6 June 2017

Margaret was convinced that mother’s frequent pregnancies were causing her premature death. All this circumstances evokes In Margaret seeking for better life and Interest In birth control. With the help of her older sister In 1896 she went to Claverack College and entered the nursing program in White Plains Hospital. In 1902 she married to William Sanger and had 3 children together, but one died at the age of 5. Over next 10 years she devoted her life to being housewife and mother. In 1912 she returned back to work as visiting nurse in Manhattan. pset by the poverty experienced as a nurse she get touched with number of women who had gone through many botched Illegal abortion or self-terminate their pregnancies and ainly because one of her patient Sade Sachs died after self-induced abortion as they live in poverty and had already 3 children, Margaret made a pledge to devote her life to making reliable contraceptive information available to women.

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She began her campaign writing a column for New York Call entitled -What every girl should know…

Shocked by the inability of the most woman to obtain accurate and effective information she start challenging the federal laws Comstock law 1873, the law banned the spreading of contraceptive Information. So In March 1914 Sanger published feminist publication called The Woman Rebel using the slogan and distributed a pamphlet Family limitation… ln this book she introduced planned parenthood, the way how to avoid living in poverty in which promoted woman’s right to have a birth control.

Her ambition was to find the perfect contraceptive to relieve the horrible strain of repeated and unwanted pregnancies. After publication she received thousands of letters from women asking for more Information about methods of birth control. She gave them Information, so she broke the Comstock law as at that time contraceptive information were regarding as obscene and immoral materials. Rather than face of possible 5 years jail sentence, Sanger fled to England. There she researched other form of birth control. She separated from her husband and 2 years later divorced.

Sanger returned to US in October 1915 when charges against her were dropped. In 1916 she opened first birth control clinic In the USA. But 9 days later she, her sister and all staff were arrested. They were charged for provldlng Information on contraception and fitting diaphragm (couldn’t get them in USA so distributing them from Europe, which was illegal) to women. Sanger and her sister spent 30 days in Jail. Later appealing her conviction, she won. Court couldn’t overturn the earliest verdict but allowed the doctors prescribe contraception the female patient for medical reasons.

Around this time she published the first issue of the birth control Review. In 1921 she founded The 1923 she opened the first legal birth control clinic in USA named as Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau, where she served and focus in it when she resigned from League. By the 1950’s, meantime she won many legal battles, one of them was, that doctors can freely distribute birth control and all materials can be imported to the country. Also in 1927 she organized the first World Population Conference in Geneva and she was the first president of the International Planned Parenthood Federation founded in 1953.

Later on she took her campaign to birth control to Asian countries, especially India and Japan. After 40years of fghting to help women with their fertility, Sanger was frustrated with the limited birth control options ( which were in 1842 diaphragms and in 1869 full length rubber condom ) there have been no new advances in contraceptive methods. She promoted diaphragms, but knew it was still least popular because was expensive and awkward. But Sanger in her seventies with a poor health still dreaming of a magic pill for contraception since 1912.

She sought someone to realize her vision of contraceptive pill as easy as take aspirin. She wanted something cheap, safe and effective. Finally in 1951 she met Gregory Pincus a medical expert in human reproduction who was willing to take on project. Soon after she founded sponsor Katherine McCornick. So in 1960 was first oral contraceptive in the world. That was Sanger’s long life goal of bringing safe and effective contraception. After one big success came another one 4 years later when she itnessed the undoing Comstock law…

Margaret Sanger died on the 6th of September 1966 in Tuscon, Arizona knowing that she won her battle… Across the nation, there are many women’s health clinics that carry her name… Surrogacy is an arrangement in which a woman carries and delivers a child for another couple or person. Surrogacy is still a bit controversial abut in other side it is one more option how to have a child. The history of surrogate motherhood goes to biblical times, some people say goes to Sarah and Abraham, but American Indians were the first ones really begin with surrogate mothers history. So we are looking back to 1899 in this part of world.

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