Motivation and Self-managed Work Teams
?External Locus of Control – Individuals with a belief that what happens to them is due to luck or chance. The belief that events in one’s life, whether good or bad, are caused by uncontrollable factors such as the environment, other people, or a higher power. Which Factors influence perception? Attitudes Moods Motives Self-Concept Interest Cognitive Structure Expectations Perception is: A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. Terminal Values: Prosperous Life, Exciting Life, Accomplishment, Pleasure, Equality, Friendship
What Is Important to Managers: Sense of Accomplishment, equality, and Self-Respect –According to Rokeach, Terminal_____ values refer to desirable end-states of existence. Instrumental Values: Ambitious, Broadminded, Capable, Cheerful, Clean, Honest, Responsible Hard working-broadminded, capable. What are intrinsic factors of motivation? Internal desires to perform a particular task, people do certain activities because it gives them pleasure, develops a particular skill or its morally the right thing to do. Examples: Achievement, Recognition, Work Itself, Responsibility, Advancement, Growth.
Motivation and Self-managed Work Teams Essay Example
What are extrinsic factors of motivation? Factors external to the individual and unrelated to the tasks they are performing. Examples include: Policy and administration, Supervision, Relationship with supervisor, Work conditions, Salary, Relationship with peers Motivational factors are intrinsic factors, like advancement, recognition, responsibility, and achievement, that are directly related to job satisfaction. The absence of motivational factors does not cause dissatisfaction; rather, a state of neutrality. Cognitive evaluation theory
A version of self-determination theory which holds that allocating extrinsic rewards for behavior that had been previously intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease the overall level of motivation if the rewards are seen as controlling Motivation: any internal condition, although usually an internal one, that initates, activates, or maintains an organism’s goal directed behavior. Self-determination Theory : a theory of motivation that proposes that three basic, organismic needs (competence, autonomy, and relatedness) characterize intrinsic motivation.
Motivation that focuses on 5 levels of needs? Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: (low to high) Self-Actualization, Esteem Needs, Social Needs, Safety Needs, Physiological Needs. McClellands Theory of Needs: 3 NEEDS : states that workers are motivated by three needs: need for achievement, need for power, and need for affiliation. The most successful managers will have an appropriate fit between their job and their dominant need. Equity Theory: Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities.
-a theory that attempts to explain relational satisfaction in terms of perceptions of fair/unfair distributions of resources within interpersonal relationships Goal Setting Theory: This theory states that goal setting is essentially linked to task performance. It states that specific and challenging goals along with appropriate feedback contribute to higher and better task performance. — a theory that states that people will be motivated to the extent to which they accept specific, challenging goals and receive feedback that indicates their progress toward goal achievement.
Self-efficiency and Goal commitment– Specific and clear — attainment of goal –According to the goal-setting theory of motivation, goals should be difficult but attainable Five Stage Group Development- Forming – Uncertainty stage Storming – Intragroup conflict Norming – Cohesiveness, relationships develop Performing – Fully functional Adjourning – Wrap up, prepare to disband Group Role: A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit. Group Norm: Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group’s members
Role Identity: refers to the attitudes and behaviors that are consistent with a role Role expectations: describe how others believe you should act in a given situation.. common class of norms appearing in most work groups: Performance norms, Appearance, Arrangement. Define Work Group and identify how it interacts : A group that interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help each group member perform within his or her area of responsibility. summation of each group member’s individual contribution. Goal – Share information Synergy -Neutral (sometimes negative) Accountability – Individual
Skills – Random and varied Group cohesiveness can be increased by doing what? 1. make the group smaller 2. encourage agreement with group goals, 3. increase the time members spend together 4. increase the status of the group and the perceived 5. difficulty of attaining membership in the group 6. stimulate competition with other groups, 7. give rewards to the group rather than to individual members 8. physically isolate the group Formal Group: A designated work group defined by an organization’s structure. — a group in which the structure, goals, and activities of the group are clearly defined
Informal Group: a group that managers or nonmanagerial employees form to help achieve their own goals or meet their own needs Problem –Solving Name the 4 most common types of teams in an organization. problem-solving teams- only make recommendations (5-12 team members) 2. self- managed work teams- solve problems but implement solutions and take responsibility for outcomes. (10-15 members) 3 cross-functional teams -employees from about the same hierarchical level but different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task. 4. virtual teams- use computer technology to unite physically dispersed members and achieve a common goal.
Brainstorming: a group problem-solving technique in which members sit around a let fly with ideas and possible solutions to the problem Problem-Solving Teams: groups of 5 to 12 employees from the same department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency, and the work environment Cross-Functional Teams: Employees from about the same hierarchical level, but from different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task Virtual Teams: teams that use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal Organizational demography–the degree to which members of a work unit share a common demographic attribute, such as age, sex, race, educational level, or length of service in an organization, and the impact of this attribute on turnover. What is the advantage of a non-cohesive group? When performance norms are low, productivity may be higher than a cohesive group. 4 Key Components of effective teams: 1. Context -adequate resources, effective leadership, a climate of trust, and a performance evaluation and reward system 2. Composition -the ability and personality of team members, allocation of roles and diversity, size of the team, and members’ preference for teamwork. 3.
Work Design – autonomy, skill variety, task identity, task significance 4. Process – member commitment to a common purpose, establishment of specific team goals, team efficacy, a managed level of conflict, and minimized social loafing. Social Loafing: The tendency for individuals to put forth less of an effort when working in a group than when working alone. — the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable Group Think: occurs within a group of people, in which the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an incorrect or deviant
decision-making outcome. Group members try to minimize conflict and reach a consensus decision without critical evaluation of alternative ideas or viewpoints, and by isolating themselves from outside influences. –The act or practice of reasoning or decision-making by a group, especially when characterized by uncritical acceptance or conformity to prevailing points of view — decision making by a group (especially in a manner that discourages creativity or individual responsibility) Work Team: a group of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common mission, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.
Self-Managed Work Teams: groups of 10 to 15 people who take on responsibilities of their former supervisors Define WORK TEAM and identify how it interacts. A group whose individual efforts result in performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs. potential for an organization to generate greater outputs with no increase in inputs. Goal – Collective performance Synergy -Positive Accountability – Individual and mutual Skills – Complementary Synergy is an attribute of work teams which results in a level of performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs. A company switched from assembly lines to self-managed work teams.
What can team members do to improve the synergy and success of their teams? Assign individual roles rather than mutual team roles Organizational Culture: Advantages of a Strong O. C. : 1. provides stability to an organization, 2. ee’s have the same opinions about the org’s mission and values as leaders, 3. the org’s core values are both intensely held and widely shared. 4. should reduce ee turnover because it demonstrates high agreement about what the org represents -unanimity of purpose builds cohesiveness, loyalty, and organizational commitment. 5. less of a need for mgmt to be concerned with developing formal rules and reg’s to guide ee behavior. What does a positive organizational culture emphasize?
building on employee strengths, rewards more than it punishes, and emphasizes individual vitality and growth. 7 primary characteristics of an organizations culture: 1. Innovation and risk taking 2. Attention to detail 3. Outcome orientation. 4. People orientation 5. Team orientation 6. Aggressiveness 7. Stability Organizational culture is descriptive, whereas job satisfaction is evaluative. When does an organization experience culture creation success? the founders’ personality becomes embedded in the culture. How do organizations transmit their culture to their ee’s? 1. stories (history), 2. rituals (repetitive activities of key values), 3. material symbols (what is important), and 4. language ( acronyms and jargon)