Meal management is the process whereby resources, both material and human, are used to obtain goals that have to do with feeding the individual or the group. It involves planning, organizing, controlling and evaluating the meal service. These are tasks directly associated with the health, welfare and happiness of the individual or the group. What people eat and the conditions under which the meals are served should always be considered to realize the goal of meal management.
To be exact, the goal of meal management is to provide food that will ensure the physical and mental growth of the person, his social development and well-being, with a reasonable expenditure of available resources. The goals are specifically categorized as good nutrition, planned spending, satisfying meals, and controlled use of time and energy. 1. PLANNING MEALS Planning meals include not only the listing of foods to serve during a meal, known as the menu, but also these activities as well: 1. Planning the food budget; 2.
Meal Management Essay Example
Planning for food purchase, choosing the market, buying and storing supplies; and 3. Planning for preparing and serving meals. In planning meals, the following factors should be considered: 1. Nutritional adequacy- or the provision of palatable foods that are rich in essential nutrients. Nutrient needs of an individual are affected by age, sex, body built, and activities engaged in by the individual. 2. The Food Budget- The food budget is influenced by the family income, knowledge of the market shopper’s shopping skills, family food, likes and dislikes, and either goals and values.
3. Differences in food habits- These include the dietary habits of nationality groups, regional food patterns, cultural and religious patterns, and socioeconomic background. 4. The time and skill of the meal manager- The length of meal preparation, the amount of experience, and the time available are to be considered. 5. Suitability, availability, and quality of the food to be served. 6. Aesthetic and psychological aspects of food – or the proper combination of flavor, texture and shapes as well as variety in color, form, and arrangement. 7.
Equipment available for food preparation PRINCIPLES OF PLANNING MEALS Objective planning of meals enhances the meal manager’s chances of achieving her goals because she can control the use of her resources, especially the use of her time and energy in shopping, cooking, and serving meals and in decision-making. Furthermore, she can regulate her spending for food more easily. Objectivity in planning is possible if certain guidelines in meal planning are observed, such as: 1. Plan several day’s meals at a time, utilizing simple menus that are easy to prepare and serve.
2. Include more one-dish meals like sinigang, nilaga, bulanglang, tinola, and alike. 3. Plan meals that have interesting variety in color, texture and flavor. 4. Plan to serve foods that are not only in season but also enjoyed by the diner. 5. Plan dishes that do not entail too much preparation at one time. If possible, preparation can be started the day before the dish is served. 6. Consider palatable foods that are rich in essential nutrients. Consult the different food guides. 7. Make out a market list to avoid extra trips to the food stores. 8.
Utilize leftovers and “convenience” foods when necessary. A GUIDE TO PLANNING NUTRITIOUS MEALS Meal planning is vital importance in the consideration of proper nutrition and family’s real enjoyment of food. Foods used in planning daily meals must be adequate from the nutritional standpoint. Knowledge of the food nutrients, their sources and functions will ensure the choice of nutritionally adequate meals. Moreover, the use of foods from the essential groupings suggested by the Foods nutrition research (FNRI) will facilitate the planning of a balanced diet.
The Basic Food Groups, which consist of (a) energy foods; (b) body-building foods; and (c) regulating foods, are designed to include the most commonly used Filipino foods. Locally available foods are grouped according to their specific contributions to the diet. The recommended daily servings from food group for a normal adult are also indicated. THE FOOD PYRAMID The Food Pyramid is a diagram developed by nutrition experts all over the world to illustrate the balance of foods needed for a healthy lifestyle. It serves as a nutritional guideline in wisely choosing food to obtain the best balance of nutrients in the diet.
The three major food groups are placed in the Food Pyramid, with indicators of healthy eating habits in terms of what foods one must eat. The food groups are classified as follows: 1. Eat least: foods, which are high in fat, sugar, salt, and alcohol. This food group is at the top of the pyramid. 2. Eat Moderately: foods with high protein content but which have high fat level (e. g. , pork, beef, chicken, milk, and eggs). This food group is in the middle of the pyramid. 3. Eat Most: foods, which are high in fiber and low in fat and sugar.
A large proportion of these foods in the diet will help control weight and reduce fat levels in the blood. These are foods, which make up the base of the pyramid and should be the biggest part of the diet. The foods are to be chosen from three levels in the proportion shown, to make sure that there is a good balance of nutrients and variety in the diet. As used in meal planning, the Food Pyramid is a visual delight in the preparation of a nutritious and balanced diet. It facilitates the planning of some meals, which may require special diets for particular persons with health problems.
More importantly, majority of normal diners is assured of a guide to healthful eating. SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS OF FOOD NUTRIENTS The basic nutrients that are essential in maintaining body functions and good health are (1) carbohydrates; (2) fats; (3) protein; (4) vitamins; (5) minerals; and (6) water. Carbohydrates – provide heat and energy to the body. More than half of our day’s requirement for energy comes from carbohydrates. Carbohydrates from rice, and other starchy foods such as corn, kamote, gabi, ubi, potato, and sugar also provide additional energy.
However, they tend to occupy a large proportion of the day’s diet, leading to a disproportionate intake of food. Heavy intake of carbohydrates tend to limit the consumption of other foods which would supply more protein, mineral, and vitamins, thus resulting in deficiency disease. Fats – are concentrated sources of energy. They contain over twice the energy value of carbohydrates, weight for weight. Its inclusion in the diet enhances palatability and delays the onset of hunger. Fats also transport Vitamins A, D, E and K. good fat sources are egg yolk, meat, cheese, butter, and nuts.
Twenty to twenty-five percent (20-25%) of our daily calorie requirement should come from fat. Proteins – build, repair, and maintain body tissues. They are important constituents of body cells. They form the hormones that regulate body processes and anti-bodies that fight infections. Proteins supply heat and energy when there is shortage of fats and carbohydrates in our meals. Proteins are made up of amino acids. There are twenty-two (22) such acids, eight (8) of which are considered essential because these cannot be manufactured by the body. These must come from food.
Food proteins containing all eight (8) essential amino acids are called complete. Animals are good protein sources. These include meat, fish, shellfish, eggs, poultry, cheese, and milk. Also important, although incomplete, are proteins from plant sources such as those from cereal foods (bread, rice, flour, corn), nuts, beans, and peas. In a mixed diet, animal and plant proteins supplement one another. What one plant protein lacks in amino acid is made up the other to form a complete protein. We should get 10-13% of our daily calorie requirement from protein foods.
Vitamins – are organic substances necessary for growth and maintenance of life. They must be provided in the diet. They are in small amounts in the body and act as catalysts or substances that hasten chemical reactions in body processes. They are carried in the blood stream to all parts of the body. As such, they control body chemistry and play important roles in normal growth, energy expenditure, reproduction, resistance to diseases, and general well-being. Many vitamins are destroyed during food processing and handling, thus making them unavailable.
Enrichment is a measure which puts back lost nutrients in food. Vitamins A, D, E, and K are easily dissolved in fats and referred to as fat-soluble vitamins. Those that are dissolved in water, such as vitamins C and B-complex vitamins, are referred to as water-soluble vitamins. Vitamin A – is essential for normal eye functioning, resistance to infection, normal growth, and healthy skin. Good food sources include whole milk, butter, most cheeses, fish liver oil, and green or yellow parts of vegetables and fruits such as malunggay or kalabasa, ripe papaya and carrots, in the form of carotene.
Vitamin B complex – namely thiamine, niacin, and riboflavin, are water-soluble. They are rapidly lost by the body in urine, feces, and sweat. They must be provided in our meals every day. Thiamine prevents beri-beri, helps convert carbohydrates into energy, and maintains good digestion and assimilation of food. Niacin plays important role in cell respiration, carbohydrate oxidation, and good digestion. A deficiency leads to a disease known as pellagra. Riboflavin aids protein utilization and affects the normal growth especially of the hair and skin.
Vitamin C – is essential for healthy teeth, gums, and blood vessels. It is important to in the formation of collagen, a protein that helps support the skin, bones, and tendons. Good food sources are green leafy vegetables, and fresh fruits, especially citrus fruits. Vitamin V has to be provided every day in our meals. Vitamin D – is necessary for strong bones and teeth, and is produced by the action of sunlight on the skin. It is sometimes called the sunshine vitamin. Good food sources are liver, fish liver oil, egg yolks, and fortified milk. Vitamin E – like A, D, and K, is fat-soluble.
It helps in the formation of red blood cells, muscles, and tissues, and prevents the abnormal breakdown of body fat. Good food sources are whole grain cereals, whole wheat bread, wheat germ, and vegetable oils. Vitamin K – is necessary for blood clotting and is manufactured in the intestinal tract by microorganisms. Good food sources are green leafy vegetables. Minerals – Some 18 minerals are considered necessary for regulating and maintaining body processes. Some of the most important are calcium, phosphorus, iron, copper iodine, sodium and potassium.
Calcium and Phosphorus – are essential for the formation of good bones and teeth. Good food sources are milk, cheese, green leafy vegetables, small fishes, and nuts. Iron – is responsible for the formation of red blood. It is the major component of hemoglobin, the substance that carries oxygen in the blood. Iron deficiency in the diet leads to anemia. Good food sources include enriched bread and flour, unpolished rice, eggs, green leafy vegetables, meat, especially the internal organs, and fish. Iodine – affects the function of the thyroid glands. Deficiency of this nutrient causes simple goiter.
Chief sources are seafood, marine plants and iodized salts. Sodium – is present in common table salt. It is essential for the normal functioning of body fluids and tissues. Potassium – is needed for healthy nerves and muscles, and is found in meat, fish, vegetables, and fruits. Copper – We need a small amount of copper which a well-planned meal will provide adequately. This nutrient is essential in iron utilization. Water – is an essential part of the body tissues and comprises 2/3 of the body weight. It is not considered as food, yet no one can live more than a few days without it.
It is a lost in sweating and normal body excretions, through the intestinal tract and kidneys, and should be replenished every day. A loss of 10% fluid from the body is a serious menace to health. As a rule, 6-7 glasses of water or juices and other drinks are needed to maintain water balance in the body Without water, food cannot be digested, absorbed or carried properly to the different parts of the body as needed. No single cell can do its work properly without water. It is also a medium whereby the waste products are carried away to be excreted.
Because it is a carrier of waste products, it is important in the prevention of constipation. Fiber or Cellulose – is the indigestible part of foods. It is not a nutrient but it provides roughage to stimulate the intestinal muscles for proper evacuation. Moreover, it promotes the growth of useful bacteria in the intestines. Good food sources are fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain breads and cereals. Lack of roughage in the diet causes constipation. FOOD GROUP: SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS (Adapted from FNRI Nutritional Guideline 2000) Food Groups Sources Functions/Uses Rice and Alternative
Rice, Corn, Bread Other Bakery Products Cereals such as Oat meal Root Crops such as Potatoes, Yam, Sweet Potatoes, Cassava, Taro Supply the major bulk of Carbohydrates and Energy in the diet Provide Dietary fiber as well as some Protein, Vitamins and Minerals Meat and Alternatives Meat (including Organ Meats) Poultry, Eggs, Fish Seafood, Milk and Milk Products Dried Beans like Mongo, Soy beans, Nuts (Peanuts) Excellence sources of high-quality Protein required for growth and repair of body tissues Sources of absorbable Iron, B-Complex Vitamins and Minerals Rich in Calcium and Vitamin A Vegetables
Green leafy vegetables such as Malunggay, Saluyot, Kangkong, KamoteTops, Gabi and Kalabasa Leaves Yellow Vegetables such as Carrots, Squash, Fruits and Flowers, Eggplant, Patola, Spring Beans Contribute Vitamins and Minerals Excellent sources of Beta-Carotene and Vitamin C Give bulk and roughage to the diet Fruits Fresh fruits Dried fruits Fruit juices Guave, Papaya, Mango, Oranges, Sineguelas (Vit. C- rich fruits) Banana, Pineapple, Melon Excellent sources of Beta-Carotene and Vitamin C Sources of Vitamins and Minerals Give bulk and roughage to the diet Fats and Oil Cooking oil, Butter, Margarine and Other Fats
Concentrated sources of energy Increases energy intake Helps in the utilization of fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K Sources of Essential Fatty acids, Linoliec and Linolenic acids Improves the flavor of meals Sugar Naturally found in fruits and milk Inhibit growth of food-spoilage bacteria Act as preservatives Contribute to energy intake, sweetness and attractiveness to diet Water and Beverages Fruit juices Fruit-flavored drinks Coffee Tea Soft-drinks Regulate temperature Transport Electrolytes and other nutrients Excrete waste products from lungs, skin and kidney Lubricate joints and cushion the Nervous System