# Math: Mathematics and Pupils Essay Sample

Mathematicss is one of the most of import parts of a childâ€™s instruction. since it can impact every facet of their ulterior lives. including other topics they may analyze in the hereafter. such as uranology or biological science. All of us have encountered Numberss because of its importance in the existent universe. Mathematicss plays a critical function in the modernisation of this civilisation. It is everyplace and affects the mundane lives of people. Nature negotiations to us in the linguistic communication of mathematics. that is Numberss. mathematical regulations and equations help us to do sense of the universe around us. ( The Book of Popular Science. 2002 ) . Harmonizing to the New Book of Knowledge. 2006. mathematics is the survey of Numberss. and numbering. and mensurating. but that is merely the beginning. Mathematics involves the survey of figure forms and relationship. excessively. â€ť It is besides a manner to pass on thoughts and possibly more than anything.

It is a manner of concluding that is alone to human existences. Learning mathematics implies populating in the universe of Numberss cognizing its construct and strengthening.

Learning the basic constructs of add-on and minus is the foundation of get the hanging math. The Four Fundamental Operations are Addition. Multiplication. Subtraction and Division. These four cardinal operations form the footing of the whole survey of mathematics and numerical scientific discipline. These operations form all the other operations that we use in the above specified topics. So they are called Cardinal Operationss because they canâ€™t be derived either in the footings of themselves or any other operator. . ( Research and Development Institute. Inc. 2006 ) It is of import that pupils will be equipped with the basic mathematical accomplishments specifically on the four basic operations on whole Numberss. fractions and decimals and be cognizant of its importance to oneâ€™s life. In the landmark survey demoing the impact of basic accomplishments on grownup gaining. Richard Murname and Frank Levy conclude that the command of accomplishments taught in schools at an early class degree is an progressively of import determiner of subsequent rewards.

The accomplishments and cognition pupils learn in school is correlated with the success subsequently in life. . Basic accomplishments on cardinal operations in fraction. whole Numberss and decimals are really necessary to progress in math. Insisting that maestro calculation accomplishments is non to recommend that they should halt at the rudimentss. Basic accomplishments are a floor. non a ceiling. Students must larn the four cardinal operations so that they can travel on to more demanding mathematics. An accent on the rudimentss should ne’er be used as an alibi to straightjacket pupils or to decelerate their advancement in the math course of study. If pupils have a steadfast appreciation of the basicss of math. he will be able to larn more advanced mathematical procedures far more easy. Having good math accomplishments will finally salvage clip and cut down the demand to necessitate redress. Fundamentalss are needed to travel on ; non holding this foundation will ensue in more clip spent on working things that the pupil should already cognize. Early success is the beginning of future success.

Since our universe is a mathematical universe. it logically follows that set uping the simple math accomplishments early on through the bosom and desire of the instructor to love and working with it. by making it one would go an instrument in eliminating figure illiteracy in this coevals. One of the most common failings of our school kids today is uneffective numerical ability. It appears that they are weak non merely in cardinal operations such as add-on. minus. generation and division in common and denary fractions. This inability to work out computational and manipulative jobs besides contributes to their failure to work out mathematical jobs and represent a strong hindrance to the instruction of job resolution. Inadequate command of the four cardinal operations is likely one of the chief causes of trouble encountered by persons of all ages in covering with anything of a mathematical in nature.

The beginning of ailments among instructors in learning job work outing on four cardinal operations has been the inability to work out mathematical jobs due to miss of command of the basic cardinal operation on whole Numberss. Gabule ( 2003 ) emphasized in her survey that deficiency of anterior or hapless background on the topic leads to studentâ€™s hapless public presentation. Hence. since mathematics is consecutive. cognition of its basic accomplishments is necessary. Due to the desire of the research worker to cognize the mastery degree of the four cardinal operations in job resolution among grade five students in Lagonglong District. hence this survey will be conducted. Conceptual Model

The Mastery of the four cardinal operations on fractions and decimals is a must for simple scholars. These are tools for them to understand better and love Mathematics as a topic and aid kids use in their day-to-day activities. Specifically the demand to accomplish the mastered accomplishment on four cardinal operations on fractions and decimals is really of import requirement before one can continue to work out word jobs in Mathematics. For the past 20 old ages. job resolution has been touted as a primary focal point for mathematics direction at all class degrees ( National Council of Supervisors of Mathematics. 1978 ; National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. 1980. 1989. 2000 ) A problem-solving theoretical account is a systematic attack that reviews pupil strengths and failings. identifies evidence-based instructional intercessions. often collects informations to supervise pupil advancement. and evaluates the effectivity of intercessions implemented with the pupil. Problem resolution is a theoretical account that first solves pupil troubles within general instruction schoolrooms.

If problem-solving intercessions are non successful in general instruction schoolrooms. the rhythm of choosing intercession schemes and roll uping informations is repeated with the aid of a building-level or grade-level intercession aid or problem-solving squad. Rather than trusting chiefly on trial tonss ( e. g. . from an IQ or math trial ) . the studentâ€™s response to general instruction intercessions becomes the primary determiner of his or her demand for particular instruction rating and services ( Marston. 2002 ; Reschly & A ; Tilly. 1999 ) . Problem Solving is a powerful agencies to develop the ability to believe and indispensable when it comes to accomplishing a good instruction. A pupil. who solves mathematical jobs rapidly and expeditiously. is ready to use those experiences to work out new jobs of mundane life. with the same efficiency and effectivity. ( Cabunoc. 2012 )

Figure 1. Conventional Model Showing the Interplay of the Independent and Dependent Variables of the Study

Statement of the Problem

This survey aims to happen out the job work outing accomplishments of Grade Five Pupils in all schools in the District of Lagonglong. School Year 2012-2013.

Specifically. this survey will mean to reply the undermentioned inquiries:

1. What is the command degree on four cardinal operations in fractions. and decimals of Grade V Pupils in Eleven Schools of Lagonglong. District.

2. What is the degree of cognition among Grade V students of Eleven Schools in Lagonglong. District in job resolution along the countries of: 2. 1. Adding and Subtracting Similar and Dissimilar Fractions with and without reorganizing

2. 2 Multiplying fraction

2. 3. Adding and Subtracting Decimal Numbers

2. 4. Multiplying and Dividing Decimal Numbers

2. 5. Finding the per centum. rate. and base

3. Is there a important relationship between the public presentation degree in job work outing affecting fractions. . decimals and per centum on the command degree on four cardinal operations on fractions and decimals and per centum. peculiarly in command degree in adding and deducting similar and dissimilar fractions with and without reorganizing. multiplying fraction and assorted Numberss. happening the base. per centum and rate.

4. Based on the findings of the survey. what larning activity bundle will be made? Hypothesis

Based on the above stated job the undermentioned nothing hypotheses will be tested at. 05 degree of significance. Ho1: There is no important relationship between the accomplishments in job work outing utilizing the four cardinal operations on fractions. decimal. per centum and command degree in adding and deducting similar and dissimilar fractions with and without reorganizing. multiplying fraction and assorted Numberss. happening per centum. rate. and basal Scope and Limitation of the Study

This survey will be limited in happening out the command degree on cardinal operations in job resolution in Mathematics among Grade Five students in Seven Schools of Lagonglong. District. School Year 2012-2013. Problem Solving was limited to the countries in fractions. decimals and per centum. The independent variables such as the command degree on four cardinal operations of fraction. decimals and per centum believed to hold influence with the job work outing public presentation. The findings of the research will be limited to the sample grade five students. Significance of the Study

The research worker believes that the consequences of the survey will be utile in several ways.

First. the survey can be utile to instructors and other people involved in mathematics instruction because it will supply informations as to the public presentation of the class five students in job resolution. Second. cognizing the common failings committed by the kids will bring forth consciousness on the portion of the decision makers and instructors and in bend provide more clip in making activities that will take to the command of basic cardinal operations of fractions. decimals and per centum.

Third. for course of study contrivers. they can hold a clear usher as to the facets in mathematics which will necessitate enrichment and careful planning to run into the demands of clip. Definition of Footings

For better apprehension of this research. the followers footings which will be used in this survey are herewith defined.

Addition of Whole Numbers. This phrase refers to a mathematical operation of acquiring the amount of two or more addends.

Decimal fractions Numbers. This refers to the phrase taken to intend the class five lessons affecting denary Numberss.

Division of Decimals. This is a mathematical operation of happening the quotient of two denary Numberss.

Fraction. This refers to the look incorporating one whole number written above another with horizontal line between them. The upper figure is called numerator and the lower figure is called denominator. The numerator and denominator are called footings of fractions.

Cardinal Operations. These are add-on. minus. generation. division

Generation of Fractions. This is a mathematical operation of happening the merchandises of two of two fractions.

Mathematicss. This is a scientific discipline that trades with the systematic intervention of magnitude. relationship between figures and signifiers. and relation between figures and signifiers. and relation between measures expressed symbolically and supported by facts and rules.

Problem Solving. This refers to involves more than simply finding solutions or the verbal jobs presented in the text edition ( Spencer as cited by Lagrimas. 1990:352 ) . In this survey it is taken to intend mathematical jobs for class five students.

Students. This refers to the class five kids enrolled seven schools consisting cardinal and non- cardinal schools in District of Lagonglong. Lagonglong. Misamis Oriental.

Whole Numbers. These are sets of numbering Numberss that start from one and travel on in their natural order. This figure does non incorporate a fraction and a decimal.

Chapter 2

REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter presents a reappraisal of relevant information from books. periodicals and unpublished surveies that have effects on Mathematicss

instruction and are related to the present probe. This literature will cover about the command degree on four cardinal operations in job resolution. Related Literature and Studies in Foreign Puting

The command of four cardinal operations is a must for an simple scholars. These are tools for them to better understand and appreciate Mathematicss as a topics and assist them in their twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours activities. A scholar needs to sharpen his calculation accomplishments on basic operations through varied exercisings and drills. Fractions. decimals and per centum are some countries in job resolution which are observed to be less mastered by the simple scholars. Low command degree in executing cardinal operations contributed to the low public presentation of students working on job resolution. Curriculum must fix kids to go effectual job convergent thinkers ( Burns. 2000 ) . Problem work outing requires command on four cardinal operations on the portion of the pupils in order to give solution and arrive at right reply. Parents and instructors have direct influence to the pupils.

There is a demand for them to work manus in manus in developing the job work outing accomplishments necessary for his hereafter endurance. Suydam ( 2001 ) stated that job resolution is the foundation of all mathematical activity. In order to map in our complex and ambitious society. people need to be able to work out a broad assortment of jobs. The simple Mathematicss course of study must fix kids to go effectual job convergent thinkers ( Burns. 2000 ) Although job resolution is an built-in portion of all Mathematics. many pupils struggle with work outing jobs. In fact studentâ€™s ability to work out word jobs falls below their ability to calculate. ( Burns. 2000 ) . Research shows that this disagreement is non because kids have hapless calculation or reading accomplishments but because kids do non cognize how to take the correct operation to use to the job.

Varied surveies conducted by the Mathematics Education Research ( MER ) every bit good as Aron ( 2004 ) . Schoeberger and Liming ( 2001 ) cited some causes of studentâ€™s inabilities to efficaciously work out multi-step jobs affecting mathematical vocabulary and higher- order cited numerical operations every bit good as factors that contribute to studentâ€™s failing in believing accomplishments. A really good point cited by Jones and Morgan ( 2007 ) is that developing believing enables scholars to derive a deeper apprehension of subjects. to be more critical about grounds. To believe flexibleness and to do sound opinions and determinations instead than leaping to decisions. These qualities in thought are needed both in school and in the wider universe. Learners need to develop a repertory of believing schemes to be drawn on when encounter new state of affairss. Swets ( 2003 ) stressed that the formation of mathematical constructs in the heads of scholars can take topographic point at these several events of cognitive engagement. These degrees differ in their rational demands and lend themselves as a footing for constitution of specific aims or ends for single schoolroom lessons.

Writing and job non merely deepen pupils understanding. they besides help pupils use and associate the Mathematicss they learned in the schoolroom to the existent universe ( Aber ; 2000 Albert & A ; Antos. 2000 ) .

Problem resolution is present in several facets of mathematical activities. from games to existent life jobs. Leitze and Melser ( 2005 ) said that if pupils were able to link what they have learned inside the category with the events outside. they were able to keep and appreciate information better.

If pupils are able to see Mathematics as interesting and exciting. it is of import that they see the relevancy between Mathematicss and their mundane life ( Albert & A ; Antos. 2000 ) . Teachers can foster rational exhilaration by linking reading. composing to existent life experiences through undertakings and activities that have a job solving- resolution focal point. Adams ( 2003 ) followed thatâ€ť making Mathematics is reading Mathematicss. â€ť Because it is the word symbols and numbers that give Mathematics its substance and model. these same words. symbols and numbers must be used to pass on the job solution to pupils so that pupils can utilize them to execute processs. work out jobs and explicate procedures. Sometimes. pupils are speedy to merely look at the Numberss and so set operation symbols between them in one- measure job. These pupils are hotfooting into happening a computation ( Lee. 2007 ) .

Lee ( 2007 ) wrote articles explicating their findings of how mathematical engineering affects pupils being able to interpret word jobs into algebraic footings utilizing Numberss and symbols. She reflected on the job work outing procedure and instrumental schemes that may better pupil success in the Math schoolroom such as mold and contemplation. Thomson and Shackow ( 2005 ) highlighted that the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics ( NTCM ) stressed the importance of assurance. involvement. doggedness. and wonder in larning Mathematicss. The recommendations encourage instructors to replace stressing low- degree calculation with active schoolrooms concentrating on higher- degree thought. Several research workers have found that positive attitudes can increase the inclination of persons to choose Mathematics classs and see callings in Mathematics related Fieldss. Page ( 2003 ) stated that figure of pupils of all ages fail to show proficiency in job resolution and do non hold the accomplishments necessary to work out mathematical- related jobs in their mundane lives or in their hereafter work state of affairss. Related Literature and Studies in Local Puting

In the schoolroom scene. pupils are faced with more challenges as they accomplish academic undertakings necessitating the comprehension of reading stuffs written or in instance of Philippines. in the 3rd linguistic communication ( Manaay. 2007 ) Bigornia ( 2000 ) . in her survey. claimed that pupilsâ€™ background and communicating accomplishments were found to hold extremely important relationship with pupilâ€™s mathematical accomplishment and educational attainment of parents. and reading comprehension accomplishments of the students had affected Mathematics accomplishment. However. there was no important grounds seen to demo important relationship between pupilâ€™s accomplishments in Mathematicss and the pupil factors such as motherâ€™s educational attainment and household one-year income. As pointed by Bigonia ( 2000 ) . teacher competency was found to hold extremely important relationship with studentâ€™s Mathematicss accomplishment.

Dicdican ( 2007 ) pointed out that pupilâ€™s public presentation lies on the expertness of a instructor. Applied to classroom scene. expertness connotes the effectivity of the instructor to achieve the aims of the lesson. the willingness of the instructor to supply varied larning activities to the students for interactive/ concerted acquisition. and the enterprise of the instructor to inquire inquiries that develop critical thought accomplishments. Solano- Flores ( 2003 ) stressed that Mathematics acquisition must be accursed. Students must cognize foremost how to add and deduct before they can larn how to multiply and split. and must larn generation and division before larning ratio. In add-on. as studentsâ€™ advancement in Mathematics. content and textbooks become more hard. They added that Math vocabulary non normally used in day-to-day scenes is proficient in nature. and is narrowly defused. Language is besides as indispensable portion of Mathematicss concept because linguistic communication is an indispensable tool in Mathematics. In the survey of Olavides ( 2000 ) . the determination revealed that manipulative attack made the kids positive attitude and resulted in high accomplishment in Mathematics.

On the other manus. Costa ( 2001 ) said that intelligent human existences learn from experience. When confronted with a new and confusing job. they will pull forth experiences from their yesteryear. They call upon their shop of cognition and experiences as beginnings of informations to back up theories to explicate or processes to work out each new challenge. Several researcher conducted surveies in order to do of the pupilâ€™s inability to work out jobs. Some surveies included here were conducted and it was conducted and it was found out that the troubles on job resolution correlated the accomplishments that begin from the simple class and its relationship with reading accomplishment. The troubles felt by the high school pupils reflect what they had been taught in the simple classs. Capili ( 1999 ) cited in her research that trouble in job resolution is caused by the inability of the student to understand state of affairs. their failure to find the procedure and the deficiency of Masterss of the basic facts in work outing the cardinal operations.

Some failures are brought about by pupilâ€™s sloppiness in calculations. She besides concluded that command of the capable affair prescribed for each class was far from being satisfactory. It has been observed that class six students were weak in operations affecting whole number. fractions and decimals. They lack complete command of the basic facts in add-on. minus generation and division. Several surveies attempted to measure the mathematical troubles of high school pupils in job resolution and analysis. And it was found out that the most common failing of high school pupils so was uneffective numerical ability. Students were weak non merely in the cardinal operations such as add-on. minus. generation and division but besides in denary fraction. Harmonizing to Bautista ( 1977 ) . students comparatively underperformers in job work outing due to their limited due to their limited exposure to word jobs in mathematics and their ability to grok the jobs in mathematics. When given the jobs to work out. students in intermediate classs can non make up one’s mind whether they are traveling to add. subtract. multiply or divide. The aforesaid related literature and surveies of the other research workers have provided further important penetrations and of import information in this survey.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter will cover with the methods used in the survey. It includes the undermentioned subdivisions: the instruments. informations aggregation and statistical intervention of the information. Research Design

This survey will include descriptive appraising method of research. The descriptive method emphasizes the present status of the phenomena under survey. depict the current state of affairs finding the nature of the prevailing patterns This design provides descriptive information of the demographic nature of the population/ respondents considered in this survey. This survey includes a elaborate description. entering. analysis and reading of the information gathered. Research Profile

This survey will be conducted all schools of Lagonglong District. Lagonglong. Misamis Oriental for school twelvemonth 2001-2012. Seven schools are straight headed by caput instructors and four schools are headed by principals and territory supervisor. Respondents of the Study

The population of this survey will be the Grade V students of the 11 ( 11 ) schools of Lagonglong District. The schools are Lagonglong Central School. Dampil Elementary School. Kabulawan Elementary School. Tabok Elementary School. Kauswagan Elementary School. Umagos Elementary School. Lumbo Elementary School. Gasto Elementary. C. Gadrinab Elementary. Manaol Elementary. Kamansi Elementary. These 11 schools consist of 466 class 5 students. With that population. a sum of 215 will be selected as respondents of the survey. The figure of respondents per School is shown in Table 1 below.

The Sampling Procedure

The population of this survey will be the grade five students of the 11 schools of District of Lagonglong. Lagonglong. Misamis Oriental. The distribution of the population is shown in Table 1 above.

As shown in Table 1. there are 466 grade five students from 11 schools and to hold an thought on the sample size. the Slovin Formula ( 1960 ) below is to be used. n = ______N__________

1 + N ( vitamin E ) 2

Where: n= sample size N= population size e= desired border of mistake pegged at 0. 05 degree

For this expression. out of 466 population. there 215 class five students served as the minimal figure of respondents.

To find the sample schools the simple random trying process will be adopted and the respondents of this survey will be determined through trying proportionate to size population per school. Table 1 shows the calculation of the figure of respondents per school. Research Instruments

To garner the necessary informations. a research worker will explicate a Mathematics job work outing trial to acquire the command degree of students on four cardinal operations on fractions. decimals and per centum to find the accomplishments of the class five students in 11 schools. The questionnaires are so designed to bring forth information which has relevancy to the present survey.

The job work outing trial will inquire inquiries that calls for job work outing analysis as what are given. what is asked. what operation will be used. what is the figure equation and the solution. The subjects to cover will be fractions. decimals. and per centum. This trial will dwell of 10 points and is distributed as follows 4 points for fraction and 4 points for denary and 2 points for per centum.

Validity and Reliability Research Instrument

The building of the job work outing trial for class five will be based on the Basic Education Curriculum ( Philippine Elementary Learning Competencies ) . This trial will utilize inquiries which are easy to understand by the students.

The research worker will fix the Table of Specification to steer the research worker in the distribution of points in each content country.

The trial on finding the command degree on cardinal operation on fractions. decimals and per centum will be designed base on PELC for class five. Datas Gathering Procedure

Before administrating the research instruments. the research worker will procure a written license from the Schools Division Superintendent of Misamis Oriental to let him to drift her questionnaire and to garner pertinent informations. After being granted with license. the research worker will personally administrate the questionnaires. The research worker will see to it that anterior instructions are understood by the Mathematics instructor and the students. Immediately after the questionnaires are answered they will be retrieved. checked. tabulated and analyzed by the research worker himself. Classification of Variables

The job work outing trial will be scored by giving one point for every correct reply.

The variables used in this survey will be treated in the undermentioned mode: A. Mugwump variables

Mastery Level

PercentageDescription

96 % -100 % Mastered ( M )

86 % -96 % Closely Approximating Mastery ( CAM )

66 % -85 % Traveling Towards Mastery ( MTM )

35 % -65 % Average Mastery ( AM )

15 % -34 % Low Mastery ( LM )

5 % -14 % Very Low Command

0 % -4 % Absolutely No Mastery ( ANM )

B. Dependent variables

Analysis of the Problem

Fraction and Decimal

The figure of right replies will be analyzed utilizing the step which will be categorized in the undermentioned mode: 1. Fraction and Decimal fractions

20-Excellent

19 -Very Good

17-18 -Good

15 â€“16 â€“ Passing

14 and below- Needs Improvement

2. Percentage

9. 31 â€“ 10. 00- Excellent

8. 71 â€“ 9. 30- Very Good

8. 01 â€“ 8. 70- Good

7. 50 â€“ 8. 00- Passing

7. 49 and below- Needs Improvement

Statistical Treatment

The survey will use the undermentioned statistical intervention informations: The degree of cognition in job work outing affecting fractions. decimals will be interpreted and analyzed through the usage of mean and standard divergence. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation ( R ) with the expression below will be adopted to find the Significance in pupilâ€™s accomplishments in job resolution and the their command degree on four cardinal operations in fraction. decimals and per centum. r=N?X â€“ ?X?Y [ N?X2 – ( ?N ) 2 ] [ N?X2 -?Y2 ]

Where: R â€“ correlativity

Ten -mean

Y â€“ variable

N â€“ figure of instances

? -summation

Bibliography

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The New Book of Knowledge. 2006

Research and Development Institute. Inc. . 2006

Keenedy. Leonard. Steering Childrenâ€™s Learning of Mathematics. California. Wadsworth Book. 1984 Charles. R. I. and Mason. R. P. Problem Solving Experiences in Mathematics. Addison Wesley Publishing Company. 1985. The Book of Popular Science. 2002

Dolan. D. T. and Williamson. J. Teaching Problem Solving Schemes. Addison Wesley Company. 1983 The Grolier Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. Nutmeg state: Houghton Miffin Co. . 1980 Van Cleaves. Janice. Mathematicss for Every Kids. New York: Jon Wiley and Sons. 1991 B. Unpublished Studies

Alingig. Emmanuel B. . â€ť Computational Skills in Decimals of Grade V Pupils in City Central School. Cagayan de Oro City S. Y. 2001-2001. Unpublished Thesis. Xavier University. 2007 Ballenas. Gilbert J. â€ś Computational Skills in Fractions and decimals of Grade V Pupils. Xavier University. SY 2009-2010. Unpublished Masterâ€™s Thesis Xavier University. 2010 Taucan. L. H. ( 2007 ) . â€ś Teacherâ€™s Competence and Studentâ€™s Performance in Elementary Mathematicsin the Catholic Schools of Iligan Cityâ€ť Thesis. St. Michaelâ€™s College. Iligan City. Capili. Lina N. ( 1999 ) . Problem Solving Skills in Mathematics among the Grade V Pupils of El Salvador District. Misamis Oriental. SY 1998-1999. Cabunoc. Emere S. ( 2012 ) . Reading Comprehension and Common Mistakes in Mathematical job Solving Committed by the Grade Four Pupils in Central Schools in the Eastern Part of the Division of Misamis Oriental C. Journals/ Periodicals and Magazines

Swetz. Frank J. ( 2003 ) . Teaching Mathematicss to Children. Quezon City:

Office of Research and Publications. Ateneo de Manila University Lee. Q. N. ( 2006 ) . â€śMath Anxietyâ€ť . The Filipino Journal of Education. Vol. 85. No. 4

p. 155. Dicdican. R. C. ( 2007 ) â€śThe Role of Classroom Teacher in developing Critical Creative Thinking in Mathematics among School kids. â€ť The Modern Teacher. Vol. LVI No. 4 p. 135 Arellano. Renato. Teach Mathematics the Meaningful Way. The Filipino Teacher. September. . 1983 D. Internet Beginnings

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