Management Process and Organizational Behaviour
A vision is the preferred future, a desirable state, and ideal state. It is an expression of optimism. A vision is a general statement encompassing the direction an agency wants to take and the desired end result once it gets there. It is the vision of what those involved what their organization to become. A mission is more focused on the specifics of what an organization is to accomplish. It differs from a vision in that it focuses on function, is accomplishable and measurable, and is often statutorily or bureaucratically established.
The mission statement is a statement of an organization’s basic purposes, often in terms of broad outcomes that it is committed to achieving or the major function it carries out. A mission can also be the reason an agency exists. When staffs meet to write a mission statement, they may ask “Why are we here? What do we want to do? ” When a legislature creates an agency, it almost always states its purpose, function, or mission. Steps to promoting the vision of an organization: 1. Educate staff about what a vision is and why it is important. 2. Develop a process to involve all staff in creating the vision. 3.
Ask for specific input from the various groups within the organization. 4. Hold a planning session or retreat to gather input and shape the vision statement. 5. The leader should share information, lead the process, and shape the vision statement. 6. Draft the vision statement. 7. Communicate and reinforce the vision to staff. Mission Statement A mission statement defines what an organization is, why it exists, its reason for being. At a minimum, your mission statement should define who your primary customers are, identify the products and services you produce, and describe the geographical location in which you operate.
If you don’t have a mission statement, create one by writing down in one sentence what the purpose of your business is. Ask two or three of the key people in your company to do the same thing. Then discuss the statements and come up with one sentence everyone agrees with. Once you have finalized your mission statement, communicate it to everyone in the company. It’s more important to communicate the mission statement to employees than to customers. Your mission statement doesn’t have to be clever or catchy–just accurate.
If you already have a mission statement, you will need to periodically review and possibly revise it to make sure it accurately reflects your goals as your company and the business and economic climates evolve. To do this, simply ask yourself if the statement still correctly describes what you’re doing. The mission statement reflects every facet of your business: the range and nature of the products you offer, pricing, quality, service, marketplace position, growth potential, use of technology, and your relationships with your customers, employees, suppliers, competitors and the community. Q2. (a) Planning Definition of planning :
According otkoontz and O’donnell,” Planning is deciding in advance What to do , how to do it, when to do it, and who is to do it. ” Characteristics of planning 1 Planning focuses on achieving the objectives: Management begins with planning and planning begins with the determining of objectives. In the absence of objectives no organization can ever be thought about. 2 Planning is the primary function of Management: Planning is the first important function of management. The other functions –organising, staffing, directing and controlling come later. In the absence of planning no other function of management can be performed. planning is continuous: Planning is the process which begins with the beginning of business itself and ends with the ending of the business. It means that as long a business exists, the planning process is continuous. 4. Planning is Futuristic: Planning decides the plan of action-What is to be done, how is to be done, when is to be done, by who is to be done, all the questions are related to future. Under the planning, answer to these questiona is found out. While an effort is made to find out these answer. 5. Planning is mental exercise: planning is known as a mental exercise as it is related to thinking before doing something.
A planner has mainly to think about the following questions: (1) What to do? , (2) how to do it? , (3)When to do it? , (4) Who is to do it? Q2. (b) Importance of planning Planning is the first and most important function of the management. It is needed at every level of the management. In the absence of planning all the business activities of the organization will become meaningless. The importance of planning has increased all the more in view of the increasing size of organizations In the absence of planning, it may not be impossible but certainly difficult to guess the uncertain events of future. Planning facilitates Decision making: Decision making means the process of taking decision. Under it, a variety of alternatives are discovered and the best alternative is chosen. But it is important to determine the objectives before the discovery of alternatives. Objectives are determined under the process of planning. So. it can be said that planning facilitates decision making. 2 Planning reduce risk of Uncertainty: planning is always done for future and future is uncertain. With the help of planning possible changes in future are anticipated and various activities are planned in the best possible way. 3.
Planning reduces overlapping and wasteful activities: Under planning, future activities are planned in order to achieve objectives. the problems of when, where ,what and almost decided. This puts an end to disorder. In such situation coordination is established among different activities and departments. It puts an end ot overlapping and wasteful activities. 4. Planning provides Direction: Under the process of planning the objectives of the organization are defined in simple and clear words. The outcome of this is that all the employee’s important role in the attainment of the objectives of the organization. . Planning establishes Standards for controlling: By determining the objectives the objectives of the organisation through planning all the people working in the organization and all the departments are informed about when, what and how to do things. Standards are laid down about their work, time and cost. Under controlling ,at the time of completing the work,the actual work done is compared with the standard work and deviations are found out and if the work has been done as desired the person concerned is held responsible. Q3. (a) Leading Means Inspiring
A manager should strive to become an inspiration to the rest of the employees. Employees will follow a manager because the manager is the boss. However, a manager that is an inspiration means that employees follow that person because they believe in what the manager is doing and they are trying to help the company achieve its goals. Finding ways to inspire employees means coaching them and motivating them to succeed as integral parts of the company. Leading Affects Morale The way a manager leads greatly affects employee morale within the department and company as a whole.
Managers should create a climate that encourages new ideas and employee input. The more the employees feel that they have a say in the company, the more they will be willing to share ideas and attempt to find better ways to improve processes. For example, a good manager may reward employees with monetary or benefit incentives if they can increase output of a product. Another idea is a treasure box of goodies. Managers can set a goal early in the week and employees who meet the goal by the end of the week are allowed to take a prize from the treasure box. Leading is Key to Effective Communication
For a manager to be an effective leader, he or she must also be an effective communicator. A manager that shares information and lets employees know the latest news in the company is someone that is deemed trustworthy by his or her employees. Employees feel little loyalty or trust towards a manager who does not readily give out information. Leading Effectively Contributes More to the Bottom Line An effective leader inspires employees, which allows those employees to feel like they are making a meaningful contribution to the company. Satisfied employees generally work harder and take more ownership in their job positions.
This can mean happy customers and a higher level of customer service. Great leaders in an organization affect the employees they supervise, but they also inspire those in other parts of the company. Effective leadership is infectious and should be spread to as many areas of the organization as possible; doing this will result in a highly-coordinated effort to please both customers and employees. Q3. (b) characteristics of leading Here are my main top 10 leadership characteristics that can make you a better leader •Treat others the same way you expect to be treated – think about thers; care about others. This is an extremely simple concept but one that expects you to get off your throne and come down to earth. It goes both ways – if you expect your boss to communicate to you about things, then you need to do the same to your staff •Leadership by Example – this is huge! This is something I constantly remind myself about. If you expect others to follow you then you need to show that you are not only competent but are willing to “roll your sleeves up and get dirty”. •Do not micro manage – entrust your team with responsibility.
You hired them because you felt they were competent to get the job done – so let them do it. If you are not willing to replace an employee then the problem is probably you! •Recognize and reward – very important. In today’s tough economy you might have to get creative here. Financial rewards can come in many sizes and forms; if your company will allow financial rewards to be issued then these are great when people achieve some significant accomplishment that greatly benefits the company •Continuously look for areas to improve yourself – great leaders will never feel comfortable with themselves nor believe they are great.
Instead they will continuously evaluate what their weaknesses are and where they could improve. Being honest with your self-evaluation is the only way to improve in this area. This can be a significant ability to improve one’s self, if you can handle being brutally honest. • Don’t get comfortable – a lot of people do things well and then get comfortable thinking everything is good. But life and business is very dynamic and constantly changing, therefore you need to constantly develop and adjust to the changes around you.
For instance in software development I’ll define and implement a great methodology in one environment and years later when I move on to another career opportunity I find the environment there is different and I have to modify my methodology •Continued Professional Development – the best leaders and best workers are ones that continuously look to develop themselves. This item comes in two forms – developing yourself and developing your staff. •Don’t be afraid to confront problems and deal with issues – this is huge!
I find a lot of leaders are afraid to deal with confrontation. No one likes dealing with problems but this is one of your job responsibilities as a leader. I see a lot of leaders don’t want to deal with issues and they think if they ignore it the issue will go away. •Surround yourself with other great people – greatness breeds greatness. •Know your people – most great leaders are known for connecting with their people. If you don’t have a “real” relationship with your staff then they will not truly follow you, which will ultimately limit your abilities to be successful.
Get off your throne and get into the trenches with your people Q4. (a) Organisation Behaviour (OB) Through its research, teaching, and course development, the Organizational Behavior Unit creates and disseminates knowledge that advances the understanding of how to lead and manage with the aim of increasing personal and organizational effectiveness. Although specific research interests span a wide range of subjects, the faculty share a problem driven, interdisciplinary, multi method approach that has led to significant impact on theory and practice.
Our current intellectual agenda builds on the rich history of OB at HBS and focuses squarely on the organizational changes and challenges arising from today’s increasingly global and more competitive economy. In the last decade, the faculty have been recognized for their work on leadership in an increasingly diverse and dynamic environment, the evolution of managerial careers in our society, managing diversity, and organizational design and change to meet evolving needs and expectations in a changing world. Organizational studies encompass the study of organizations from multiple viewpoints, methods, and levels of analysis.
For instance, one textbook divides these multiple viewpoints into three perspectives: modern, symbolic, and postmodern. Another traditional distinction, present especially in American academia, is between the study of “micro” organizational behaviour — which refers to individual and group dynamics in an organizational setting — and “macro” strategic management and organizational theory which studies whole organizations and industries, how they adapt, and the strategies, structures and contingencies that guide them.
To this distinction, some scholars have added an interest in “meso” scale structures – power, culture, and the networks of individuals and i. e. ronit units in organizations — and “field” level analysis which study how whole populations of organizations interact. Q4. (b) Limitations of OB •OB is not a remedy for the removal of conflict and frustration but can only reduce them. •It is only one of the many systems operating within a large social system. •There is a great danger of OB when in the hands of people who lack system understanding. They tend to look only at the ‘behavioral basis’, which gives them a narrow view point.
This tunnel vision often leads to satisfying employee experiences while overlooking the broader system of an organization in relation to all its public. •The law of diminishing returns also operates in the case of organizational behavior (the law states that at some point increase of a desirable practice produces declining returns and sometimes negative returns when that point is exceeded). For example, too much of freedom and security could lead to less employee initiative and growth after reaching a level and to complacency after that •The ethical standards of those in charge and those who use OB techniques are a great concern.
Its knowledge and techniques could be used to manipulate people without regard for human welfare. People who lack ethical values could use people in unethical ways. Q5. (a) Emotional Intelligence Emotional intelligence (EQ) is the ability to identify, use, understand, and manage emotions in positive ways to relieve stress, communicate effectively, empathize with others, overcome challenges, and defuse conflict. Emotional intelligence impacts many different aspects of your daily life, such as the way you behave and the way you interact with others.
If you have high emotional intelligence you are able to recognize your own emotional state and the emotional states of others, and engage with people in a way that draws them to you. You can use this understanding of emotions to relate better to other people, form healthier relationships, achieve greater success at work, and lead a more fulfilling life. Q5. (b) Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Managers EI and the Manager So why does Manager need an understanding of Emotional Intelligence as well as the ability to track schedules and budgets?
Managers need to be able to do the following: •Operate in complex matrix environments – Project Managers need to influence, negotiate, and collaborate with other departments and teams for resources and to understand project dependencies. The ability to build relationships and understand how to get the best from others is a critical skill that a Project Manager needs to be effective in a matrix environment. •Build effective teams – People are key to the success of any project, and Project Managers rarely have direct ‘control’ over the staff with which they are expected to complete the project.
They need to be able to motivate staff, build teams from disparate sources, and manage conflict, all skills that require the ability to understand people and their particular wants and needs. •Manage change – By their very nature, projects cause change. Building a technical solution is only one component of a project; understanding and managing the impact of that technical solution on a user population, and the effect of that change, is a critical skill for a Project Manager. •Provide leadership – Project Managers need to provide leadership to the people on the project, the stakeholders, and other groups with which they interact.
As well as the ability to make decisions based on well thought out analysis of the situation, the ability to make decisions based on the understanding of the impact on people is also an important leadership aspect. •Deliver results – The complexity of the environment and the degree to which collaboration needs to be successful is unprecedented, and simply being able to track a project plan is unlikely to be enough to allow a Project Manager to be successful. Understanding one’s own emotions, the emotions of others, and how those can be most effectively managed can have a dramatic effect on a Project Manager’s ability to deliver results.
Q6. Here are some tips to handling team and winning them over to work and a winning attitude: Don’t play favourites: This is one of the most frustrating prejudices that most team members face – a boss who plays the favouritism game. Some members of the team can apparently do no wrong and others no matter what they do are never right. Fighting the prejudices of such a boss is usually an impossible situation for team members and highly de-motivating. Team dynamics will suffer if certain individuals always get preferential treatment.
As a team manager you need to insure you have no favourites. Personal likes and dislikes must be kept out of the purview of daily work. You are bound to lose a lot of good employees if you play this game. Give credit where due: As an effective manager always acknowledge the good work done by an employee and be sure to give credit to the person directly responsible for the work. At a senior level you may interact only with managers, but when you are really pleased with some work done, be sure you include the juniors who were involved with implementation, in your accolades.
A quick email or few words of praise will go a long way in boosting the morale of employees and establishing you as a boss who appreciates employees for their hardwork. (Also read: Motivation is the key) Let employees make mistakes: Give your team members the freedom to take their own decisions and manage things. Never be afraid to give responsibility to your team – only when you repose confidence in their abilities will they be encouraged to meet your expectations and push themselves to greater heights.
Of course your guidance and support is important and you need to be there to help them learn from their mistakes in case things dont work out. Network effectively: As a team manager you need to be aware of your team’s strengths and weaknesses and be sure to highlight individual strenghts to your own seniors. You need to insure that your supervisors are informed and kept aware of the team’s progress and achievements as also any problem areas the team per se may be facing. Read: 5 networking tips for introverts )This projects you as a capable leader in the eyes of the team, as they can be assured that with you as the leader – they would be taken care of and need only focus on giving their best at work. Set processes: Once you have a motivated team ready to give their best, make sure processes are as streamlined as possible for smooth functioning and the team is given a certain standard to maintain. As a good manager you should view things at a strategic level and find ways to improve processes and procedures so that your team can perform more efficiently.
Align team goals with organisational goals: Finally as an effective team manager it is important for you to give the right direction to your team and be sure that your team goals are aligned with company goals. Example, if the company is in cost-cutting mode, be sure your team is implementing this in all possible ways. It is important for you to have a team consensus on all organisational issues and if you have effectively managed the earlier five steps, you will have a team who is willing to co-operate and be led by you.