Murder Research Paper

11 November 2018

The Uniform Crime Report is an annual report that is issued by the Federal Bureau of Investigation that presents data on selected categories of crimes reported by the police.

The police always substantiate the data that is presented or captured in the Uniform Crime Report. As such this is a measurable exertion of just about eighteen thousand urban areas, college, school, country, state , and government law authorization offices willfully announcing information on violations drew out into the open. On the violent crimes whose data is captured by the UCR, murder is the among the crimes as well as rape, robbery, and aggravated assault. In New York City, the division of Criminal Justice service is mandated by law with the responsibility to fill in the focal storehouse of wrongdoing and arrest data. This paper seeks to explore the data relating to murder in New York City from the Uniform Crime Report with the emphasis on national and state crime rates, offenders and characteristics, theory and geographical rates.Under the Uniform Crime Reporting Program, the violent crime murder is expressed as murder and nonnegligent manslaughter which is characterized as the headstrong or nonnegligent executing of one person by another. Grouping of the wrongdoing of murder is reliant on police examination and not through court assurance, restorative inspector, coroner, jury or some other legal body.

Murder Research Paper Essay Example

This Offense classification does not entail the following situations: passing caused by carelessness, suicide, or mishap; reasonable manslaughters; and endeavors to murder or ambush to kill which are scored as exasperated attacks. Murder has been a concern in New York City for years. In an article in the field and stream magazine, E.B. Mann asserts that among the country’s ten largest cities, New York had the eighth lowest murder for every 100,000 residents in 1973(Mann 2006). This occurrence has changed over the years with new trends in the occurrence of murder in New York being realized.The rate of murder in the United States of America has not been consistent over the years with different occurrences from year to year.

The historical statistics recorded from year to year show varying patterns in the occurrences of murder in the United states if America. For instance, approximately 14,827 people were murdered in the country. This statistic was a 1.1 percent increase from the murders that were recorded in 2011 but was a 9.9 and 10.3 percent decrease from the statistic in the years 2008 and 2003 respectively (Fernandez-Lanier, 2014). For every 100,000 people 4.

7 murders occurred. A comparison of the murder rate in 2012 and 2011 reveal 0.4 percent increase from 2011 to 2012. The number of murders recorded in the United States in the year 2017, was 17, 250 which was 8.6 percent increase from the approximation in 2015 and 16.1 percentage increase from the statistic in 2012 (Fernandez-Lanier, 2014). The murder rate in New York City decreased by 14.

9 percent from 2016 to 2017 as 101 murders were recorded in 2011 as compared to 86 in the year 2017. Notably, the rates of murder not only in New York City but the United States of America have been decreasing from year to year.Offender Characteristics can be deduced from the Uniform Crime Report expanded homicide data table which reveals data as of 2016. 60.8 percent of the offenders are male with the lesser percent of 7.6 being female. However, 31.

6 percent of the offenders have unknown gender. Black or African American is the race with the highest percentage of offenders at 35.9 percent, while White Offenders constitute 29.5 percent of the total offenders. Most Offenders are in the under 22 age brackets with those under 22 years of age being 2,905 of the population. Most offenders are of the age of 18 years and above with this age bracket representing 10.180 of the total 16,964 murders that were recorded in the year 2016.

Of the known age brackets, most offenders seem to be aged between 20 and 24. Notably, a significant number of offenders are aged between 25 and 29.The geographical analysis reveals the statistics of murder in New York State and the different regions within the region. The percentage change in the murders recorded in the States of New York between 2015 and 2016 is an increase of 1.6 percent while that between 2007 and 2016 is a decrease of 22.3 percent. In comparison to rates in New York City, the change in the rates of murder between 2015 and 2016 is a 32.

5 percent decrease (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2017). Other regions other than New York City illustrate a similar trend in the change in the rate of murder crimes over the years. For instance, murders recorded between 2015 and 2016 were 266 and 293 respectively in non- New York City regions (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2017). These statistics represent 10.2 increase. Nonetheless, just as in New York City, other regions in New York State have recorded a decrease in the crime rate with regards to the years 2007 to 2016, a 6.1 percent decrease.

Finally, the relationship between the offender and the victim as has been observed in New York State from year to year has been observed to be domestic. Most statistics show that domestic homicides are common in New York State, most of them involving intimate partners while others involving other members of the family. Intimate partners are people in a spousal relationship, ex-spouse, same-sex or heterosexual relationship. The offender and the victim may be living together or not. Family members include children, parents, siblings or any other family relationship. For instance, a research report by Adriana Fernandez-Lanier in October 2014 reveals that in 2013, police in New York State testified to a total of 643 homicide victims in 604 incidents. Victims in 144 homicides (22.

4percent) has a domestic relationship with their offender (Fernandez-Lanier, 2014). As such, it is evident that the most predominant form of relationship between the offender and the victim is mostly in the domestic relationship.Many Theories have developed to explain criminal behaviors. Criminologists have combine the most aspects of sociology, anthropology, psychology and biological theories to advance their understanding of criminal behavior. The Latent trait is a developmental theory which explains violent crime. This trait theory is established early at birth but were gained very early in life and developed into criminal and violent behavior. Many murderers do not target to murder another person but reacts to what triggers their mind.

As research shown the idea that a number of people in the population have a personal attribute or propensity that controls their inclination to commit criminal acts (David Rowe, D. Wayne Osgood and W. Alan Nicewander) The latent trait theory can remain over time in the individual. Mark Colvin stated that you must have enough self-control to avoid being coerced. Those who carry one of the latent traits are in danger of becoming career criminals; those who lack the propensity to commit have a much lower risk. To reduce the crime society must enhance legitimate social support and reduce the forces of coercion. Victims of violent crime and their families have often experience distress.

People learn the technique and attitudes of crime from close relationships with criminal peers. Violent crime is often the result of impulsive actions. Everyone has the potential to become a criminal, but most people are controlled by their bonds with society.ReferencesBIBLIOGRAPHY

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