Molluscicidal Effect of Dalandan and Dayap Fruit Extract on Golden Apple Snails Essay Sample

9 September 2017

This chapter contains subtopics that negotiations about the job in this research such as background of the survey. conceptual model. statement of the job. void hypothesis. significance of the survey. range and boundary lines of the survey and definition of footings.

Background of the Study
Nowadays. the demands for every man’s demands are drastically increasing. Consumption of our basic demands is at its extremum because of our increasing population. There are many industries now that require twice the attempt of labour than earlier. and one of which is in the agricultural industry. We can non deny the fact that agricultural exports and imports all over the universe are indispensable to keep natural equilibrium and fulfill the demands of society which is why one of the chief beginnings of support in Philippines is farming. Many Filipino husbandmans rely on the gross revenues that the industry offers them and the presence of such plagues like rats. bullets or snails affects their crops/vegetation greatly therefore. it is of import to implement efficient and economical steps in protecting harvests continuously.

The aureate apple snails ( Pomacea canaliculata ) are soon considered as a rice plague of national importance. The illegal debut of the aureate apple snails ( Pomacea canaliculata ) took topographic point in the 1980s through the fish tank trade. It was ab initio introduced by the private sector as an aquaculture species. peculiarly as a inexpensive beginning of protein. Subsequently. it found its manner to waterways and rice Fieldss. In 1995. the reported harm of aureate apple snails ( Pomacea canaliculata ) in rice agriculture was estimated in more than 800. 000 hectares all over the state. Estimated rice output loss from aureate apple snail infestation from 1985 to 1991 in the Philippines increased along with spread outing infestation. Alternatively of going a roar to nutrient production it became a curse in rice agriculture. Since so. researches on varied topics. peculiarly on its control in rice agriculture. have been investigated.

With these jobs. the research worker is motivated to carry on the survey to find the molluscicidal consequence of dalandan ( Citrus aurantium ) and dayap ( Citrus aurantifolia ) fruit infusion on aureate apple snails ( Pomacea canaliculata ) . The research worker believes that this can be of aid to the increasing demands the agricultural industry faces. The research worker will carry on this survey to cognize the components present in the independent variables and measure its effectivity in extinguishing aureate apple snails ( Pomacea canaliculata ) .

Conceptual Model
The research worker will concentrate on finding the molluscicidal consequence of dalandan ( Citrus aurantium ) and dayap ( Citrus aurantifolia ) fruit infusion. in the instance of this research. on aureate apple snails ( Pomacea canalicuta ) . In this manner. the research worker can supply new alternate merchandises to utilize that are cheaper but still efficient. advancing use of alternate medical specialties from beginnings that can be easy found. and assisting those who will profit economically.

Input Process Output

Dalandan
( Citrus aurantium ) and
Dayap
( Citrus aurantifolia )
fruits



Extraction
Experiment

The Molluscicidal Property of Dalandan ( Citrus aurantium ) and Dayap ( Citrus aurantifolia ) fruit infusion on Golden apple snails ( Pomacea canaliculata )

Figure 1. 1 Conceptual Paradigm

Statement of the Problem
This survey is to be conducted to find the effects of dalandan ( Citrus aurantium ) and dayap ( Citrus aurantifolia ) fruit infusion on aureate apple snails ( Pomacea canaliculata ) as a molluscicide:

Specifically. the survey aims to reply the following sub-problems such as: 1. What are the components of dalandan ( Citrus aurantium ) and dayap ( Citrus aurantifolia ) fruit infusion? 2. What is the degree of effectivity of dalandan ( Citrus aurantium ) and dayap ( Citrus aurantifolia ) fruit infusion on aureate apple snails ( Pomacea canaliculata ) at different concentrations? 3. Be at that place any important difference between the dalandan ( Citrus aurantium ) and dayap ( Citrus aurantifolia ) fruit infusion and the positive control in extinguishing aureate apple snails ( Pomacea canaliculata ) ?

Null Hypothesis
In this survey. the research worker will prove the void hypothesis at 0. 05 degree of significance. Holmium: There is no important difference between the dalandan ( Citrus aurantium ) and dayap ( Citrus aurantifolia ) fruit infusion and the positive control as a molluscicide on aureate apple snails ( Pomacea canaliculata ) .

Significance of the Study
As this universe undergoes in a thick of modernisation in engineerings. there are besides agricultural promotions being focused on by scientists. This might sound impressive to people but with these are different freshly discovered disease-causing beings to workss. New strains of viruses and unknown diseases have developed and most of the people are merely depending on those dearly-won merchandises. If Filipinos are to utilize alternate merchandises someway. it can non merely assist households in their disbursals but besides the economic system in developing new steps of apportioning its resources. The following are the entities that will be benefited in this survey. Agriculturists. Agriculturists will be cognizant of the possible utilizations of such workss specifically in this survey. dalandan and dayap. They will hold a broader cognition in commanding plagues in the field. Molluscicide makers.

With this survey. the makers can believe of certain inventions in their merchandises or even as an linear. These makers can cut the dearly-won production of chemicals and merely lodge to a more economical manner in extinguishing aureate snails. Farmers. The husbandmans are the 1s who will profit largely in this survey for the result that the research workers are anticipating to come up with purposes in extinguishing or commanding plagues. viz. aureate snails in their field. Students. Students can derive more cognition on utilizations that our resources offer us. Opportunities of their involvement in analyzing works belongingss and active components will increase if they are more cognizant of the practical things that certain workss can make in our day-to-day lives. Future Researchers. The consequence of this research can actuate other research workers to carry on hereafter related surveies. They can utilize this as a footing for their ain researches. Give the information. they can therefore cognize which works is appropriate to be used in a certain surveies.

Scope and Delimitations of the Study
The molluscicidal consequence of dalandan ( Citrus aurantium ) and dayap ( Citrus aurantifolia ) fruit infusion on aureate apple snails ( Pomacea canliculata ) and its efficaciousness degree are the lone focal point of this survey. The research worker used 60 ( 60 ) aureate apple snails ( Pomacea canaliculata ) which were gathered from Barangay Padilla. San Carlos City. Pangasinan. The said fruits were weighed every bit holding two ( 2 ) kgs each and was gathered from Barangay Bani. San Carlos City. Pangasinan. The bottles had 100 milliliter of every bit distributed solutions incorporating dalandan ( Citrus aurantium ) and dayap ( Citrus aurantifolia ) fruit infusion at five different concentrations each. The independent and dependent variables used were delimited and merely gathered within San Carlos City. Pangasinan. To find the constituents of dalandan ( Citrus aurantium ) and dayap ( Citrus aurantifolia ) fruit infusion that can be a utile substance in extinguishing aureate apple snails ( Pomacea canaliculata ) . different researches and library plants will be conducted by the research worker. The experiment will be performed in Virgen Milagrosa Special Science High School research lab. San Carlos City. Pangasinan on the school twelvemonth 2011-2012.

Definition of Footings
The footings in this survey are defined to supply clear and better apprehension of this survey. Extraction. This is the procedure of dividing soluble from dissolvers or roll uping the liquid signifier from any liquid-bearing stuff. Extraction will be done in this survey to obtain the needful sum of dalandan and dayap fruit infusion which will be compared on different concentrations. Molluscicide. Molluscicides are besides known as snail come-ons or snail pellets. They are used against molluscs which are normally used in agribusiness or horticulture to command plagues such as snails that can damage harvests by feeding on them. In this survey. the merchandise will be of the same intent as stated and will be compared by each concentration.

Chapter II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter contains brief statements reciting the related literature. related surveies and synthesis of related surveies. This chapter besides gives the undermentioned information about the history and definition of the independent variables viz. the dalandan ( Citrus aurantium ) and dayap ( Citrus aurantifolia ) fruit infusion and the dependant variable which is the aureate apple snails ( Pomacea canaliculata ) .

Related Literature
This contains related literatures about the researcher’s survey to give farther penetrations about aureate apple snails ( Pomacea canaliculata ) . dalandan ( Citrus aurantium ) and dayap ( Citrus aurantifolia ) fruit. The related literature was taken from different mentions whether local or foreign 1s. Methods for Controling Molluscs 2009 stated that fresh stuffs for commanding mollusk such as snails and bullets are carbohydrates including cellulose. hemicellulose composites. and/or lignin. for bring oning decease in mollusk. The stuffs are non-toxic. will non pollute a imbibing H2O supply. will non harm fish. birds or wild life. will non do any harmful effects if swallowed or absorbed through the tegument. will non harm kids or pets. and can be safely eaten by domestic animate beings and farm animal that may devour such dead mollusk.

The stuffs may be applied in assorted preparations at assorted H2O contents. The stuffs do non supply nutrition to the mollusk. and disrupt normal bodily maps ensuing in decease. An attractant may be included to promote consumption by the mollusk. Many citrous fruit fruits contain a higher sum of saccharides. but are a good beginning of vitamins and fibre. Of the citrous fruit fruits. Citrus paradisis contain the least sum of saccharides with 8 g of saccharides per 100 g helping. Lemons. calcium hydroxides and oranges contain about 9. 11 and 12 g of saccharide. severally. Snails and bullets like to conceal and engender under foliages. Puting snails and bullets in a Sn of salty H2O causes them to decease rapidly.

Harmonizing to JSTOR Ambio. Vol 25. pp. 443-448. the aureate apple snails ( Pomacea cannaliculata ) was introduced deliberately into Asia in 1980 with the outlook that it could be cultivated as a high-protein nutrient beginning for local ingestion and as an export trade good for high income states. It has since invaded Asians rice systems. where it is dispersed through extended webs. and feeds voraciously on immature rice seedlings.

Related Surveies
This contains related surveies about the research to back up its aim. The related surveies were taken from different published mentions.
In the survey of Aguinaldo. H. A. and M. G Mina. they found out that Volatile oil from calamansi rind ( Citrus mitis L. ) was isolated and evaluated for molluscicidal action against Pomaceae caniculata L. ( aureate kuhol ) . Three readyings at changing concentrations of volatile oil were prepared. i. e. T1 ( 10 per centum volatile oil ) ; T2 ( 20 per centum Volatile oil ) ; T3 ( 30 per centum Volatile oil ) . These were tested against freshly hatched aureate kuhol. Mortality rate and per centum endurance were considered. All the three volatile oil readyings were effectual in commanding the Pomaceae caniculata L. The authority of the volatile oil from calamansi rind increased as concentration increased and as clip of exposure increased. The 30 per centum volatile oil gave the highest mortality rate.

Harmonizing to P. M. Jazet Dongmo. et Al. . Essential oils of three assortments of Citrus aurantifolia ( Bearss. Mexican and “Sans epines” ) grown in Cameroon were extracted by hydrodistillation with outputs of 0. 29. 0. 57 and 0. 25 % severally. The chemical analysis was carried out by gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy. The three samples were found to be really rich in monoterpenes. and limonene was the major compound with 53. 92. 43. 53 and 51. 98 % severally. The finding of the fungicidal activity was done by the incorporation technique. The three infusions exerted an inhibiting action on the radial growing of Phaeoramularia angolensis which is antifungal. The MIC obtained is 1. 4 mg/ml for C. aurantifolia volt-ampere. Mexican and 1. 5 mg/ml for Bearss and “Sans epines” assortments. These three necessity oils could represent an option to chemical antifungals normally used for Citrus fruit harvests. In add-on. the indispensable oil of the Bears assortment was fractionated and the fractions were tested in order to find the active compounds. The most active fractions are rich in neral and geranial. compounds which could therefore be responsible for the activity of the petroleum infusion.

It is said by Jorry Dharmawan that the volatile compounds of the hand-pressed Peel oil from the selected citrous fruit fruits from Asia. viz. Indonesian Pontianak oranges ( Citrus nobilis Lour. volt-ampere. microcarpa Hassk. ) . Indian Mosambi ( Citrus sinensis Osbeck ) and Filipino Dalandans ( Citrus reticulata Blanco ) . were characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS. A sum of 32 compounds were found in Pontianak orange. 29 in Mosambi and 37 compounds in Dalandan Peel oils. Limonene dominated the composing of each of the oils and most of the compounds were present in the concentrations less than 0. 1 % . The absence of some of import subscriber compounds to mandarin household in Pontianak orange show that it is a Citrus reticulata that has alone characteristic spirit. The characteristic compound of sweet orangish oil. ?-3-carene. was found in Mosambi Peel oil. The presence of ?-terpinene in Dalandan was exceptionally high ( 4. 3 % ) compared with other cultivars. Isopiperitenone was the tentatively-identified volatile compound non often reported in other citrous fruit fruits found in Dalandan Peel oil. It could be the of import subscriber to the characteristic olfactory property of Dalandan despite its hint sum. Sythesis of the Study

With respects to the related surveies stated. it indicates that Citrus mitis L. has the ability in extinguishing aureate apple snails and merely that coinage of the genus Citrus. Carbohydrate-rich nutrients and certain volatile oils found in dalandan ( Citrus aurantium ) and dayap ( Citrus aurantifolia ) makes it a possible molluscicide on aureate apple snails ( Pomacea canaliculata ) . It was besides stated that snails are repulsed from strong smelling substances and someof which can be gathered from the independent variables.

Chapter III
Research Methodology
This chapter presents the stuffs and methods that will be used in this research. This includes the research design. research topic. and locale. population of the sampling process. informations aggregation and tools for informations analysis.

Research Design
In this experimental survey. the research worker used Randomized Complete Block Design ( RCBD ) . This experimental design uses a group of trial workss and animate beings as topics of the survey which are studied one time but subsequent interventions applied are replicated to find the cause of alteration. There is control in this design and the topics had undergone randomisation procedure.

Research Locale
The preparation of the alternate merchandise to be used in this survey and the existent experiment was comducted at Virgen Milagrosa Special Science High School research lab. San Carlos City Pangasinan. The dalandan ( Citrus aurantium ) and dayap ( Citrus aurantifolia ) fruit was gathered from Barangay Bani. San Carlos City. Pangasinan. The aureate apple snails ( Pomacea canaliculata ) nevertheless came from Barangay Padilla St. San Carlos City. Pangasinan.

Research Subject
The research worker used 60 ( 60 ) aureate apple snails ( Pomacea canaliculata ) as topics. These was grouped into six ( 6 ) holding ten ( 10 ) aureate apple snails ( Pomacea canaliculata ) each.

Research Materials
The stuffs used in the survey are weighing balance. bottle/sprayers. and liquid mensurating devices such as beakers and graduated cylinders used to mensurate the sums of the infusion to be used in application. Dalandan ( Citrus aurantium ) and dayap ( Citrus aurantifolia ) fruits was gathered weighing two ( 2 ) kgs each where the infusion needed for the experiment was obtained.

Procedures/Data Collection
The research worker gathered dalandan ( Citrus aurantium ) and dayap ( Citrus aurantifolia ) fruits in this survey. The fruits was subjected to a weighing balance to run into the needed sum which is two ( 2 ) kgs each to be used in the the existent experiment before pull outing its juice. After pull outing on a beaker. the obtained infusion was transferred into a calibrated cylinder where it was measured once more to find the equal distributions needed in certain concentration given the fact that the research worker tested the dependent variables at different concentrations.

The infusion and the positive control was placed in separate bottles of sprayer specifically the first group with 100 % dayap ( Citrus aurantifolia ) fruit ; the 2nd group for the 100 % dalandan ( Citrus aurantium ) fruit infusion ; the 3rd group is for the 50 % dalandan ( Citrus aurantium ) and 50 % dayap ( Citrus aurantifolia ) fruit extract mixture ; the 4th group for the 25 % dalandan ( Citrus aurantium ) and 75 % dayap ( Citrus aurantifolia ) fruit extract mixture ; the fifth group for the 75 % dalandan ( Citrus aurantium ) and 25 % dayap ( Citrus aurantifolia ) fruit extract mixture ; and the 6th group for the positive control. There were 60s ( 60 ) aureate apple snails ( Pomacea canaliculata ) subjected in this research which were divided into six ( 6 ) groups holding ten ( 10 ) aureate apple snails ( Pomacea canaliculata ) each. The groups of snail were tested in six ( 6 ) concentration-labeled basins. The set up was observed within two ( 2 ) hours of clip interval for 12 ( 12 ) hours and the observations was recorded.

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