Menopause is a natural marker …

10 October 2018

Menopause is a natural marker to the ending of fertility. The average time for natural menopause is 45 years. Women who encounter it before 45 years of age without man-made manipulation on the reproductive organs is early natural menopause. Around 5-10% of women in western population encounter this problem. The prevalence is slightly higher in India with 12.

99%. Only possible reason like environmental, genetic, and nutritional factors were mentioned as the contributing factor for the rise in India particularly. (1) Early menopause has multitude of outcomes including premature mortality, cognitive impairment, bone disorders, and multiple cardiovascular disorders. The risk of declined bone density is higher among early menopaused women compared to late and normal menopaused women. (2) It has also risk of silent brain infarction as it is observed among Japanese women with early menopause. (3) During the last 10 years to the expected year of natural menopause, the fertility rate declines rapidly which has a negative impact on the pregnancy time preference of women. A 37 year follow up study has identified that early menopause contributes for premature mortality yet the prevalence of smoking was lower in the study area.

Menopause is a natural marker … Essay Example

(4) The major risk goes to the modifiable ones compared to genetic factors. Smoking and other lifestyle factors were found to relate with the occurrence of menopause. Cigarette smoking can affect the function of ovary through destabilizing its biochemical function and creating toxicity. However, a study conducted among couples who had invitro fertilization, female smokers have experienced increased incidence of spontaneous abortion. (5) Objective and Hypothesis: the objective of this study was to assess the relationship between cigarette smoking and risk of early menopause in women from Nurses’ Health Survey II. The hypothesis of this study pursued the relationship between early natural menopause as a dose-dependent on status of current smoking, duration, and amount consumed.According to the STROBE tool used to appraise cohort studies, the rationale of the study is well justified.

An evidence-based argument was made to portray the relationship between smoking and early natural menopause. Moreover, the health and social consequences of early natural menopause are briefly discussed. Women are unable to have conception which affects their desire to have baby. The health complications like cardiovascular, neurological, and other hormonal disorders are justified. Thus, having such a huge cohort study is worthy to pay tribute for such long time with the interest of preventing problems related to smoking. To the very knowledge of researchers this one is the largest cohort ever, however, there is another study conducted in Australia with 21 years follow up. Still the sample size is huge that I didn’t get a comparable sample size so far.

Although modifiable risk factors have a huge burden to early menopause, genetic expressions have also its own contribution. In this study they undermine genetic related risk factors. A couple of articles I have seen showed the impact of genetic variation associated with early menopause and ovarian failure. The objective of the study along with its hypothesis are also clearly shown.

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