Multimedia Teaching

5 May 2017

The value of a video clip as a teaching tool lies in its potential to do the following: (a) tap the core intelligences of verbal/linguistic, visual/ spatial, musical/rhythmic, and emotional (interpersonal and intrapersonal), (b) engage both the left and right hemispheres, (c) appeal to the reptilian, limbic, and neocortex layers of the brain to sense the nature of sounds, react to scenes and usic emotionally, and appreciate it intellectually, and (d) manipulate students’ Alpha and Beta brain waves to relax or alert them for learning when theyre not sleeping in Delta or Theta waveland.

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It would be a shame not to stir up these intelligences, hemispheres, layers, and waves in the classroom to promote learning. For an opposing perspective on the inadequacy of the preceding cognitive neuroscience findings and their implications for educational practice, see Waterhouse’s (2006a, 2006b) critical review of the evidence. Goleman’s (1998) emotional intelligence is also tied to videos. Note: Gardner’s intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligences are similar to Goleman’s emotional intelligence. Intrapersonal involves self-reflection, self-direction, self-motivation, controlling impulses, planning, independent study, and metacognition; interpersonal emphasizes relating, cooperating, empathizing, teaching, leading, connecting with others, resolving conflicts, and social activities. The music alone in videos can elicit emotional reactions of liking or disliking and excitement or arousal (North & Hargreaves, 1997; Robazza, Macaluso, & D’Urso, 1994). Video clips can be used to communicate with learners at a deeper level of understanding by touching their emotions.

When you watch a movie or TV program, superficial and even deep feelings and emotions are elicited, such as excitement, anger, laughter, relaxation, love, whimsy, or even boredom. These emotions are often triggered or heightened by the mood created by specific visual scenes, the actors, and/or the background music. A video can have a strong effect on your mind and senses. It is so powerful that you may ownload it off the Internet or order the DVD from Amazon along with the CD soundtrack so you can relive the entire experience over and over again.

This attraction to videos extends to movies, TV programs, commercials, and music videos. So how can faculty in all courses use video clips as an instructional tool so their students can experience the powerful cognitive and emotional impact they can provide? Quite possibly those students eventually may want DVDs of their classes. LEARNING OUTCOMES What is the learning value of video clips in the classroom? Here are 20 potential utcomes to ponder: 1. Grab students’ attention; 2. Focus students’ concentration; 3. Generate interest in class; 4.

Create a sense of anticipation; 5. Energize or relax students for learning exercise; 6. Draw on students’ imagination; 7. Improve attitudes toward content and learning; 8. Build a connection with other students and instructor; 9. Increase memory of content; 10. Increase understanding; 11. Foster creativity; 12. Stimulate the flow of ideas; 13. Foster deeper learning; 14. Provide an opportunity for freedom of expression; 15. Serve as a vehicle for collaboration; 16. Inspire and motivate students; 17. Make learning fun; 18.

Set an appropriate mood or tone; 19. Decrease anxiety and tension on scary topics; and 20. Create memorable visual images. After you have finished pondering, consider the theoretical and research evidence related to these outcomes, which is reviewed in the next two sections on videos and the brain and videos and multimedia learning. Powerpoint/lba’t-ibang lsyu There are hundreds of volumes on the topic of the brain. However, the primary interest here is only on how a video is processed in students’ brains to facilitate learning.

This review covers: (a) core intelligences of verbal/linguistic, visual/spatial, musical/rhythmic, and emotional, (b) left and right hemispheres, (c) triune brain, (d) brain wave frequencies, and (e) video-brain conclusions. Core intelligences. Among Gardner’s 8. 5 multiple intelligences (Gardner, 1983, 1993, 1999, 2005; Gardner & Hatch, 1989; Kagan & Kagan, 1998; Marks-Tarlow, 1995; Williams, Blythe, White, L’, Sternberg, & Gardner, 1996), verbal/linguistic, visual/spatial, and musical/rhythmic are core intelligences in every student’s brain.

Here are brief descriptions: Verbal/ inguistic: Learn by reading, writing, speaking, listening, debating, discussing, and playing word games Visual/spatial: Learn by seeing, imagining, drawing, sculpting, painting, decorating, designing graphics and architecture, coordinating color, and creating mental pictures Musical/rhythmic: Learn by singing, humming, listening to music, composing, keeping time, performing, and recognizing rhythm.

This ””pluralistic view of the mind” permits faculty to think of exposing their students to a wide range of learning strategies. Drawing on from four to six intelligences allows irtually every student to use their strength intelligences as well as to strengthen their weaker ones. Videos can tap verbal/linguistic and visual/spatial, and even musical/rhythmic (Gardner, 2000; Veenema & Gardner, 1996). Left and right hemispheres. There are separate hemispheres of the brain that relate to two ways of thinking: verbal and nonverbal (Gazzaniga, 1992; Sperry, 1973).

The left hemisphere is predominately the logical and analytical side that processes information sequentially as in mathematics, logic, and language. It is also the verbal side that is tructured, factual, controlled, rational, organized, planned, and objective (Miller, 1997). In contrast, the right hemisphere is the nonverbal, creative side which is spontaneous, emotional, disorganized, experimental, empathetic, subjective, intuitive, and seeking relationships.

It focuses on art, color, pictures, and music Oourdain, 1997; Polk & Kertesz, 1993). A video clip engages both hemispheres. The left side processes the dialogue, plot, rhythm, and lyrics; the right side processes the visual images, relationships, sound effects, melodies, and harmonic relationships (H©bert & Peretz, 997; Schlaug, Jancke, Haung, Staiger, & Steinmetz, 1995). Layunin ng Pag-aaral How can video clips embedded in multimedia presentations be used to improve learning in college courses?

To answer this question, a review of the theoretical and research evidence on videos and the brain is presented first. That is followed by a description of the theory of multimedia learning as it relates to videos and a review of studies using videos over the past four decades in college courses. The results of these studies and the verbal and visual components of a video potentially provide a est fit to the characteristics of this Net Generation of students and a valid approach to tap their multiple intelligences and learning styles.

Concrete guidelines are given for using available video technology in the classroom, selecting appropriate video clips for any class, and applying those clips as a systematic teaching tool. The use of clips can also attain 20 specific learning outcomes. Toward that end, 12 generic techniques with examples to integrate video clips into teaching across the college curriculum are described.

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