Mother tongue

7 July 2016

ABSTRACT The study aims to know how the different elementary schools in La Trinidad on the implementation of Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education Program and if the students perform higher on the assessment after the implementation of Mother Tongue Based-Multi Lingual Education (MTBMLE), compared to the Old Curriculum. The MTBMLE is now on its two years of its implementation. As conceptualized by the Department of Education, the MLE does not mean simply adding a third language to the existing bilingual policy nor will it be confined to mere code switching and translation.

Rather, curriculum content as well as organizational structures are to be redesigned (Cardenas). Localization is the best word to define the DepEd MTBMLE Program, by bringing the learners mother tongue as a medium of instruction and as subject in the curriculum, or it localized the language of learning. This movement of localization constitutes a sharp departure in the public school system’s language in education policy that for too long privileged only the colonial language and the national languages as language of learning.

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“The localized curriculum content of the learner’s language and culture is considered as an important resource for their development and effective learning. This is not only aim for mother tongue mastery in writing original materials and translating borrowed ones, but also cultural relevance so that the local writings, they produce reflect local people, events and realities, and are appropriate to the culture of the learner”(Cardenas). It is being supported by Walter & Dekker, 2011.

In their study at Lubuagan: “In this Lubuagan experience could provide instructive lesson, where teachers were bridged from reading and writing language to their own language”. The adaptation of foreign works such as books and literature in the Philippines is largely influence by our colonial mentality, that foreign works are better than ours. And the schools in the country have no local materials. This disheartening reality is observed and proved by Dekker, 2012: “Adoption of existing literature, more than adaptation or original authorship, seems to be the norm in instructional materials production at this point.

Perhaps, this might be partially explained by the fact that the teachers have never written in their home language so strong creative writing skills in any language have not develop our own language. Background of the Study Many Filipino learners face barriers in education. One of these barriers is that our learners often begin their education in a language they do not understand. Because they do not understand the language of education, many learners become discouraged and tend to drop-out from school. Content of material is often culturally distant or unfamiliar to the learners.

The limited education that learners receive does not prepare them for lifelong learning. This is the reason why the government implements the Mother Tongue. But What is Mother Tongue? Mother Tongue, according to Oxford Dictionary: “is the language that a person has grown up speaking from early childhood”. And according to Tulasiewicz,W. et. al (2005): “It is the language community of the mother tongue, the language spoken in a region, which enables the process of enculturation, the growing of an individual into a particular system of linguistic perception of the world and participation in the centuries old history of linguistic production.

” But the usage of the term may be very according to the purpose as supported by Pokorn (2005), “The general usage of the term ‘mother tongue’ . . . denotes not only the language one learns from one’s mother, but also the speaker’s dominant and home language, i. e. not only the first language according to the time of acquisition, but the first with regard to its importance and the speaker’s ability to master its linguistic and communicative aspects. ”. Mother tongue-based multilingual education (MLE) is a formal or nonformal education, in which the children’s mother tongue is used in the classroom as a bridge in learning Filipino and English.

Children begin their education in a language they understand, their mother tongue, and develop a strong foundation in their mother language. What is the effect of mother tongue to performance of the students? Local and internationals studies have shown that using the mother tongue inside the classroom during the learners’ early years of schooling produce better and faster learners who can easily adapt to learn a second (Filipino) and third language (English).

The purpose of a multilingual education program is to develop appropriate cognitive and reasoning skills enabling children to operate equally in different languages – starting in the mother tongue with transition to Filipino and then English. It is the structured program of language learning and cognitive development which provides learners with a strong educational foundation in the first language. If the mother tongue is not used, we create people who are illiterate in two languages.

Children do not become sufficiently fluent in their mother tongue (L1) in both oracy and literacy if their vocabulary in L1 is limited, thus restricting their ability to learn a second language (L2). A strong foundation in L1 is required for learning L2. Children’s understanding of concepts is limited or confused if leaning is only L2. The benefits of MLE include following: ? Reduced drop-out ? Reduced repetition ? Children are attending school. ? Children are learning. ? Parents and community are involved. ? It is more cost – effective to implement mother tongue programs.

In the Philippine setting the Mother Tongue is being implemented by the Department of Education in the School Year: 2012-2013 through the R. A. 105333. The Republic Act No. 10533 signed by President Aquino last May 15, 2013, states that: “the basic education shall be conducted in the learner’s native languages throughout kindergarten and the elementary grades. English and Filipino shall be gradually introduced beginning Grade 4 until such time that these can become the primary languages of instruction at the secondary level.

The country’s native languages, including Filipino sign language of our Deaf population, have been given official status through the institutionalization of mother tongue-based multilingual instruction in our education system”. This policy is under the Mother Tongue based-Multilingual Education (MTBMLE) is being implemented under the K to 12 Basic Education Program According to Education Secretary Armin Luistro, in addition to the languages of instruction mentioned in DepEd Order No. 16 series of 2012, “Guidelines on the implementation of the Mother Tongue Based-Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) under the K to 12 Basic Education Program .

The use of the same language spoken at home, in the early grades, helps improve the pupils’ language and cognitive development in addition to strengthening their socio-cultural awareness. And it was supported by Secretary of the Department Of Education-Bro. Armin Luistro, FSC: “Mas madaling matutunan ‘yong konsepto ‘pag ang ginagamit ay ‘yong kanilang nakagisnang wika… Kahit ano ‘yung kanilang karunungan sa bahay, ito po ‘yung ating tinatanggap, na ito po ‘yung kanilang initial na kaalaman at walang mali doon. ” (It is easy to learn those concepts if we use the language that they had grown up.

Even though they have different knowledge in their home, these are what we are accepting, these are their initial knowledge and there is nothing wrong with it. ) During a language conference, Secretary of Education Armin Luistro talked about Mother Tongue-Based Multi-lingual Education (MTBMLE)—a feature of the Enhanced Basic Education Program which mandates the use of the language that pupils are familiar with (their first language) as medium of instruction to make it easier for young students to grasp basic concepts.

The mother tongue as a subject focuses on the development of reading and speaking from Grades 1 to 3. As a medium of instruction the mother tongue is used in all learning areas from Kinder to Grade 3 except in the teaching of Filipino and English subjects. Filipino is introduced in the first semester of Grade 1 for oral fluency (speaking). For reading and writing purposes, it will be taught beginning in the second semester of Grade 1. The four other macro skills which are listening, speaking, reading and writing in Filipino will continuously be developed from Grades 2 to 6.

According to the Department of Education, the local languages used in MTB-MLE are Tagalog; Kapampangan; Pangasinense; Ilocano; Bikol; Cebuano; Hiligaynon; Waray; Tausug; Maguindanaoan; Maranao; Chabacano; Ybanag for pupils in Tuguegarao City, Cagayan, and Isabela; Ivatan for the Batanes Group; Sambal in Zambales; Aklanon in Aklan, Capiz; Kinaray-a in Capiz, Aklan; Yakan in Autonomous Region Muslim Mindanao and Surigaonon covering Surigao City and provinces. The MTB-MLE is implemented in two modules: 1) as a learning/subject area and 2) as medium of instruction.

At present the DepEd has teaching materials in Bahasa-Sug, Bicolano, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ilokano, Kapampangan, Maguindanaoan, Maranao, Pangasinense, Tagalog, and Waray-waray and is developing materials in Ybanag, Ivatan, Sambal, Aklanon, Kinaray-a, Yakan, and Surigaonon. Statement of the Problem The purpose of the study is to know the result of implementation of the Mother Tongue in different schools at La Trinidad, if the school complies to the DepEd with the implementation of MTB-MLE Policy. Specifically it sought to answer the following questions: 1.

What Mother Tongue Language the school and the Teacher used in the Implementation of Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education program? 2. How is MTB-MLE implemented in the level of: a) a medium of instruction? b). as a subject? 3. How is the improvement of student’s performance in school? 4. How reliable the MTB-MLE curriculum compared to the old curriculum? 5. How useful or beneficial the MTB-MLE Program on the part of the student and the teacher? Objectives of the Study Specifically the objectives of the study were as follows: 1. To determine the Mother Tongue used by the Teacher and the School during Implementation of MTBMLE; 2.

To determine if the MTBMLE is implemented as medium of instruction; 3. To determine the improvement of students performance in school; 4. To determine the reliability of the MTBMLE curriculum compared to the old curriculum; and 5. To find out how useful or beneficial the MTBMLE Program on the part of the student and the teacher. Significance of the Study Among those who will benefit from this study are the teachers of grades one to three, school administrators, and implementer’s of the MTBMLE. The Teachers of grade one to three will be the main benefactor of this study.

The results of the study School administrators will also benefit from this study because they could adjust the curriculum to give emphasis on what is really needed in the implementation of the MTBMLE. It will also serve as an eye opener to the administrators and planners of the MTBMLE on how they would adjust to the problem encountered during the implementation. Scope and Delimitations of the Study The focus of this study will be the Implementation of MTBMLE at the Public and Private Elementary Schools in La Trinidad on its second year of Implementation.

The names of the schools are: Central Balili Elementary School; BSU Elementary Laboratory School; Buyagan Elementary School; Central Balili Wesleyan Academy; Nazarene Learner’s Center This Study will only include the teacher of Grade one to Two, and principals who are teaching in public schools and private schools in the selected School in La Trinidad area and for classroom discussion only. The numbers of the respondents are only 7, who represent their respective school. Meanwhile this study will not include the other Elementary Schools in La Trinidad besides the Schools mention above. The study also excludes the teacher of grade three.

The data will be gathered by formal interview and interview schedule and after the researcher interview the respondents. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE What is language? According to the Webster Dictionary, language is the body of words and expressions used and understood by a large group of people; a form and manner of expression in words. To Paras, language is a tool in achieving a better society, but in a circumstance where two different “better society” are envisioned for a single nation. What is Mother Tongue? Mother Tongue is the first language spoken by people or so called the first language.

To develop the first language of a student, the Department of Education (DepEd) implements a policy, the Mother-Tongue Based Multilingual Education Program (MTBMLE). According to this policy, DepEd Order No. 74 aims to empower each of the more than 170 languages of the Philippines towards an easy mastery of the official languages which will ultimately produce globally competent Filipinos who can speak the “global Language” and will therefore, be a huge aid in the economic progress of the country. How important is language? Language can be a powerful tool to create peace and war, organize people and build a country and to show nationalism.

However language can also create regionalism, conflict, and especially it is s tool of conquering a country. In the time of the Americans, they used English language to miseducate the Filipinos; this statement is supported by Paras. According to her, “when the Americans first came to conquer the Philippines, they penetrate the country through the establishment of the education system was easy because there was nothing solid”. In the first place was to make penetration hard. Aside from the fact that the country is multilingual and multicultural; did not have a national language or whole concept of nationalism.

It was divided in the first place, making it easy to conquer. According to Fe Enriques and Murcelino, 1984 as cited by Paras, It’s through education that the US was able to shape the mind of the Filipino people. With American textbooks, Filipinos started learning not only a new language but also a new life. It has been proven effective that the Filipinos use English as the best language. Most of the educated Filipinos use English language in formal transactions, in offices, in the Senate discussion, or anywhere. They felt that in speaking English, they are smarter than other.

Other Filipino professionals keep on using English language even though his/her companion answer them in their native language. There is also the “English Speaking Policy” in schools or in offices. In schools which implement the policy, ones a student is caught speaking in his/her native language, he will be summon in the principal’s office for penalties but the worst is they could be expelled from the school. One incident, in connection in the policy is in a private school in Laoag, Ilocos Norte where a student caught speaking in his native language in the school zone and he was expelled from the school.

Proven by the statement of Phillipson (1992), to the ordinary people, it may seem harmless that English language was imposed to be the medium of instruction. It may even seem grand. It promises goods and services to those who accept it- science and technology, modernity, efficiency, rationality, progress, a great civilization. It is approved by Constantino (1966), “If people use a language that is foreign to them, they will become distant socially and culturally from their motherland and this will therefore be a perfect venue for the colonizers to penetrate the country.

So great has our disorientation caused by our colonial education that the use of our own language is a controversial issue with more Filipinos against the use of our own language in educational setting than in favor. According to Isabel Perflunco Martin in her research, English and Englishes Approach to MTBMLE, she discussed the myths about English language in the Philippines. One myth she discussed was English cures all economic ailments. This myth is true to some Filipino because they believe that if a person knows how to speak English he is regarded as a rich and on the higher level of living.

The DepEd want to wipe out this belief so they implement the Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education program. They implement the MTBMLE starting on the school year 2012-2013 as part of the Medium Term Development Goal of EPA 2015. Operational Definition of Terms The following terms are defined as used in the study. Activities It is the specific tasks or assignment to be performed by the pupils. Basic Education Curriculum This is a form of tool which will stand as one point of learning areas as adequate for the development of competencies starting from basic education up to the second level of which renounced as high school.

This focus more on developing knowledge, skills, habits and attitudes through the guidance of educationalist assigned. Bilingual Having or expressed in two languages. Comprehension It is the ability of understanding what one reads. Curriculum It the sum of all learning content, experiences and resources that are purposely selected, organized and implemented by the school in pursuit of its peculiar mandate as a distinct institution of learning and human development. It referred to as a body of subjects offered to finish a course of study. First Language It is the language that a person has grown up speaking from early childhood.

This refers to the language first acquired by the learner, sometimes referred to as the mother tongue. Instructional materials This refers to the whole package prepared by the teacher/ researcher which includes visual aids, activities, strategies and instructional guide. Instructional modules This includes the activities and corresponding strategies. Institutionalization It is the act or process of establishing something as a custom or common practice. Language Is the body of words and expressions used and understood by a large group of people; a form and manner of expression in words.

It is a tool in achieving a better society, but in a circumstance where two different “better society” are envisioned for a single nation. Localization The principle that specific functions have relatively circumscribed locations. Medium of Instruction It is the language used in teaching. Mother Tongue It is the language community of the mother tongue, the language spoken in a region, which enables the process of enculturation, the growing of an individual into a particular system of linguistic perception of the world and participation in the centuries old history of linguistic production.

Mother tongue-based multilingual education (MLE) It is a formal or non-formal education, in which the children’s mother tongue is used in the classroom as a bridge in learning Filipino and English. Multilingual Using or expressed in several. Reading readiness This is a level where the learner is ready to read with comprehension of what s/he is reading. Second language Any language, especially a hybrid language, used as a trade or communication medium by people speaking different language. Sociocultural Relating to, or involving a combination of social and cultural factors.

Subject It is the particularly to a limited and definitely stated subject often having or some part of it. METHODOLOGY This chapter discusses the research design, the locale of the study, the respondents’ profile, the instrumentation procedures, data collection and data analysis procedures. Research Design In this research, the researcher will use the descriptive qualitative research method, as directed toward ascertain condition that prevail a case in the study. The descriptive method of research was employed in the study through the use of a structured questionnaire.

According to Campbell (1963), descriptive method of research describes and interprets what is concerned with conditions of relationships that exist, practices that prevail, beliefs, processes that are going on, and effects that are being felt or trends that are developing. It involves the elements of interpretation of meaning or significance of what is described. The descriptive research method is meant to illustrate a point through the use of a structured questionnaire, in depth interview and content analysis about the implementation of the MTBMLE in La Trinidad.

Location of the Study The study was conducted in the Public and Private Schools of La Trinidad, Benguet such as Benguet State University- Elementary Laboratory School located at BSU Compound, Km. 5, Pico; Buyagan Elementary School in ; Central Balili Elementary School and Central Balili Wesleyan Academy in Central Balili, Balili; and Nazarene Learners’ Center in Teachers, Students, and Parents use Ilocano as their lingua franca in elementary schools located in La Trinidad, Benguet. Respondents of the Study

The study focused on the 5 teachers of Grade 1&2 and two principals of public and private elementary schools. These persons will be the respondents and they will give the necessary information that the researcher would want to gather. Table 1: Demographic Profile of the Respondents NAME OF RESPONDENT SCHOOL Teachers POSITION PUBLIC PRIVATE R1. Antonio G. Cadag Central Balili Elementary School —————————- Principal R2. Rose Divindo BSU Elementary Laboratory School —————————- 1 R3. Ninia Milo Buyagan Elementary School

—————————- 2 R4. Isabel Dagasen ————————- Central Balili Wesleyan Academy Principal R5. Harriet Pacsay ————————- Central Balili Wesleyan Academy 1 R6. Juanita Nieves ————————- Central Balili Wesleyan Academy 2 R7. Vanessa Abellera ————————- Nazarene Learner’s Center 1 Table 1 shows the demographic profile of the respondents. Based on the data, there are 7 respondents, three (3) of them are from public schools and four (4) are from private schools.

There are two (2) principals, three (3) Grade 1 teachers and four (4) Grade 2 teachers. Instrumentation An interview schedule was used in this study. Through following the interview questionnaire guide, data and pertinent information were gathered on the respondent’s profile, jobs that they have undergone before teaching, their employment status as of today, the subjects that they have taught, the difficulties they encountered in teaching, and the strategies they have used to solve their problems in teaching. Data Gathering Procedure

Data and significant information were collected by interviewing the respondents. The interview schedule and observation technique were the tools used in data gathering data. Before the interview, the interviewer explained to the respondent the objective of the study and any information obtained from the respondent will be treated with utmost confidentiality. The interviewer also got permission from the principal of the school and the teacher if they are willing and cooperative to be a respondent in this particular study.

The researcher personally conducted the interview at the respondents’ preferred time and location. Data Analysis The researchers used qualitative interpretation of the collected data. In analyzing the data, the Social Anthropology Approach (Mile and Huberman, 1994) was used. This approach is used to provide a specific and descriptions across varied sources and it also seeks to develop or test existing theories. In this study, the situation or context of the Second Year implementation of Mother Tongue was described in relation to the concepts discussed in the Conceptual Framework.

The Social Anthropology Approach has three steps in arriving at a truly qualitatively analyzed data and these are: data reduction, data display and conclusion drawing for verification. In data reduction, the researcher needs to look for themes of the respondents responses. In the data display, the data on the personal profile was summarized on a table form. The other data was presented on a table and was discussed after each table. The last step is the drawing of conclusions in which the relationships or links based on the data became the foundation in arriving at conclusions basing to the concepts that brought about this study.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS, RECOMMENDATION This part of the study presents the data in accordance with the specific problems or objectives of the study. First, the mother tongue used by the teacher at the classroom discussion. Second, the strategies used by the teacher. Third, the instructional materials used by the teacher. Fourth, the teacher most preferred curriculum. Fifth, the improvement on the students’ performance. Sixth, the language used by the teacher in giving an assessment.

Seventh, the problem that the teachers encounter during the implementation of the Mother Tongue. Lastly, if the program is beneficial to the teacher or not. The data gathered are then discussed, analyzed, and interpreted textually. Table 2: Mother Tongue Language Used MOTHER TONGUE FREQUENCY % RESPONDENTS Cordillera Ilocano 6 85. 70 R1,R2,R3,R4,R5, R6 Filipino 1 14. 30 R7 Results and Discussion Table 2 shows the mother tongue use in the implementation of the Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education (MTBMLE) program.

According to the collected data there are two (2) mother tongue languages specified as Cordillera Ilocano and Filipino, six (6) respondents answered that they use the Cordillera Ilocano which is 85. 70% and one (1) respondent answered Filipino which is 14. 30%. Cordillera Ilocano is widely used at the region as the lingua franca or the regional language. According to Divindo (2013), she used the Cordillera Ilocano in teaching the students during the classroom discussion because our School- BSU ELS, is composed of a diverged students, “Cordillera Ilocano is widely used here at La Trinidad not the Ilocano of the Ilocos Region”.

It is being supported by the DepEd: “feature of the Enhanced Basic Education Program which mandates the use of the language that pupils are familiar with (their first language) as medium of instruction to make it easier for young students to grasp basic concepts”. Tagalog is used by some of the private school because of their curriculum, but the principal and the administrators of the schools are the one who will determine, if they implement the Ilocano as a Mother Tongue and it is also the initiative of the teacher if they use the MTB at the classroom discussion.

According to Abellera (2013),the School did not implement the MTB Policy due to the reason that the school had its own curriculum, the Administrators of the school are the one who determine if we implement the MTB Policy here at Nazarene, but I used it (MTB) in explaining to the students the words or sentence in Ilocano if the student did not understand it in English/Filipino or in the translation of words. Cordillera Ilocano is the first language used, based on the analysis with a percentage of 85.

70% ranked as first most used mother tongue language in the implementation of MTBMLE program in public and private elementary schools in La Trinidad, followed by Filipino with a percentage of 14. 30% ranked as second most used mother tongue language. The difference in the average on the usage of mother tongue language in public and private elementary school in La Trinidad can be attributed to the most used language in the municipality of La Trinidad. The more varied mother tongue language used in implementing MTBMLE in public and private elementary schools in La Trinidad.

This results corroborates to the statement of Cardenas (2012), as conceptualized, the MLE does not mean simply adding a third language to the existing bilingual policy nor will it be confined to mere code switching and translation. Rather, curriculum content is to be localized, with the learner’s language and culture considered as resources for their sociocultural development and effective learning. Findings Cordillera Ilocano is the dominant language used by the teacher in La Trinidad as a medium of instruction in the classroom discussion from Grade one (1) & two (2).

Not all private school implement the Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education (MTBMLE) program as a whole, they used it in translation and explaining the word that the student do not understand. Cordillera Ilocano should use as a Mother Tongue Instruction at the school where the students are diverse not the Ilocano of Ilocos Region due to the reason that the construction and pronunciation of the two Ilocano dialects is not the same. The Mother tongue that is being dominant at certain place must be use at the classroom instruction, like the: Kankanaey and other major languages.

It does not only focus in the 19 languages that are being implemented by the DepEd to be used as a classroom instruction. Conclusion Ilocano is the dominant mother tongue language used in Public and Private Elementary Schools in La Trinidad. Recommendation Public schools may use the most dominant mother tongue language in a classroom with a diverse student. Table 3: Implementation of Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education program as a subject and as a medium of instruction FREQUENCY % SAMPLE RESPONDENTS

Both as a medium of instruction and as a subject 7 100 “Us-usaren me nu ag-ited kami ti instruction ken direction, itranslate mi ngay nu haan da maawatan. ” (We use it when we give instructions and directions, we translate it when they don’t understand it. ” (R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7) “ Adda ti subject mi ngem 15 minutes lang” (we have a subject but its only 15 minutes) “Wen, us-usaren mi nga instruction santo adda ti subject mi. ” (Yes, we use it us a medium of instruction and we have a subject. ) (R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7)

Results and Discussion Table 3 shows the implementation of MTBMLE program among public and private elementary schools in La Trinidad as a medium of instruction and as a subject. Based on the collected data, the school implemented the Mother Tongue both as a subject and as medium of instruction is widely used by the teacher in teaching to the student. According to Cadag (2013), they teach Cordillera Ilocano as a subject and as a medium of instruction in the entire subject except English and Filipino.

Mother tongue language, such as Cordillera Ilocano, is fully used as a medium of instruction most especially when translating and giving instructions or directions. As Pacsay (2013), said that “For example when we are giving activities, we usually use Ilocano in giving a directions. ” This results corroborates the statement of Benson (2009), “children who have the opportunity to learn through their mother tongue language have the best chance of understanding what is taught, making connection between the spoken and the written word and participating in their own learning.

” Findings Cordillera Ilocano used both as a subject and as a medium of instruction at the Classroom discussion except in Filipino and English Subject, but some of the teachers use it in translation of Filipino and English Words. Conclusion The dominant Mother Tongue language used by the teachers as a Medium of Instruction and as subject in public elementary schools in La Trinidad is Cordillera Ilocano Recommendation Mother Tongue is used not only for the translation of words in English subject as pure translation it defeated the purpose or the objectives of chapter lesson.

The private elementary schools might want to use the mother tongue as a medium of instruction and as a subject on their curriculum. Table 4: Instructional Materials used in Implementation of MTBMLE program (Teacher-provided; DepEd-provided; both) INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FREQUENCY % RANK SAMPLE RESPONSE Both (Teacher and DepEd provided) 6 85. 71 1 “We make and provide instructional materials like flashcards of alphabets with translations, activity sheets and big books using the Ilocano language. ” (R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6) DepEd- provided 1 14. 29 2 “They only provided the Curriculum guides, hand-outs and manual.

” (R7) Results and Discussion Table 4 shows the instructional materials used in implementation of MTBMLE program among public and private elementary schools respondents in La Trinidad. According on the data, Both the DepEd and teacher provided the most used instructional with a percentage of 85. 71%, followed by DepEd-provided instructional materials with a percentage of 14. 29%. The data shows that both the DepEd and teacher provided instructional materials are widely used by the teacher in public and private school in La Trinidad during the implementation of MTBMLE. According to Cadag (2013), she

said that “the textbook that provided by the DepEd are in Ilocano and Ibaloi. The modules are also provided that was delivered last week”. This result can be attributed to the resourcefulness of the teacher in making the Instructional Materials. The module that provided by the DepED as instructional materials are downloadable module and the lifespan of the module is good for only the first two quarter. This statement is being supported by the respondents, they said that “The module that is being provided by the DepED lasts for the first two grading’s only and that module is downloadable from the internet, and it’s only for the grade one.

Lastly the module is in Tagalog, so we had to translate it in Ilocano because the Instructional material comes from the Central office of DepEd”. This result corroborates the statement of Lopez, “It can be concluded that the mother tongue-based early literacy assessment tools which include assessments on both reading and writing such as letter identification, word reading, understanding about continuous text or story writing could determine the early literacy achievement of Ilocano children” Findings

The instructional materials used by the teacher are provided by the DepEd and teacher made for the Private School and the same with the Public School. Some of the schools especially in public received a textbook about the Mother Tongue from the DepEd but it was provided by the DepEd after a year during the implementation of MTBMLE. Conclusion Teachers from the public and private elementary schools make and provide their own instructional materials and also use the instructional materials provided by the DepEd. Recommendation

The DepEd provide the Instructional Materials (MTB-MLE) complete in all the first three level of Elementary before the start of the school year so that the teacher and the students used it during the full span of the School Year. Table 5: Most Liked Curriculum CURRICULUM FREQUENCY % RANK SAMPLE RESPONSE Basic Education Curriculum (K to 10 BEC) 5 71. 43 1 “ Old Curriculum because we cannot still see the result of the new curriculum” (R3, R4, R5, R6) “Old, because how can you teach your lesson if you don’t know how to speak Ilocano and the students can’t understand it. (R7) MTB-MLE (K-12) 2 28. 57 2

“New, because you can express your idea in your own language. ” (R1,R2) Results and Discussion Table 5 shows the most liked curriculum respondents from public and private elementary schools in La Trinidad. The percentage ranges from 28. 57% to 71. 43%. The old curriculum or the basic education curriculum is ranked as the 1 with 71. 43% described as the most liked curriculum out ranking the new curriculum the K-12 curriculum (MTBMLE) with a percentage of 28. 57%. Similarly, the data shows variation on the perceptions of public and private elementary schools in La Trinidad on different curriculums.

This variation can be attributed to the reasons that the Public and Private school had a different curriculum; the teachers preferred the Old Curriculum because they master the skills on how to teach it in English and Filipino or the bilingual policy; the curriculum are new to them; and they did not see the actual result of the new curriculum; and lastly most of the teachers who preferred the Old Curriculum came from the Private Schools. One of the respondents states that “the BEC is better compared to the new curriculum. The problem is the MTB curriculum is experimental”, She said this to critique the new Curriculum.

Doplon states that “A critique of the policy is that mother tongue is only means to an end and not seen as end in itself. It is a scaffold but not the primary language of learning. This first language is just a first language that will be blanketed by a second and a third language. The Mother Tongue seen as a scaffold- at the service of the English language”. This result corroborates to the findings of Doplon, he said that “The model of excellence Program of the Department Education (2004), teachers are required to speak in English all the time and forbidden to code switch.

This is also seen in project TURN (DepEd,2008) as evidence by the efforts to improve the English Proficiency of teachers who teach subjects whose medium of instruction is English”. When we compared them to the teachers, who preferred the new curriculum they came from Public Schools, and the Public School allowed the used of Multi Lingual Instruction at the classroom setting from the start before the implementation of the MTB-MLE. Findings

Most of the Respondents prefer the Basic Education Curriculum-Bilingual Education Policy of the DepEd, than the K-12 MTB-MLE-Multi Lingual Policy because most of them are Teachers from the Private Schools, where they are required by the Administrators of the school to use the English and Filipino as a medium of Instruction. The teachers who preferred the MTBMLE curriculum came from the Public Schools. Conclusion Private elementary schools prefer the Basic Education Curriculum (BEC) while the public elementary schools prefer the K-12 Curriculum (MTBMLE). Recommendation

The Curriculum Mother tongue Base Multilingual Education (MTBMLE) stakeholders may supervise and monitor every public and private elementary schools within La Trinidad,Benguet on the implementation the MTBMLE program. Table 6: Improvement on performance of students among public and private elementary schools in La Trinidad IMPROVEMENT FREQUENCY % SAMPLE RESPONSE Slight 6 85. 71 “Slightly, specifically in using Ilocano to understand English words. ” (R1, R2, R3) “Improved in their oral reading from Ilocano to English”. (R4,R5) “Slightly improved in reading Filipino and English”.

(R7) None 1 14. 29 “Awan, parehas met metlang” (None, it’s almost the same)(R6) Results and Discussion Table 6 shows the level of improvement on performance of the students among public and private elementary schools in La Trinidad. Slight improvement has a percentage of 57. 17% and followed by no improvement with 85. 71%. Slight improvement outranked the no improvement with 14. 29%. Similarly, five (6) public and private elementary schools in La Trinidad observed slight improvement in the performance of students and one (1) private elementary school observed no improvement at all.

The data shows variation on the improvement on the performance of students. This result can be attributed to the reason that the use of Mother Tongue helps the student to understand the lesson compared when the medium of instruction used is English or Filipino. According to Cadag (2013, he stated that “using the lingua franca of the students helps them to understand and know the meaning of the English word such as the translation of English vocabulary words into Cordillera Ilocano.

Furthermore, using the Mother Tongue as an instruction improves the students to analyze and easily understand the instructions being given by the teachers in administering a quiz, exam, and activities. ” Abellera,(2013) a grade one teacher stated that “I used English as the medium of instruction in classroom discussion, if some of the students did not understand the topic , so I needed to translate it to Filipino. Sometimes, I used Ilocano if I that not all of my students did not understand the lesson.

” This result corroborates the statement of Dumatong and Dekker (2003) on their study at Lubuagan found out that “by using the students’ mother tongue in the classroom to teach literacy, skills and as well as subject content, the cognitive skills would be developed and by teaching concepts in mother tongue, the students would exposed to comprehensible input and enabled to develop concepts further. ” Findings The respondents observed a slight improvement at the students’ performance by using the Mother Tongue through the transition, reading and understanding the words from Ilocano to English.

Conclusion There is a slight improvement in the performance of the student through reading and understanding the words from Ilocano to English during the second year implementation of the MTBMLE program. Recommendation Apart from the respondent’s recommendations; in order to improve the students, and teachers academic performances, more books are needed particularly in Cordilleran Ilocano text books, modules, activity sheets, instructional materials, and lesson plans. Table 7: Languages used in Assessment LANGUAGES USED IN ASSESSMENT FREQUENCY

% SAMPLE RESPONSE Ilocano 6 85. 71 “In giving instructions, quizzes, test and on formative and summative, we used cordilleran Ilocano as our medium of instruction”. (R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6) Filipino and English 1 14. 29 “We used both English and Filipino in giving instruction on oral or written. ” ( R7) Results and Discussion Table 7 shows the languages used in assessment among public and private elementary schools in La Trinidad. Among the languages used in assessment are Ilocano, Filipino and English. The percentage ranges from 85. 71% to 14.

21%. Ilocano is the most used language with 85. 71% outranking Filipino and English with 14. 21%. The data shows variation on languages use in assessment. Similarly, mother tongues, such as Ilocano, are mostly used in translating and giving instruction assessment methods. These results can be attributed to the modes of giving instruction in administering assessments. The Curriculum in MTBMLE program implements that every public and private elementary schools uses Cordilleran Ilocano as their Mother Tongue Language as their medium of instruction.

As cited Nina (2013), a grade 2 teacher state’s that “In giving instructions, quizzes, test in formative and summative, I used cordilleran Ilocano as their medium of instruction since 98 % of the students of Buyagan Elementary School speaks Cordilleran Ilocano. Apart from this, as cited by Abellera (2013), a private elementary teacher at Nazarene learning center stated that “I used both the English and Filipino in giving instruction in oral or written since the students here are diverge, some are Korean, American, and Filipino’s who have a different Mother Tongue language.

This result corroborates the findings Lopez in his research: Development of Mother Tongue-based Early Literacy Assessment Tools for Ilocano Children, “the teachers found the Ilocano assessment tools to be very useful in identifying what children are capable of doing. Information gathered through the reading assessment tools guide teachers in teaching children how to read and write. ” Findings Respondents use the mother tongue language in giving instruction during the assessment of learning of the students. Conclusion

Languages used by the teacher in assessing the students’ performance are the mother tongue language they use such as Ilocano, English and Filipino. Recommendation Trainings and workshops are needed to utilize for all the teachers who teaches Mother Tongue languages that is very significant to nurture and improve the teachers fluency of the Mother Tongue language “Cordilleran Ilocano”. Instructional materials are needed in administering assessment such as; work sheets and activity sheets that were translated into Cordilleran Ilocano language.

Table 8: Problems encountered on implementation of MTBMLE among public and private elementary schools in La Trinidad PROBLEMS FREQUENCY % SAMPLE RESPONSE Having English speaking students, translation of vocabulary words, Lack of trainings and seminars 7 100 “Even though we use the mother tongue in teaching, we also have those students who are English speaking who can’t understand the mother tongue so we need to translate it again in English, and lack of seminars. ” (R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7

Results and Discussion Table 8 shows the problems encountered on the implementation of MTBMLE among public and private elementary schools in La Trinidad. Among the problems encountered arranged from the most encountered to least encountered problems which includes having English speaking students; translation of vocabulary; and lack of training and seminars. The data shows that the Private and Private School had the same problems encountered according to different elementary schools in La Trinidad.

Similarly, the data shows that all elementary schools in La Trinidad encountered have the same problem in the implementation of the MTBMLE program like the problems in Lacking of Instructional Materials is one of the problems of every public teacher’s within la Trinidad, among the Instructional materials that are not found at the schools are: the learning materials, activity books, lesson plans, modules, and manual.

In the Translation of the vocabulary words that has different meanings where it is difficult to translate from English to Ilocano and to Ilocano to English such as “sitaw” is also mentioned by the respondents. The Lack of trainings and seminars about the Mother Tongue affect the teacher’s initiative or performance on how they teach the Mother Tongue. According to the respondents: “Because of the lack of trainings and seminars that being is integrated by the DepEd, the teachers are not knowledgeable on what are the process and things to be done inside the classroom and how to implement the Mother Tongue.

’’ Having English speaking students is also mentioned by the respondents, they said that even though we used the mother tongue in teaching, we also have those students who are English speaking who can’t understand the mother tongue, so we need to translate it again in English. These results corroborates to the statement of the Department of Education (2009), the mother tongue multilingual education emphasizes the role of the mother tongue in the acquisition of other languages.

The presence of this policy provides for a more linguistically diverse period of early schooling. The policy relies on the mother tongue as a scaffold for learning; therefore the approach to language learning is clearly additive. It challenges the persistent beliefs that if other languages are used then English will drop; if exposure to English should be taught exclusively in English. Findings Problems mostly encountered by the respondents are having English speaking students and lack of instructional materials.

Conclusion The problems encountered by the teacher during the implementation of MTBMLE among public and private elementary schools in La Trinidad are having an English speaking students; lack of Instructional materials; translation of vocabulary words. Recommendation Department of Education may provide more Instructional Materials; Cordilleran Ilocano dictionary, text books, etc. More trainings and seminars may be to train the teachers on how to facilitate the MTBMLE to their learners.

The DepEd might want to provide a linguist, that create an Instructional Materials to be used in teaching mother- tongue language. Table 9: Benefits of the Implementation of MTBMLE program BENEFITS FREQUENCY % SAMPLE RESPONSE High 5 71. 43 “Yes, it’s beneficial kasi ang maganda doon they know other language. ” ( Yes , it’s beneficial because what is good on it is that they know othe language) (R3, R4) “Yes, natututo ang mga bata na pag-aralan ang Ilocano. ” ( Yes, the pupils learn to learn Ilocano) (R1, R2) “Yes, according to the study.

” (R5) Slight 2 28. 57 “Medjo, no makitak to ti resulta na after six years. ” ( Slight whenever I will see the result after six years)(R6) “Not so much here in La Trinidad because the children here have different languages”. (R7) Results and Discussion Table 9 shows the level of benefit of the MTBMLE on teachers and students among public and private elementary schools in La Trinidad. The level of benefit ranges from high to slight. Highly beneficial has a percentage of 71.

43% while on the other hand, slightly beneficial has a percentage of 28. 57%. Among the reasons given by the respondents from public and private Elementary Schools in La Trinidad in the level of benefit they gain from the MTBMLE program is highly beneficial, “students know the language” and “students learn Ilocano language. ” On the other hands among the reasons in slightly beneficial includes, “beneficial but there is difficulty in multilingual class” and beneficial if as long as I know the result.

” In behalf of teacher’s perception, the new curriculum MTBMLE program is very beneficial. Where, this will be the ground for the teachers and students to improve and develop student’s critical thinking, knowledge and for a better quality of education. The data shows the variations on the level of beneficial of MTBMLE program. These findings can be attributed to the perspective of the public and private elementary schools in La Trinidad on the MTBMLE program. Findings

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