonauts of Wetern Pasific. And it was during this period that he began his signature work among the Trobriand Islanders,studying kinship,trade,the practical purposes of ritual and religion,as well as the intersection between cultural ideas and actual daily behaviours. (wrww. nndb. com) Malinowski helped develop the field of anthropology from a primarily evolutionary focus into sociological and psychological fields of enquiry.
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Malinowski’s ideas and methodologies came to be widely embraced by the Boasian influenced school of American Anthropology,making him ne of the most influential anthropologist of the 20th century. Malinowski is the pionneer of anthropologist in living primitive tribes. Due to he want to do healthy observations for own researches,he saw necessary in this situation. Malinowski stayed four years in Trobriands Islands and he observed local people’s traditions and lifes. Malionawski has complied very interesting information about family structure,social and sexual relationship in there.
After returned to London, From 1910 worked as a research assistant at London School of Economics near the G. G Salisman and he gained theoretical knowledge from his trainer. When war began ,he participated British association’s meeting in Australia. He made investigation among indigenous people who live pre-civilization conditions. After return to London, he considered the lives of other tribes’ and he gave two work attempts to synthesize. one of them related primitive psychology myth”. Published in 1926,Malinowski defended the these opinion beliefs, fairy tales, myths affect human psychology and social formations. Even Malinowski accordance religious historian Fraser’s teachings, claimed that give rise to the magic technique. Malinowski ublished in 1927, ‘in wild societies sexuality and repression”. He solutions to the social relations that Trobriand natives in this examination. Malinowski have tried to create a theory of the relationship between society and culture. He sought to understand the islanders’ ways of life in functional terms of how they created and maintained their society. (wmwcsiss. org) Malinowski’s findings is to give an idea of living on the social stage.
Trobriand islands the prevailing social order “matriarchal” called and lineage, inheritance relations, kinship relations corresponds to a stage is determined by the constitution. Examination of wild populations remained far behind the historical development of mankind,this is a phenomenon which providing main lineage. Everything is transferred to the main lineage. All marriages should be cross-cousins and in the tribes. Women live with children separate house with men. (www. civilisation. org) Because of this in light of this research Malinowski critized Freud’s “Oedipus complex” theory.
Malinowski argues that families all over the world don’t have oedipus complex. His studies of the Trobriand Islanders have often been cited as a challenge to Freud’s conviction that the Oedipus complex is a universal henomenon. (www. newworldencyclopedia. org) Malinowski, tried to create a theory of the relationship between society and culture according to the natives’ way of life and laid the foundations of social anthropology. Althoght Malinowski human is animal although culturalism and sociality.
Malinowski a table organized as follows to prove the similarity between human and animal. Basic requirements: food, nutrition, sleep, shelter, agreement, sexuality and confidence. Social institutions: farming, agriculture, bed, home, language, marriage and religion. Basic requirements shown in this table re the same for human and animal. But created social institutions are very different to provide these. Human physiological requirements is provided by various cultural institutions. Malinowski was one of two organizer,along with A. R. Radcliffe-Brown,of functionalism.
Radcliffe-Brownian functionalism focused on society,social system,functional integration,and synchronic study as opposed to the diachronism of the evolutionist and the American historicists. His theory held that acts,traditions,values,and other events in culture. This theory had a purpose for the continuation of the social system. Malinowski,focused on functional integration and synchronous study,but he put more emphasis on the indivudual and on biological needs. At first, functionalism as a theoretical approach developed in the 1950s, and started to be addressed by the proponents to be seen as a method of sociological. n the fact functionalism is theoretical approach which first appearance in sociology. The pioneers of this theory Comte, Spencer and Durkheim. The two versions of functionalism were influenced from French sociologist Emile Durkheim. Malinowski was exposed to the work of Durkheim early in his career. Malinowski agreed with Radcliffe-Brown about the functional integrity of cultural units which he called institutions. (www. stosowana. files. wordpress. com) The purpose of institutions is to meet the seven basic human needs ;metabolism, reproduction,bodily comfort,safety,movement,growth,and health.