Wrong or inaccurate measurements can lead to wrong decisions, which can have serious consequences, costing money and even lives. The human and financial consequences of wrong decisions based on poor measurement being taken in matters as important as environmental change and pollution are almost incalculable. It Is Important therefore to have reliable and accurate measurements which are agreed and accepted by the relevant authorities worldwide.

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Metrologists are therefore continuously involved in the development of new measurement echniques, Instrumentation and procedures, to satisfy the ever-increasing demand for greater accuracy, increased reliability and rapidity of measurements. A measurement tells us about a property of something. It might tell us how heavy an object is, or how hot, or how long it is. A measurement gives a number to that property, expressed in the appropriate unit. Physics is an experimental science, and as such It Is largely a science of measurement.

Measurement Is the process of quantifying experience of the external world. Many measuring intsruments of great accuracy and sensitivity have been developed to meet the requirements of the hysics laboratory. The measurent of length Is of fundamental Importance In scientific work hence is fitting to begin experimental work with this type of measurement. The purpose of this appendix is to consider measurement of the length of an object by means of ruler and micrometer and their proble error.

In classical physics and engineering, measurement generally refers to the process of estimating or determining the ratio of a magnitude of a quantitative property or relation to aunit of the same type of quantitative property or relation. A process of measurement involves the comparison of physical quantities of objects or henomena. or the comparison of relations between objects (e. g. angles). A particular measurement is the result of such a process, normally expressed as the multiple of a real number and a unit, where the real number is the ratio obtained from the measurement process.

For example. the measurement of the length of an object might be 5 m, which is an estimate of the object’s length, a magnitude, relative to a unit of

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length, the meter. Measurement is not limited to physical quantities and relations but can In principle extend to the quantification of a magnitude of any type, hrough application of a measurementmodel such as the Rasch model, and subjecting empirical data derived from comparisons to appropriate testing in order to ascertain whether specific criteria for measurement have been satisfied.

In addition, the term measurement is often used in a somewhat looser fashion than defined above, to refer to any process in which numbers are assigned to entities such that the numbers are Intended to represent Increasing amount, in some sense, without a process that involves the estimation of ratios of magnitudes to a unit. Such examples of measurement range from degrees of uncertainty to consumer enerally proposed that there are four different levels of measurement, and that different levels are applicable to different contexts and types of measurement process.

Measurements are only ever estimates. Every measurement is subject to some uncertainty. The uncertainty of a measurement expresses how good the estimate is. Statement of the problem Explain Measurement in terms of: A. Brief history Although standardization of weights and measures has been a goal of social and economic advance since very early times, it was not until the 18th century that there was a unified system of measurement. The earliest systems of weights and measures were based on human morphology.

The names of units often referred to parts of the body: the inch or pouce, the hand, the foot, and the yard or cubit corresponded to dimensions of the human body. Consequently, these units of measurement were not fixed; they varied from one town to another, from one occupation to another, and on the type of object to be measured. This lack of a standardized system of measurements was a source of error and fraud in commercial and social transactions, putting a brake on international commerce and prevented the evelopment of science as an international endeavour.

With the expansion of industry and trade, there was an increasing need for harmonization of weights and measures between countries. Politicians and scientists resolved this situation by adopting a standard of measurement (distance or weight) by comparison with a standard taken from Nature. One of the first such natural measures was the metre, which was defined in a decree of the French National Assembly (7 April 1795) as being equal to the ten millionth part of one quarter of the terrestrial meridian, but pecified by measurements undertaken between Dunkerque and Barcelona. Such a unit was not arbitrary, being based on the size of the Earth.

Once the base unit of length had been decided upon, it was possible to establish the resulting units of measure: the square metre (for area) and the cubic metre (for volume). The kilogram was originally defined as the weight of a certain volume of water, a convenient and readily purified liquid. Such a system of simple multiples of base units lends itself naturally to extension. The decimal metric system was introduced in France on 7 April 1795 by the law “On weights and measures”. This caused a major change in the everyday life of ordinary people, readily allowing the calculation of, for example, areas and volumes.

Conversion from a sub-multiple to a multiple unit of length simply consists of moving the decimal marker – two or three places for area or all future copies were to be compared, were deposited in the Archives of the French Republic in 1799, dedicated to “all men and all times”. Because of its simplicity and universality, the decimal metric system spread rapidly outside France. The development of railways, the growth of industry and the increasing importance of ocial and economic exchange all required accurate and reliable units of measurement.

Adopted at the start of the 19th century in several Italian provinces, the metric system became compulsory in the Netherlands from 1816 and was chosen by Spain in 1849. In France, the decimal metric system was exclusively adopted with the law of 4 July 1837. After 1860, the countries of Latin America took up the metre, and there was a steady increase in the adoption of the metric system by other nations during the latter half of the nineteenth century (for example, the United States of America, 1866, Canada, 1871, Germany, 1871). However, these countries were dependent for their national standards on copies of the original prototypes.

This dependence, together with the lack of uniformity in making copies, limited the desired international standardization. To overcome these difficulties, the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) was founded by the terms of the diplomatic treaty known as theMetre Convention on 20 May 1875. To celebrate the signing of the Metre Convention, the date of 20 May is known as World Metrology Day. B. Definition A measurement definition can be used to understand magnitude as it relates to a uantifiable feature of either the real or a theoretical world.

Thus, measurement attempts to answer the question, “How many, or how much? ” Measurements serve as a way to both understand and manipulate the world around you. It makes positions such as those of the pharmacist, the carpenter, and the nuclear physicist possible, since they are all responsible for using accurate and repetitive measurements in their fields of work. Any measurement can be Judged by the following meta- measurement criteria values: level of measurement (which includes magnitude), dimensions (units), and uncertainty.

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