Managing People & Organisations
Then there is the tactical level management or middle management who are responsible for ensuring the goals and objectives set by senior management are enforced. This level of decision making will affect a number of people but not necessarily the whole organisation and are of moderate risk. Lastly there is operational management who are responsible for the short term decisions within the company. These decisions will always follow company policy and procedures and will only affect certain individuals.
Managers at different levels will require different types of information in order to make effective decisions however in order to do so managers must ensure they prioritise their goals, plan to meet these goals, organise the resources required, motivate the people, coordinate the groups and control the processes. MAIN FEATURES PLAN Planning is an essential part of the business. It will determine what the organisational goals are and how they intend to achieve these.
Managing People & Organisations Essay Example
A plan will outline exactly how to manage a decision and what resources will be needed in order to ensure this can be tackled or completed effectively. PRIORITISE Due to the organisation’s “ambitious programme for expansion”, it is vital that the management effectively prioritise the goals that have been set to ensure any issues are dealt with as soon as possible before they escalate. Such a large expansion will require managers to keep on top of their workloads; this can be managed effectively by keeping to do lists, calendars, diaries and notes. ORGANISE
All levels of management will also be responsible for the organising of different tasks and people. They will be responsible for organising the employee workloads as well as the resources needed in order to manage their positions effectively. MOTIVATE At work, sometimes employees can become bored and uninterested and as a manager it is your responsibility to motivate these employees to work harder. Lack of interest can stem from many different issues however the knock on effect of this is huge and these issues need to be tackled as quickly as possible before it spreads and the work declines.
The management need to ensure they have the staff on their side and they enjoy their jobs in order to consistently provide a high output and quality pieces of work. COORDINATE Management will also be responsible for the coordination of the day to day runnings of the organisation. This will include such tasks as work rotas, workloads and breaks etc. They will also need to coordinate how they wish for the goals set to be worked towards and met. CONTROL Control is a huge part of a manager’s position as they need to ensure they keep on track and on top of all different types of issues.
If an issue is to arise, usually the manager would be the one to try and solve this. Also they are responsible for ensuring the staff are working to the best of their abilities and turning up for work each day but also listening to their ideas and their views and taking these on board. The managers within Scotia Airways will have to be responsible for all of these activities to ensure they meet their goals and objectives effectively. Each of these activities are equally as important as the other and at some point, if not every day, they will need to adapt these skills in order to perform to the very best standards.
MEASURING MANAGERIAL PERFORMANCE In order to measure managerial performance effectively, a managerial review system should be used. This is a process used to review managerial performance by using indicators such as communication, leadership and change, to measure effectiveness. The review system is designed to be interactive and an on-going communication process between the management and will include activities such as: performance management and appraisals. Performance management is concerned with ensuring the goals of the organisation are being consistently met.
This does not only focus on the management performance but can be used to assess individual employees as well as the whole organisation. Performance management benefits the organisation as it ensures the effective delivery of the organisational goals. Organisational goals being met will then ultimately lead to greater benefits such as increased profits, motivated workforce, and improved control. Appraisals are methods used to assess employee performance and productivity, these are also known as performance reviews. These appraisals are a chance to sit down with the employee on a one to one basis, evaluate their work, ive feedback and plan for the future. Appraisals will give a clear indication of how well the employee is doing and what needs to be developed further. Scotia should adapt these systems to ensure its staff are working effectively towards the strategic, operational and tactical goals of organisation and that the management are performing to the best of their abilities to ensure organisational development and success. BEHAVIOURAL THEORY McGREGOR, THEORY X & Y Douglas McGregor was an American social psychologist who proposed this X&Y theory back in 1960.
The theory suggests there are two approaches to managing people: X & Y. THEORY X This theory suggests that people dislike work and will avoid it if they can. From this it says that employees must be threatened with punishment in order to force the staff to work towards their goals. It is said that managers that tend to sway towards Theory X will generate poor results. THEORY Y This theory suggests that employees want to be involved more heavily in their job roles, they are happy to work and they find their jobs rewarding.
Managers who opt towards Theory Y will benefit from better performance and results which will allow the employees to grow and develop. Scotia management currently work towards Theory Y and so far it seems to be effective. The staff are hardworking, heavily involved and faithful to the organisation and wish for the company to succeed. This proves that the Theory Y approach does work and the business does benefit from high levels of performance and it’s that hard work and dedication of their staff which has allowed them to consider expansion. LEADERSHIP THEORIES
Vroom & Yetton is a contingency theory of leadership. It is a model which provides guidelines to help management choose appropriate leadership styles. The model identifies five different leadership styles and the level of involvement with each one. These are: Autocratic 1 * Where the leader solves the problem or makes the decisions using the information he/she has available at that time. Autocratic 2 * Where the leader obtains the necessary information from others and personally makes a decision. Consultative 1 * Where the leader shares the problem with others on a one to one basis.
The leader will take the ideas on board and then make a decision. Consultative 2 * The leader shares the problem with others in a group meeting in order to gain their ideas and thoughts and then will make a personal decision on the matter. Group based 2 * The leader shares the problem with others as a group then they have a discussion. They share ideas and thoughts and evaluate alternatives in order to reach an agreement. The leader will lead the meeting and ensure the topic remains on the issue until a mutually agreement is had.
The leader will not influence the group decision in anyway. Studies looked at the possible effects of autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire leaders by asking when participatory leadership might be effective. The normative model answers these questions; the model compares the effectiveness of autocratic, consultative and group-centered decisions in different situations. Selecting the appropriate style of leadership depends on the answers to the following questions: When is participation appropriate? What form should participation take?
A contingency theory provides a framework for management to develop the most appropriate organisational design and management style for a situation and I believe this is a good theory for Scotia to adapt as it allows the management to change to suit the issue and think outside the box. SCOTIA EXPANSION & THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP Managing change is an extremely important topic when it comes to implementing changes in an organisation. As a manager, you need to understand how to be able to lead your employees through the change whilst trying to avoid any resistance.
It is important when implementing change that the employees understand why the change is necessary and that the organisation is able to help them through the transition. I feel the contingency theory of leadership, Vroom & Yetten, as mentioned above, is the perfect theory for the management at Scotia to adapt as it will provide different strategies on how best to handle the decision making processes that come with change. Staff may resist change due to many factors, the main ones being: fear of the unknown, lack of security, and lack of communication.
Management may feel that trying different leadership styles for different factors may work better than just diving in head first and making all the decisions. The management will need to discuss the proposals with the staff and ask their views and opinions before being able to make a decision regarding the organisations future. Currently the staff are happy in their workplace however these factors relating to change could soon change this and as a result productivity may drop, absence rates may increase and overall it may have a negative impact on the organisation and that is something Scotia must try to avoid at all costs.