Millions of other Americans were searching for a place in the new industrial society of the late nineteenth century. The Civil War led to people flooding into cities. Urban areas changed from homogeneous with Irish and Germans to large groups of European immigrants. New York had the largest Jewish population. The quality of living changed as manufacturing and commerce crowed Into clues. The top classes fled to the suburbs. Realtors changed mansions Into tenements for many people. Crude sanitation turned streets into disease grounds, and plumbing was poor.

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The story of the poor is known due to social workers studying the slums firsthand and writing their experiences. Jacob Iris studied on New Work’s Lower East Side, How the Other Half Lives. He showed poor slum life and called for reform. He fled Scandinavians poverty for American opportunities. Previously, his father was a schoolmaster and he was a carpenter. Sam Bass Warner states how he revolutionized the understanding of urban poverty that could lead to political action. He built shacks near Pittsburgh, trapped muskrats In NY, sold furniture and consumes did repent.

He eventually became poor and was near death until the Danish consul ii Philadelphia took him in. He then landed a Job on police reporter for the NET. There he got to observe urban poverty, through indigents who were carted off and through immigrant observation. Charles Dickens’ style Involved graphic detail and vignettes. Which was used during the time in reports which involved readers directly with slums. Stories included female exploitation and Pitter. IRIS’ stories weren’t dramatic enough to cause action, and conditions got worse in New York.

He left the tribune to write How the Other Half Lives He wanted to make a case for reform, and combined his stories to a broader Indication of urban blight. (Story and stratus) Documentary-like. Involved photography, similar to Street Life in Loon’s use of unquestionably accurate photos, which showed life as It was. Reality and Bibliographic Evidence Cameras are good at recording reality. Allows more people to view unseen places Stateless, and is the mirror with a memory Only IssueIs evidence selection as well as adjustments such as blurs These Issues didn’t matter to Iris.

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He Just wanted to capture the subject matter Photography was complicated back then Advances allowed the camera to become smaller caught thinks for documentary detail George Eastman created the Kodak camera which replaced glassnegatives with Despite this, Iris still had the issue of capturing unopposed photos Combustion powder was used for a flash in the night Iris’ photos naturally had themes. Five Cents a Spot Useful to the historian Bias through detail selection Learn about his photos through his writing Interpretative Choices

Eastman saw that his pocket camera would have wide appeal People can create their own history of life Stylized by choice and standards Commonplace events are not shown Defined by what message one wants to show Matthew Brady covered the civil war by dragging dead bodies for a photo Doesn’t have to arrange anything, Just pick good photos Hayden took spectacular photos in the East to persuade Congress to establish Yellowstone Images of the Other Half Iris is a tourist of the slums Distanced himself from urban subjects Journalism caused by middle class family and experience

Hard to empathic due to north European background Sam Warner – degree of opprobrium to each group directly proportional to Demark distance. Still sympathized with the poor While disliking beggars of the poor And Stetson’s lack of commentary on faith, instead on money, Irish drinking, Italian dirty. Leads to prejudices while collecting information Iris also had Christian moralist (Breakdown on family life) Poor condition blamed on individuals that were greedy No analysis on classes, but instead on morality, ex.

Need for stable families This earns one interprets the paragraphs as a family album, as personal interests = kind of photos taken ex. Corrosive effects of professionalism’s Posing pictures is okay as they still portray themselves Focus on children -> loss of innocence into slum gangs Relationship between photographer and subjects Lack of playing areas for children Bibliographic messages are very complicated Not a simple mirror, as one has to explore the meanings behind each photo Want for social reform -> view of a partisan, not an observer Oliver Wendell Homes “appearance of reality that cheats the senses with its seeming truth.

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