ABSTRACT This study was conducted to determine the diuretic effect of mango leaves extract on mice. It also determines its rate of micturition on mice. Mango is mentioned in ancient scripts for its great nutritive value. Mango leaves are proven to treat different kind of illness. It contains enzymes that are an ideal antidote for all toxic effects inside the body. It is regarded as a valuable item of diet and a household remedy. Mangiferin from the leaves has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory, diuretic, chloretic and cardio tonic activities and displays a high antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria. Mango leaves were boiled for 5-10 minutes and extract were given to the mice. As the results of the recorded data, shows that the calculated F of 3.29 was higher than the table F of 2.8661 at 0.05% level of significance. There is a significant difference in the diuretic effect of mango leaves extract on mice. It was shown that it was able to let the mice micturate frequently as the commercial one does.
CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE Rationale Mango (Mangifera indica) is the most popular fruit of the tropics and is called “The King of Asiatic Fruit”. Mango is a fleshy drupe, variable in size and shape, with varying mixtures of yellow, green and red colors. As a tree it has medicinal values that ranges from its fruit extract, leaf, stem bark extract, dried mango flower and extract of unripe fruits and of bark stem and leaves have shown antibiotic activity. Mango is natural curative plant without any side effects. Mango is mentioned in ancient scripts for its great nutritive value. It is regarded as a valuable item of diet and a household remedy. Mango has astringent, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-syphyllic, anti-parasitic, diaphoretic, vermifuge, and diuretic properties. It stimulates appetite as well. According to Hakeem Hashmi, reputed Unani physician, a normal size mango is more nourishing for the human body than butter or almonds. It strengthens and invigorates all the nerves tissues, muscles in the brain, heart and other parts of the body. In addition to its delicious taste, apparently eaten a mango leaf also has medicinal properties that are useful to overcome various diseases. Based on scientific research, the young mango leaves are antimicrobial and antioxidant substances that prevent cancer. Active compounds in the leaves of mango consist of group of tannins called anthocyanidins. Aside from anthocyanidins, the leaves also contain glucoside mangiferine. Mangiferin from the leaves has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory, diuretic, chloretic and cardio tonic activities and displays a high antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria. With this idea, the researcher has come up to an idea to use the mango leaves extract to determine its diuretic effect on mice. Statement of the Problem
Mango leaves Essay Example
This study will try to find out if the mango leaves extract has a diuretic effect on mice. Specifically, this study will try to answer the following questions: 1. Do mango leaves extract has a diuretic effect on mice? 2. Is there a significant difference in the diuretic effect of mango leaves extract on mice in terms of: 2.1 micturition rate Null Hypothesis Ho: There is no significant difference in the diuretic effect of mango leaves extract on mice. Background of the Study Nowadays, diseases are very prone. One of this is kidney failure, due to conditions that put a strain on the kidneys that unable to remove urea and other wastes from the blood. Like humans, mice are one of the victims of this disease. They called geriatric diseases. One of the common geriatric diseases of mice is the amyloidosis. Amyloidosis is a term for diseases that have in common the extracellular deposition of insoluble fibrillar proteins in tissues and organs that causes kidney failures on mice. Injured kidneys can’t function effectively and may be unable to remove urea and other wastes from the blood. Significance of the Study
The importance of this study is to find out the diuretic effect of mango leaves extract on mice. This study will benefit the following: Humans. This can serve as a basis in preventing kidney problems. Students. The results may serve as basis for more future experiments, investigatory projects and other researches in schools that will help the nation. Scope and Limitation of the Study
This study was conducted on April and May 2013. This study was limited in determining the diuretic effect of mango leaves extract on mice. It was performed indoors to control mixing of dust particles in the preparation of the solution and to keep the mice comfortable. It was conducted in Deca Homes, Jagobiao, Mandue City.
CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Mango leaves are alternately arranged, lanceolate (long and narrow) shaped, 6 to 16 inches in length and leathery in texture. The leaves are pinkish, amber, or pale-green-colored when young and become dark green at maturity. This mango leaves are anti-asthmatic, antiseptic, antiviral, cardio tonic, emetic, expectorant, hypotensive and laxative. It has the content which is composed of: protein 3.0 %; fat 0.4%; carbohydrates 16.5%; fiber 1.6%; calcium 29 mg/100g; phosphorus 72 mg; iron 6.2 mg; Vitamin A (carotene) 1,490 I.U; thiamine 0.04 mg; riboflavin 0.06 mg; niacin 2.2 mg; ascorbic acid 53 mg/100g.
In India, cows were formerly fed with mango leaves to obtain their urine euxanthic acid which is rich in yellow and has been used as dye. In the Philippines, mango leaves are used as herbal medicine because it can cure many illnesses. The enzymes of the mango, such as mangiferin, katechol oxidase and lactase, clean the bowel of the “filth” within and are an ideal antidote for all toxic effects inside the body. They provide also sufficient resistance to fight any germs and afflictions.
The leaves contain glucoside mangiferine. Mangiferin from the leaves has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory, diuretic, chloretic and cardio tonic activities and displays a high antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria. Mangiferin shows antiviral effect against Type I herpes simplex virus which could be useful in anti-herpes ointments. The bark of the mango tree contains 16 – 20% tannin and also mangiferine. It acts ad stringent and is believed to possess a tonic action on the mucous membrane. It is anathematic, useful in hemoptysis, hemorrhage, nasal catarrh, diarrhea, ulcers, diphtheria, and rheumatism and for lumbrici (Unani Herbalist). Definition of Terms
Mice. The animal used for the study bought from the pet shop. Diluted. The process of making weaker or less concentrated. Diuretic Effect. It elevates the rate of urination and thus provides a means of forced diuresis. Mango Leaves Extract. The extract from mango leaves to be used as diuretic. Furosemide. A diuretic drug that is responsible for partial emptying of the kidneys.
INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT
Fig.1. Conceptual Framework
CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY Collection and Preparation of the Materials The materials needed are the following: Mango leaves, water, newspaper, twelve (12) white mice, basin, twenty (12) small plastic cups (egg cups), six (6) cages, measuring cup, water bottle (500 mL), casserole, two (2) Furosemide tablet (40 mg) and weighing scale. Preparation of Extract
Weigh 500 grams of mango leaves using the weighing scale. Wash the mango leaves properly and place it in the newspaper for drying. After drying, put the mango leaves on the casserole containing 500 mL of water and let it boil for 5-10 minutes. Preparation of the Experimental Set-ups
1. Prepare the twelve (12) small plastic cups. 2. After boiling, put the extract on a 500 mL water bottle for storage. Measure one (10 mL), 5 mL, 6 mL and 3 mL mango extract. For the Furosemide tablet (40 mg), dilute in 30 mL water and measure (10 mL) of it. 3. Pour the (10 mL) mango extract on the small plastic cup. Dilute the 5 mL extract on 5 mL water, the 6 mL extract on 4 mL water and lastly, the 3 mL extract on 7 mL water. Pour the solution on the small plastic cups. 4. The five (5) mice are to be given treatment and each of them is placed in different cage. The remaining seven (7) mice are being kept in one cage and to be given a 10 mL extract. Testing the Different Treatment Diluted in Water
Use one (1) mice for the 10 mL solution (puree), one (1) mice for the 10 mL solution (diluted in 50% water), one (1) mice for the 10 mL solution (diluted in 40% water), one (1) mice for 10 mL solution (diluted in 70% water) and one (1) mice for 10 mL solution of Furosemide (40 mg) diluted in 30 mL water. 1. The mice are fed with Pellet. After 3-4 hours, the treatment is given on them. 2. Observe it for five (5) days and monitor its urination every 30 minutes a day (equivalent to 3 hours). Recording